COVID-19 pandemic in Papua New Guinea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

COVID-19 pandemic in Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea COVID-19 cases by provinces.svg
Map of the COVID-19 pandemic in Papua New Guinea (as of 3 March 2022)
  10,000+ Confirmed cases
  1,000–9,999 Confirmed cases
  100–999 Confirmed cases
  10–99 Confirmed cases
  1–9 Confirmed cases
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationPapua New Guinea
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseLae
Arrival date20 March 2020
Confirmed cases44,691
Active cases749
Recovered39,905
Deaths
639
Fatality rate1.01%
Vaccinations3.5% (348,938) with at least one dose
Government website
PNG Government Official COVID-19 Website

The COVID-19 pandemic in Papua New Guinea is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Papua New Guinea on 20 March 2020.[1] On 4 May 2020, Papua New Guinea was declared COVID-19 free. However, on 20 June, the government confirmed another case of COVID-19, meaning that the disease was present again within the country.[2][3]

Until early 2021, the country managed to stave off a major COVID-19 outbreak, with only 1,275 cases reported at the end of February according to Johns Hopkins University. In March cases tripled, with Prime Minister James Marape speaking of "rampant community transmission".[4] By early May, the number of hospitalizations in the capital Port Moresby stabilized, but delays in receiving test results from regional areas were a concern.[5] In mid May, as the reasons for the apparent easing of the pandemic situation remained uncertain, discrepancies between government figures and higher ones from the provinces led to concerns that hundreds of COVID-19 cases had been missed in the national tally.[6]

As of March 2022 Papua New Guinea has a total of 41,533 cumulative cases and 639 deaths. As of March 2022, the country had a vaccination rate of 3.5%, one of the lowest in the world.[7]

Background[edit]

On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which was reported to the WHO on 31 December 2019.[8][9]

The case fatality ratio for COVID-19 has been much lower than SARS of 2003,[10][11] but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[12][10]

The pandemic posed a major strain on the health system in Papua New Guinea, which has been described by experts as poor.[13][14] The presence of malaria, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and other illnesses was seen by experts as compounding the impact of the pandemic. In April 2020, the country had only about 500 doctors, less than 4,000 nurses, below 3,000 community health workers, and about 5,000 bed spaces in hospitals. Health care access was difficult for rural and village communities. During the pandemic, the country relied extensively on help from abroad, including the deployment of medical personnel, coronavirus testing kits, personal protective equipment, and from 2021, vaccines.[13] As of April 2021, the country was unable to conduct mass testing, leading health officials to believe that the reported infection numbers were likely vastly underestimating the scale of the outbreak.[15] During the wave of cases in the first half of 2021, the demographics of the country – dominated by the very young, who were less likely to require intensive care when infected with the coronavirus – were regarded as having prevented a worse situation.[16]

Timeline[edit]

March 2020[edit]

