COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand
|COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand|
|First outbreak||Wuhan, Hubei, China|
|Index case||Suvarnabhumi Airport|
|Arrival date||8 January 2020|
(confirmed 12 January)
(2 years, 5 months, 2 weeks and 3 days)
The COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Thailand was the first country to report a case outside China, on 13 January 2020. As of 2 April 2022[update], the country has reported a cumulative total of 3,684,755 confirmed cases, with 25,318 deaths from the disease, and currently ranked fourth in the number of cases in Southeast Asia, behind Vietnam, Indonesia, and Malaysia.
Thailand was relatively successful in containing the pandemic throughout most of 2020, but has been experiencing an uncontrolled resurgent outbreak since April 2021. An initial wave of infections, mostly traced to nightlife venues and a boxing match in Bangkok, peaked on 22 March 2020 at 188 newly confirmed cases per day. As preventive measures were implemented, the outbreak subsided by May, and the country reported almost no locally transmitted infections until December, when it saw a surge of infections primarily clustered around large migrant worker communities in Samut Sakhon Province. The new outbreak spread to many provinces, with a maximum daily of 959 cases reported on 26 January 2021, before partially subsiding in February. In April, however, a new wave of infections originated from Bangkok's Thong Lo–area nightlife venues and rapidly spread in Bangkok as well as throughout the country. It was identified to be of the highly transmissible Alpha variant first reported from the United Kingdom, and by 14 April, over a thousand cases per day were being identified, causing a shortage of hospital beds as government policy required admission of all confirmed cases.
The Thai government's response to the outbreak was initially based on surveillance and contact tracing, though it was late to implement clear quarantine measures. In response to the first outbreak, Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha declared a state of emergency, effective on 26 March, and the Centre for COVID-19 Situation Administration (CCSA)[a] was established to coordinate the government's response, working in conjunction with the Department of Disease Control and issuing public communications through its spokesperson Taweesin Visanuyothin. Lockdown measures were implemented in varying degrees throughout the country, with public venues and businesses ordered to close. A curfew went into effect on 3 April, and all commercial international flights were suspended from 4 April. The public has cooperated relatively well with health advisories, and the country's robust public health infrastructure has been credited as a contributing factor to its relatively successful initial response. Easing of restrictions was gradually implemented from mid-May. The curfew was lifted in July and academia reopened in August. However, the state of emergency remained in effect.
With the subsequent outbreaks in December 2020 and April 2021, the government appeared reluctant to implement the same degree of restrictive measures for fear of further disruptions to the economy. In December, it focused instead on mass testing of migrant workers and travel restrictions from affected provinces, while in April, it allowed the Songkran (Thai New Year) holidays to go ahead (though without water-splashing celebrations), despite having cancelled the holidays in 2020 when the caseload was lower. Vaccinations began at the end of February 2021, mostly limited to healthcare workers and mainly using the CoronaVac vaccine imported from China's Sinovac Biotech. The majority of the country's vaccine supply is planned to rely heavily on the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine through a manufacturing deal secured by palace-owned Siam Bioscience company, with first batches expected in June 2021.
The pandemic has heavily disrupted the country's economy, of which tourism is a significant sector. The International Monetary Fund has predicted Thailand's GDP to shrink by 6.7 percent in 2020, a revision from a previous estimated 2.5% increase. The government has borrowed and announced several assistance measures, including cash handouts to those affected and a 1.9 trillion-baht (US$60 billion) stimulus package, though few people have actually received it. Dissatisfaction to its economic impact and government response contributed to the second wave of 2020–2021 Thai protests starting from 18 July 2020.
On 12 January, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan, Hubei, China, who had initially come to the attention of the WHO on 31 December 2019.
However, the spread of the new and significantly impacting delta variant of COVID-19, the infection and death rate of COVID-19 has dramatically increased to a current new high of over 20,000 cases per day and over 160 deaths
On 13 January 2020, the Ministry of Public Health announced the first confirmed case, a 61-year-old Chinese woman who is a resident of Wuhan. She arrived at Suvarnabhumi Airport in Samut Prakan on 8 January, where she was detected using thermal surveillance and then hospitalised. Thailand's second case occurred in a 74-year-old Chinese woman who arrived in Bangkok on a flight from Wuhan on 13 January 2020. Several more cases were detected in arrivals from China throughout January.