COVID-19 cases in Papua New Guinea  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
2020202020212021
MarMarAprAprMayMayJunJunJulJulAugAugSepSepOctOctNovNovDecDec
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMayJunJun
Last 15 daysLast 15 days
Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-03-20
1(n.a.)
1(=)
2020-04-07
2(+100%)
2(=)
2020-04-16
7(+250%)
7(=)
2020-04-23
8(+14%)
8(=)
2020-05-04
8(=)
8(=)
2020-06-20
9(+12%)
9(=)
2020-06-25
10(+11%)
2020-06-26
11(+10%)
11(=)
2020-07-16
15(+36%)
2020-07-17
15(=)
2020-07-18
16(+6.7%)
2020-07-19
17(+6.2%)
2020-07-20
19(+12%)
2020-07-21
27(+42%)
2020-07-22
30(+11%)
2020-07-23
31(+3.3%)
2020-07-24
32(+3.2%)
2020-07-25
39(+22%)
2020-07-26
62(+59%)
2020-07-27
62(=) 1(n.a.)
2020-07-28
63(+1.6%) 2(+100%)
2020-07-29
67(+6.3%) 2(=)
2020-07-30
72(+7.5%) 2(=)
2020-07-31
72(=) 2(=)
2020-08-01
91(+26%) 2(=)
2020-08-02
110(+21%) 2(=)
2020-08-03
111(+0.91%) 2(=)
2020-08-04
114(+2.7%) 2(=)
2020-08-05
153(+34%) 2(=)
2020-08-06
163(+6.5%) 3(+50%)
2020-08-07
188(+15%) 3(=)
2020-08-08
2020-08-09
214(n.a.) 3(n.a.)
2020-08-10
214(=) 3(=)
2020-08-11
214(=) 3(=)
2020-08-12
269(+26%) 3(=)
2020-08-13
271(+0.74%) 3(=)
271(=) 3(=)
2020-08-16
323(+19%) 3(=)
2020-08-17
333(+3.1%) 3(=)
2020-08-18
347(+4.2%) 3(=)
2020-08-19
347(=) 3(=)
2020-08-20
359(+3.5%) 3(=)
2020-08-21
361(+0.56%) 4(+33%)
2020-08-22
361(=) 4(=)
2020-08-23
398(+10%) 4(=)
2020-08-24
401(+0.75%) 4(=)
401(=) 4(=)
2020-08-28
453(+13%) 5(+25%)
453(=) 5(=)
2020-09-05
479(+5.7%) 5(=)
2020-09-06
488(+1.9%) 5(=)
488(=) 5(=)
2020-09-12
510(+4.5%) 6(+20%)
2020-09-13
511(+0.2%) 6(=)
511(=) 6(=)
2020-09-18
516(+0.98%) 6(=)
516(=) 6(=)
2020-09-26
531(+2.9%) 7(+17%)
2020-09-27
532(+0.19%) 7(=)
532(=) 7(=)
2020-10-02
539(+1.3%) 7(=)
539(=) 7(=)
2020-10-10
550(+2%) 7(=)
550(=) 7(=)
2020-10-21
583(+6%) 7(=)
583(=) 7(=)
2020-10-27
583(=) 7(=)
583(=) 7(=)
2020-10-31
583(=) 7(=)
2020-11-01
583(=) 7(=)
2020-11-02
590(+1.2%) 7(=)
590(=) 7(=)
2020-11-18
590(=) 7(=)
2020-11-19
590(=) 7(=)
2020-11-20
590(=) 7(=)
590(=) 7(=)
2020-11-23
590(=) 7(=)
590(=) 7(=)
2020-11-28
590(=) 7(=)
590(=) 7(=)
2020-12-25
681(+15%) 7(=)
2020-12-26
725(+6.5%) 8(+14%)
2020-12-27
725(=) 8(=)
725(=) 8(=)
2020-12-30
760(+4.8%) 8(=)
760(=) 8(=)
2021-01-10
799(+5.1%) 9(+12%)
799(=) 9(=)
2021-01-13
799(=) 9(=)
2021-01-14
833(+4.3%) 9(=)
833(=) 9(=)
2021-01-19
833(=) 9(=)
833(=) 9(=)
2021-01-23
833(=) 9(=)
2021-01-24
833(=) 9(=)
2021-01-25
833(=) 9(=)
2021-02-26
1,275(n.a.) 12(n.a.)
2021-02-27
1,295(+1.6%) 13(+8.3%)
2021-02-28
1,295(=) 13(=)
2021-03-01
1,365(+5.4%) 14(+7.7%)
2021-03-02
1,365(=) 14(=)
2021-03-03
1,429(+4.7%) 14(=)
2021-03-04
1,492(+4.4%) 16(+14%)
2021-03-05
1,546(+3.6%) 16(=)
2021-03-06
1,583(+2.4%) 16(=)
2021-03-07
1,670(+5.5%) 16(=)
2021-03-08
1,692(+1.3%) 16(=)
2021-03-09
1,741(+2.9%) 21(+31%)
2021-03-10
1,819(+4.5%) 21(=)
2021-03-11
1,976(+8.6%) 21(=)
2021-03-12
2,083(+5.4%) 21(=)
2021-03-13
2,173(+4.3%) 21(=)
2021-03-14
2,269(+4.4%) 26(+24%)
2021-03-15
2,351(+3.6%) 26(=)
2021-03-16
2,479(+5.4%) 31(+19%)
2021-03-17
2,658(+7.2%) 36(+16%)
2021-03-18
2,768(+4.1%) 36(=)
2021-03-19
3,117(+13%) 36(=)
2021-03-20
3,359(+7.8%) 36(=)
2021-03-21
3,574(+6.4%) 36(=)
2021-03-22
3,758(+5.1%) 37(+2.8%)
2021-03-23
4,109(+9.3%) 39(+5.4%)
4,109(=) 37(=)
2021-04-04
7,038(+71%) 67(+81%)
7,038(=) 67(=)
2021-04-09
8,342(+19%) 68(+1.5%)
2021-04-10
8,342(=) 68(=)
2021-04-11
8,821(+5.7%) 71(+4.4%)
8,821(=) 71(=)
2021-04-15
8,984(+1.8%) 71(=)
2021-04-16
9,343(+4%) 82(+15%)
9,343(=) 82(=)
2021-04-23
10,602(+13%) 102(+24%)
2021-04-24
10,602(=) 102(=)
2021-04-25
10,835(+2.2%) 105(+2.9%)
10,835(=) 105(=)
2021-04-29
10,997(+1.5%) 107(+1.9%)
2021-04-30
11,037(+0.36%) 115(+7.5%)
11,037(=) 115(=)
2021-05-06
11,273(+2.1%) 121(+5.2%)
11,273(=) 121(=)
2021-05-09
12,493(+11%) 121(=)
12,493(=) 121(=)
2021-05-22
14,910(+19%) 154(+27%)
14,910(=) 154(=)
2021-05-27
15,368(+3.1%) 159(+3.2%)
2021-05-28
15,415(+0.31%) 162(+1.9%)
2021-05-29
2021-05-30
15,901(n.a.) 162(n.a.)
15,901(=) 162(=)
2021-06-02
15,910(+0.06%) 162(=)
15,910(=) 162(=)
2021-06-05
16,258(+2.2%) 164(+1.2%)
16,258(=) 164(=)
2021-06-08
16,374(+0.71%) 164(=)
16,374(=) 164(=)
2021-06-18
16,799(+2.6%) 167(+1.8%)
2021-06-19
16,933(+0.8%) 173(+3.6%)
16,933(=) 173(=)
2021-06-22
17,013(+0.47%) 173(=)
2021-06-23
17,079(+0.39%) 173(=)
2021-06-24
2021-06-25
17,079(n.a.) 173(n.a.)
2021-06-26
17,098(+0.11%) 173(=)
2021-06-27
17,098(=) 173(=)
Sources

Cases
Cases
Deaths
Deaths

On 20 March, the first case in Papua New Guinea was confirmed. The case was a 45-year-old man who had recently traveled to Spain.[1]

April 2020[edit]

On 5 April, Elizabeth II, Queen of Papua New Guinea addressed the Commonwealth in a televised broadcast, in which she asked people to "take comfort that while we may have more still to endure, better days will return". She added, "we will be with our friends again; we will be with our families again; we will meet again".[17]

On 7 April, Papua New Guinea confirmed its second case of COVID-19. The patient, a 40-year-old female in East New Britain Province, had developed a cough on 23 March, and had been placed in quarantine. The entire province was placed under lockdown for the next 21 days.[18]

On 16 April, the PNG government confirmed five new COVID-19 cases.[19]

On 23 April, a woman of age 45 from Eastern Highlands Province who had sought medical help with symptoms two weeks earlier was confirmed to be infected, marking the eighth case in Papua New Guinea.[20]

May 2020[edit]

On 4 May, acting Health Secretary Dr Paison Dakulala reported that all known cases have recovered, but stresses that they don't know what they are fighting. 2,400 tests have been carried out with the bulk in Port Moresby.[21]

June 2020[edit]

On 20 June, the PNG government confirmed its ninth COVID-19 case.[2]

On 25 June, PNG confirmed its tenth case of COVID-19, a 27-year old member of the PNG Defence Force.[22]

On 26 June, the PNG government confirmed its eleventh COVID-19 case.[23]

July 2020[edit]

On 16 July, PNG confirmed four new cases of COVID-19; they are staff from the main laboratory that tests for the virus.[24]

On 18 July, PNG confirmed its 16th case of COVID-19.[25]