On 31 January 2020, an additional five cases were reported, bringing the cumulative number of confirmed cases to 19. One was a local taxi driver who had no records of travelling to China and was thus suspected to have been infected by a Chinese tourist he picked up, making this the first case of human-to-human virus transmission within the country. The other cases were Chinese nationals. The number of cases remained low throughout February, totaling to 40 confirmed by the end of the month.
On 1 March 2020, MOPH reported the first confirmed death in Thailand. The number of cases surged around mid-March, with 89 new cases reported on 21 March, the largest single-day rise since the virus reached the country. The outbreak was traced to several transmission clusters, the largest of which occurred at a Muay Thai fight at the military-run Lumpinee Boxing Stadium on 6 March. Confirmed cases rose to over a hundred per day over the following week, and public venues and businesses were ordered to close in Bangkok and several other provinces. The abrupt closure of Bangkok businesses prompted tens of thousands of workers to travel to their hometowns. Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha declared a state of emergency, effective on 26 March, and a curfew went into effect on 3 April. All commercial international flights were suspended from 4 April, and lockdown measures were implemented in varying degrees throughout the country.
The rate of new cases gradually dropped throughout April 2020, and by mid-May, locally transmitted infection rates had fallen to near-zero, and easing of restrictions was gradually implemented. The curfew was lifted in July 2020 and academia began rereopening in August.
On 15 July 2020, the national centre for COVID-19 has announced two new infected cases; an Egyptian soldier in Rayong Province, and a Sudanese diplomat's daughter in Asok neighbourhood of Bangkok. Both of them were the government's exceptions for "VIP guests," not requiring to comply with several COVID-19 measures. Many criticised the government's failure to contain the disease from those VIPs.
Even though there had been no new domestic cases since mid-May, on 21 August 2020, the CCSA announced that it decided to extend the Emergency Degree until 30 September, claiming that it was necessary to use its power to prevent incoming aliens from overseas in many routes, and that Thai people' daily lives were not affected, since CCSI had already loosen its restriction on activities such as academia reopen. International rights groups have criticized the emergency decree being employed to suppress free speech.
In September 2020, a prison inmate who had not been abroad was Thailand's first locally transmitted case in 100 days. Another domestic case was detected on 7 November, though neither cases were not traced to any further outbreaks.
In October, foreign tourists entered Thailand for the first time in seven months under the Special Tourist Visa program. A total of 1,201 vistiors arrived in the month, compared to 3.07 million in the same month a year earlier. A French tourist on Ko Samui in Surat Thani contracted the disease after passing the 14-day state quarantine. She developed a fever 17 days after arriving in the country. In November, the government extended the coronavirus emergency decree for the eighth time, approving a 45-day extension until 15 January 2021.
Starting at the end of November 2020, at least ten cases were detected in women who had illegally crossed the Myanmar border into Mae Sai District from Tachileik. They made long-distance travels, including by bus and by air, and some attended large gatherings, prompting authorities to impose quarantine on people who may have come into close contact with them.
In mid-December, an outbreak occurred in Samut Sakhon, just southwest of Bangkok, increasing the country's total confirmed cases by at least 20%. Cases in the province, which is the center of the country's fishing industry, primarily impacted migrant workers from Myanmar, a major source of labour in the seafood industry. Over 1,300 cases were traced to a seafood market in Samut Sakhon, as cases were detected in 27 provinces. Before the surge, Thailand had recorded about 4,300 COVID-19 cases and just 60 deaths, while Myanmar had registered about 117,000 cases. The 576 cases reported on 20 December was Thailand's biggest daily increase and caused the nation's overall total to climb 13%. A new cluster emerged in Rayong, linked to a gambling den. On 28 December, a worker at the den died, Thailand's first COVID-19 death in nearly two months. With the clusters starting to spread into Bangkok, the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration announced that the city would close schools and daycare centres 4–17 January 2021. Soon after, the Ministry of Education ordered all schools closed for the month of January.