On 20 July, PNG confirmed two new cases of COVID-19.[26]

On 21 July, PNG confirmed eight new cases of COVID-19.[27]

On 22 July, PNG confirmed three new cases of COVID-19.[28]

On 23 July, PNG confirmed one new case of COVID-19.[29]

On 24 July, PNG confirmed its 32nd case of COVID-19.[30]

On 25 July, PNG confirmed seven new cases of COVID-19.[31]

On 26 July, PNG recorded its highest number of positive COVID-19 cases in a day, 23 new cases.[32]

On 27 July, PNG recorded its first death.[33]

On 28 July, PNG recorded its second death and a new case.[34]

On 29 July, PNG recorded four new cases.[35]

On 30 July, PNG recorded five new cases.[35]

August 2020[edit]

On 1 August, PNG recorded 19 new cases.[36]

On 2 August, PNG recorded another 19 new cases.[37]

On 3 August, PNG recorded a new case.[38]

On 7 August, the first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville.[39] The patient was a 22-year-old college student who returned to Buka Airport from Port Moresby.[39]

On 10 August, Prime Minister James Marape announced that the two-week lockdown of Port Moresby, which expired the following day, would not be extended in spite of rising case numbers, saying that as per advice from specialist teams, a strategy of "living with the virus" was preferable to "drastic measures". Governor of Port Moresby Powes Parkop supported the decision, pointing to the present situation of economic crisis and the increased risks due to the lockdown in particular for students, who were often living in crowded conditions inferior to those in schools.[40]

September 2020[edit]

On 5 September, PNG reported eight new cases. As of early September, 12 of the country's 22 provinces have reported positive cases. The death toll remains five and the total number of recovered remains 232. There are 240 tests pending laboratory result.[41]

On 12 September, PNG confirmed its sixth death.[42]

December 2020[edit]

According to a 14 December situation report issued jointly by the PNG National Department of Health and the WHO, 44 new cases were reported across the country in the period from 7 to 13 December. Of these cases, 35 were from West New Britain, where two recent clusters of cases had developed in the preceding three weeks. The report warned that testing rates in all provinces had remained "critically low", and that there were "large significant delays in receiving test results". It also warned that a rise in cases over the upcoming holiday period was to be expected.[43]

February 2021[edit]

Due to rising case numbers, and the isolation wards at Port Moresby Hospital and the nearby Gerehu Hospital both being full, a temporary COVID-19 field hospital at a local sporting facility in the city was reopened. According to a ministerial briefing obtained by the ABC, "critical functions" at the National Control Centre for COVID-19 were endangered by about 40 staff members not having been paid for five months.[44]

March 2021[edit]

Amid a worsening of the outbreak with over 1,400 active cases, Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison announced on 17 March that Australia would send 8,000 vaccine doses to PNG the following week, and that it would request a further one million doses from AstraZeneca and European authorities to be diverted to the country. Refugee advocates called on the Australian government to return the refugees and asylum seekers who had remained in PNG after the closure of the Manus Island facility in 2019; six of them had tested positive in the preceding two weeks.[45] On 23 March tougher anti-pandemic measures took effect, with internal border controls being tightened, personal movement restricted, and mask wearing made mandatory.[46]

On 30 March, Prime Minister James Marape, health workers, senior politicians and elected officials were among the first to be vaccinated with the AstraZeneca vaccine. Marape said on the occasion that he had decided to be among the first to be vaccinated to demonstrate that the vaccine was safe.[47]

April 2021[edit]

On 21 April, the total number of confirmed cases in the country passed 10,000. Pandemic response controller David Manning spoke of a "critical stage" in combating the outbreak and urged citizens to comply with pandemic control measures.[48]

May 2021[edit]

A national rollout of the AstraZeneca vaccine was officially opended by Prime Minister Marape on 4 May. More than 130,000 doses from the COVAX program would be distributed across the country, targeting 3 per cent of the population identified as frontline workers. The take-up for 8,000 doses that had previously been delivered by Australia had been sluggish, with less than half of the doses administered in Port Moresby.[5] Misinformation from social media, resulting in mistrust of the vaccine, was identified by the Lowy Institute as one of the key reasons for the vaccine hesitancy.[16]