A third, more serious wave occurred in April 2021 following the emergence of clusters in entertainment districts in and around Bangkok early in the month. Thought to be exacerbated by the presence of the highly-transmittable B.1.1.7 variant in Thailand, the wave led to the largest surge in cases in the country to date, with sharp increases in daily cases over the course of the month. On 14 April, Thailand detected 1,335 new cases, the first time the country reported a four-figure case count; by 24 April, the number of new cases peaked at 2,839.
Thailand required anyone testing positive for the virus to be hospitalized, even those who were asymptomatic. This led to a shortage of hospital beds. Field hospitals were established in several cities. By May, almost 30,000 patients were in the country's hospitals and field hospitals.
International travel restrictions
The screening of passengers arriving from China is ongoing at six airports, beginning on 3 January: Suvarnabhumi Airport, Don Mueang International Airport, Phuket International Airport, Chiang Mai International Airport and Krabi International Airport, with the addition of Chiang Rai International Airport since 24 January. A number of suspected cases have been found to have other common respiratory conditions.
On 11 February, the Holland America Line-operated MS Westerdam was refused permission to dock at Laem Chabang port by the country's Marine Department. The ship was previously denied entry to the Philippines, Japan, South Korea, and Guam due to similar fears.
On 13 February, two cruise ships, the MV Seabourn Ovation anchored at the Phuket Deep Sea Port and the Quantum of the Seas docked at Phuket's Patong pier. Unlike the MS Westerdam, the two ships were allowed because both had planned to make their first stop in Thailand and would depart to Singapore afterwards. The passengers on board were screened by public health officials before being given permission to step ashore.
On 17 February, a meeting between Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Public Health, AOT and the Immigration Bureau came to the conclusion to disallow entry of all foreigners from MS Westerdam to the country after an American woman tested positive for COVID-19 in Malaysia. The number of passengers who entered Thailand before the ban was 95, 91 were transferred to connecting flights and had already left the country.
On 18 February, the health authorities had extended COVID-19 screening to cover visitors from Japan and Singapore. Passengers from these countries were treated with the same method as passengers on flights from Mainland China. The Ministry of Public Health also raised measures against COVID-19 to level 3 in preparation for a surge in transmission. Every province must have at least one hospital capable of testing for COVID-19. The Department of Medical Sciences is currently developing a virus test kit that will deliver a result in five minutes, which is planned to be available within two months.
On 21 February, the Ministry of Public Health announced a new screening criteria, with additional surveillance for visitors from Hong Kong, Macau, South Korea and Taiwan. People developing pneumonia due to unknown causes and living in eight provinces that were popular among Chinese tourists including Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Krabi, Phuket, Prachuap Khiri Khan and Samut Prakan, would be automatically considered as COVID-19 suspected cases.
On 3 April, the Civil Aviation Authority of Thailand ordered that there would be a ban on all passengers flights landing in Thailand from the morning of 4 April to the evening of the 6 April. On the evening of 6 April, the flight ban was further extended to 18 April, and now to 30 April.
On 15 July 2021, it became possible for vaccinated holidaymakers from overseas to visit three islands in the Surat Thani province; Koh Samui, Koh Tao and Koh Phangan. The decision follows the reopening of Phuket, Thailand's largest island, on Thursday, July 1. However, such visits come with a number of caveats. For example, prior to arrival foreign tourists are required to obtain a Certificate of Entry, travel insurance of at least US$100,000 for medical expenses and prepaid reservations at a government-approved hotel. Once on the ground, travelers are subject to several PCR tests at their expense, must carry a tracking app to ensure movement compliance, and minimum stays of 7 to 14 days before being allowed to travel to the next destination in Thailand.
Starting on 1 November 2021, arrivals from 63 countries designated as low-risk were allowed to enter with only a one-day quarantine, while they awaited a negative test result. The Test and Go program required travellers to be fully vaccinated and have received a negative RT-PCR test result before travel. On 21 December, the program was suspended in response to the first reported local transmission of the Omicron variant a day earlier.