June 2021[edit]

On 23 June, PNG received 200,000 doses of the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine from China. The PNG government said that the vaccine would initially be provided to Chinese citizens in the country.[49]

July 2021[edit]

In early July, PNG opened its vaccination program to all persons over 18 years. This occurred as the country faced considerable vaccine hesitancy, with only just under 55,000 having received a vaccination, and among fears that 70,000 donated doses would have to be discarded.[50] A monitoring by Caritas of COVID-19 awareness programs in the country found that rural communities, largely relying on word of mouth rather than the media, were vulnerable to misinformation regarding the virus.[51] Due to concerns over the Delta variant, the government closed its international borders to all except the vaccinated.[50]

In a 2 July article, the China state media outlet Global Times alleged that "Australian consultants" in PNG had been "obstructing" the emergency use authorisation of Chinese vaccines. A 5 July statement by foreign ministry spokesman Wang Wenbin expressed concern over what he called "irresponsible behaviour" by Australia in the country. On 6 July during a trip to PNG and on 9 July, the Australian Minister for International Development and the Pacific Zed Seselja rejected the accusations.[52]

September 2021[edit]

By 2 September, the number of coronavirus cases of the Delta variant reported from Western Province increased to 22. Citing phylogenic studies which suggested that the origin of the outbreak was in neighbouring Indonesian Papua province, National Pandemic Response Deputy Controller Daoni Esorom urged people to stop traveling illegally there.[53]

October 2021[edit]

A medical team arrived in the Port Moresby, joined by a British team soon after,[54] to deal with a strong surge of infections caused by the Delta variant in the country. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies said that "concerted international action" was needed to support the country.[55]

November 2021[edit]

In early November, local media reported that the health system of the country was unable to cope with the wave of infections. In response, a New Zealand medical and logistics support team with essential supplies was sent to the country, with most of them arriving on 13 November, to stay for prospectively one month.[54]

December 2021[edit]

Experts warned that, due to the extremely low vaccination rate – less than five per cent in the adult population – , the country could become a breeding ground for a further mutation of the coronavirus.[56]

February 2022[edit]

Prime Minister James Marape tested positive during a trip to China early in the month, and cut his visit short as a result. On February 9, he released a statement saying that he was "doing well", and that "vaccination has really helped." He urged fellow PNG citizens to get vaccinated; the countrywide vaccination rate was less than 3 per cent, among the lowest in the world.[7]

Prevention measures[edit]

The Government of Papua New Guinea banned all travellers from Asian countries and closed its border with Indonesia, taking effect from 30 January.[57][58] On 16 April, due to additional confirmed cases in the National Capital District (NCD) and the Western Province, the Emergency Controller issued National Emergency Order No. 16, effectively locking down the NCD. The order established an 8 pm to 6 am curfew, prohibited most public gatherings, limited groups to four people, banned public transportation, and suspended alcohol and Betel nut sales. The order also prohibits domestic air travel and closes public venues such as gambling halls, night clubs, sports and sports clubs, and religious services.

On 3 May, the curfew for the National Capital District and Central Province was lifted, alcohol restrictions have been lifted. Gatherings remain banned, social distancing measures have to be enforced, and washing hands before entering church services is mandatory.[59]

On 5 May, the schools reopened; however, some schools required face masks and others have sent their students back again.[60]

The Autonomous Region of Bougainville region has imposed flight restrictions on mainland PNG, whereby flights could only be approved charters or medevac trips until 13 August.[61]

Statistics[edit]

Confirmed new cases per day[edit]

Confirmed deaths per day[edit]

Cases by province[edit]

Province Cases[62] Deaths[63] Population (2011) Cases/100K References
National Capital District 11,554 102 364,125 3,173.09
Western Province 3,737 33 201,351 1,855.96
Central Province 1,195 2 269,756 442.99
Morobe Province 2,574 50 67,481 3,814.41
East Sepik 746 8 45,053 1,655.83
East New Britain Province 2,291 31 328,369 697.69
West New Britain Province 1,241 6 264,264 469.61
Autonomous Region of Bougainville 981 17 249,358 393.41 [64][65]
Eastern Highlands Province 2,457 118 579,825 423.75
Milne Bay 1,499 5 276,512 542.11
New Ireland Province 918 13 194,067 473.03
West Sepik 879 13 248,411 353.85
Southern Highlands Province 1,177 53 510,245 230.67
Western Highlands Province 3,050 79 36,258 8,411.94
Enga 1,139 7 432,045 263.63
Hela 1,004 14 249,449 402.48
Chimbu Province 1,062 11 376,473 282.1
Jiwaka Province 511 30 343,987 148.55
Manus Province 895 11 60,485 1,479.71
Madang Province 1,379 29 493,906 279.20
Gulf Province 632 0 158,197 399.50
Oro Province 618 6 186,309 331.71
22/22 41,539 638 7,275,324 570.96
Updated 25 March 2022

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "PNG Confirms first Case of Coronavirus-COVID −19". Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  2. ^ a b "An expatriate in Port-Moresby confirmed positive to COVID-19". postcourier.com.pg. 20 June 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  3. ^ "Data on COVID-19 transmission in the Country not clear". EM TV. 4 May 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  4. ^ Hollingsworth, Julia (28 March 2021). "This country only has about 500 doctors for 9 million people. Now it's dealing with a Covid outbreak". CNN News. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  5. ^ a b Whiting, Natalie (4 May 2021). "COVID-19 numbers fall in Papua New Guinea but there are fears many cases have been missed". ABC. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  6. ^ Whiting, Natalie (13 May 2021). "Concerns hundreds of COVID-19 cases missing from PNG's national tally". ABC. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  7. ^ a b "PNG leader's "doing well" in Covid recovery'". RNZ. 10 February 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  8. ^ Elsevier. "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  9. ^ Reynolds, Matt (4 March 2020). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  10. ^ a b "Crunching the numbers for coronavirus". Imperial News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  11. ^ "High consequence infectious diseases (HCID); Guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their management in England". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  12. ^ "World Federation Of Societies of Anaesthesiologists – Coronavirus". www.wfsahq.org. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  13. ^ a b Roy Choudhury, Saheli; Koulouris, Will (31 March 2021). "Papua New Guinea's coronavirus cases spike, health system 'at risk of collapsing'". CNBC. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  14. ^ Chandler, Jo (13 November 2018). "Papua New Guinea Is Rich in Resources but Poor in Health". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  15. ^ Packham, Colin (23 April 2021). "Australia urges AstraZeneca to send 1 mln COVID-19 vaccine doses to PNG after EU clearance". Reuters. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  16. ^ a b Mercer, Phil (3 May 2021). "Papua New Guinea Covid-19: Mistrust fuels crisis as infections rise". BBC News. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  17. ^ "Coronavirus: The Queen's broadcast in full". BBC News. 5 April 2020. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  18. ^ "PNG's East New Britain in lockdown after second Covid-19". RNZ. 7 April 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  19. ^ "Five New COVID Cases Confirmed Today". www.looppng.com. 16 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  20. ^ "PNG registers 8th confirmed covid-19 case". RNZ. 23 April 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  21. ^ "Data on COVID-19 transmission in the Country not clear". EM TV. 4 May 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  22. ^ "PNG's 10th Covid case 'evidence of local transmission'". RNZ. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  23. ^ "Eleventh covid case in PNG, army barracks". RNZ. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  24. ^ "Four new covid-19 cases in PNG are lab staff". RNZ. 17 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  25. ^ "New Covid-19 case recorded in PNG". RNZ. 18 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  26. ^ "Two more Covid-19 cases in PNG capital". RNZ. 21 July 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  27. ^ "Residents of PNG capital to mask up as hospital cluster grows". RNZ. 21 July 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  28. ^ "3 More Cases Announced as National Total Hits 30 – EMTV Online". Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  29. ^ "PNG health staff assured of protective gear as cases rise". RNZ. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  30. ^ "COVID-19 Cases in PNG rise to 32". Papua New Guinea Today (in Indonesian). Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  31. ^ "COVID-19 Cases in PNG Surge to 39". Papua New Guinea Today (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  32. ^ "23 new COVID-19 cases announced in NCD – EMTV Online". Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  33. ^ "PNG Health Worker dies of COVID-19 : Marape". Papua New Guinea Today (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  34. ^ "PNG Records Second Death from Coronavirus". Papua New Guinea Today (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  35. ^ a b "Covid-19 widespread in PNG capital". RNZ. 31 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  36. ^ "COVID-19 confirmed Cases in PNG Rise to 91". Papua New Guinea Today (in Indonesian). Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  37. ^ "PNG COVID-19 Confirmed cases pass 100 mark". Papua New Guinea Today (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  38. ^ "PNG records another new case , COVID-19 total confirmed cases rise to 111". Papua New Guinea Today (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  39. ^ a b "Awareness of Covid-19 measures ramps up ahead of Bougainville vote". Radio New Zealand International. 10 August 2020. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  40. ^ Whiting, Natalie (11 August 2020). "Papua New Guinea is walking a tightrope on coronavirus, so it's abandoned lockdowns". ABC News. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  41. ^ "Eight more cases of Covid-19 in PNG". Radio New Zealand. 4 September 2020. Archived from the original on 4 September 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  42. ^ "PNG Records 6th COVID-19 Death". Papua New Guinea Today (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  43. ^ COVID-19 situation reports
  44. ^ Whiting, Natalie (25 February 2021). "COVID-19 pandemic control centre's critical functions 'at risk of collapsing' in PNG, leaked government report reveals". ABC News. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  45. ^ Jackson, Will (17 March 2021). "Asylum seekers in PNG test positive to coronavirus, prompting calls for them to be brought to Australia". ABC News. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  46. ^ Kelly, Lidia (20 March 2021). "New COVID-19 cases surge in Papua New Guinea ahead of restrictions". Additional reporting by Sonali Paul. Reuters.com. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  47. ^ Kuku, Rebecca (30 March 2021). "PNG prime minister first to be vaccinated with Australian-supplied doses 'to show it's safe'". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 July 2021.
  48. ^ "PNG passes 10,000 infections as COVID-19 spreads beyond the capital". Reuters.com. 21 April 2021. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  49. ^ McGuirk, Rod (6 July 2021). "Australia Denies Interfering in China's Pacific Vaccine Help". The Diplomat. Retrieved 11 July 2021.
  50. ^ a b Whiting, Natalie (3 July 2021). "Papua New Guinea vaccine program opened to all adults, border protection ramped up to keep Delta strain out". ABC News. Retrieved 11 July 2021.
  51. ^ Kuku, Rebecca (13 July 2021). "'It's just like flu': misinformation and fear hamper Papua New Guinea's Covid vaccine rollout". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  52. ^ "Australia denies meddling in PNG rollout of Chinese jab". AFP. 9 July 2021. Retrieved 11 July 2021 – via France 24.
  53. ^ "PNG health authorities concerned with Delta in border region". Radio New Zealand. 2 September 2021. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  54. ^ a b "NZ sends medical team to PNG as Covid-19 overwhelms its health system". Radio New Zealand. 13 November 2021. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  55. ^ Kelly, Lidia (25 October 2021). "Red Cross urges action for Papua New Guinea as COVID-19 overwhelms health system". Reuters. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  56. ^ Lyons, Kate (13 December 2021). "Experts warn Papua New Guinea is potential breeding ground for new Covid variants". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  57. ^ "Pacific countries, already hard hit by epidemics, take extreme coronavirus measures". The Washington Post. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  58. ^ "PNG to ban all travelers from Asian countries as it steps up response to coronavirus outbreak". ABC News. 28 January 2020. Archived from the original on 23 February 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  59. ^ "No More curfew for NCD and Central Provinces : Manning". Papua New Guinea Facts. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  60. ^ "Back to school". Loop Papua New Guinea. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  61. ^ "Bougainville limits flights again as PNG wrestles with Covid-19". RNZ. 1 August 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  62. ^ Home - Official COVID-19 Website (2020-12-14) https://covid19.info.gov.pg/
  63. ^ "Facebook". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  64. ^ "First confirmed Covid-19 death in Bougainville". RNZ. 20 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  65. ^ Bougainville News Alerts. "Covid-19 continues to take toll in Bougainville". Facebook. Retrieved 29 May 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)