On 1 February 2022 Thai authority resume Test & Go program with additional rule that travelers will be required to take two RT-PCR tests, one on the first day and another on the fifth day.  and from 1 March 2022 Thailand revised COVID-19 test requirement from 2 PCR Test (1st Day, 5th Day) to 1 PCR and 1 Self-ATK (PCR 1st day, ATK 5th day). 
Start from 1st May 2022. Fully vaccinated traveller will NOT require RT-PCR on arrival but still need Thailand Pass. ATK is voluntary only.
Restrictions on travellers from risk areas
As of 22 March, the Ministry of Public Health defined two types of risk areas:
Dangerous Disease Infected Zones
The Civil Aviation Authority of Thailand (CAAT) is requiring travellers from all countries to show medical certificates prior to boarding their flights to Thailand and after arriving in Thailand when entering immigration checkpoints or their journey will not be allowed. Also, the traveller must seek quarantine in government-managed places for 14 days with no exception.
Medical supply regulations
On 4 February 2020, the government announced that four products, namely surgical masks, polypropylene, alcohol-based hand sanitisers and toilet paper, are to be designated as controlled goods under the Price of Goods and Services Act, B.E. 2542 (1999) following a cabinet resolution.
On 12 March 2020, health officials encouraged people to make face masks at home out of cloth, stating that cloth masks can prevent droplets bigger than one micron from spreading.
Lockdown, curfew, and inter-provincial travel ban
On 21 March 2020, Bangkok City Hall authorities declared a wide-ranging shutdown of various businesses. Bangkok Governor Aswin Kwanmuang disclosed after the City Hall meeting that the board had passed a resolution to close establishments under Section 35 of the Communicable Diseases Act B.E. 2558 (2015), effective for a period of 22 days from 22 March to 12 April 2020. This was then extended from 12 April 2020 to 30 April 2020. Only supermarkets, pharmacies, and takeaway restaurants will be allowed to stay open at the malls.
The government issued a curfew to take effect on 3 April 2020 between 10pm-4am in order to limit the spread. The government has additionally issued a travel ban for all foreigners entering Thailand. Some critics of the government have been arrested for allegedly spreading false information about the coronavirus pandemic.
The curfew was cut from 10–4 to 11–4, then 11-3 and officially ended on 15 June 2020.
Early April 2021, Bangkok's entertainment venues were ordered to be closed for 2 weeks. Mid-April 2021, schools were ordered to be closed for 2 weeks, taking the 2000+ daily cases into consideration. Since 26 April, more businesses including gyms closed for 2 weeks.
Since May, the authority adopted a tracking application named "Thai Chana" [th] (lit. Thai wins) to track people who had entered an enclosed building, then would send a notice to anybody who were in there at the same time with a COVID-19 patient if later tested positive. However, critics questioned its benefits and there were reports of spam.
Study from Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University report SARS-CoV-2 RNA was present in the human wastewater collected from both the Bangkok city center and suburbs with increasing concentrations from October to December. This is the first dataset related to SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater in Bangkok. Except for July, August and December there were no statistically significant differences in RNA copy numbers from the city center or suburbs. Between October and November, a sharp rise in copy number was observed in both places followed by two to three times increase in December, related to SARS-CoV-2 cases reported for same month. Interestingly, in December, the number of SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies from the city center and suburbs in wastewater increased, reflecting the increased number of positive SARS-CoV-2 patients. Study result suggests that a higher copy number of the viral genome could correlate with an elevation in infected people in the community and positive cases may be much higher than the reported numbers.
Public education focused on self-monitoring for at-risk groups, practising hygiene (especially hand washing), and avoiding crowds (or wearing masks if avoidance was not possible).
Prayut ordered crackdown on social media posts that the government deemed "fake news," accusing the people who did so of hampering the authorities' effort against the pandemic. The police also stressed that the crime may faced with a maximum of two years imprisonment under the Emergency Decree. In July 2021, after numerous reports of homeless people dying in the streets of Bangkok, some officials blamed the incidents as being set up to discredit the authorities.
In November 2020, the authorities ordered 26 million doses of vaccine from AstraZeneca, which reported 70% overall efficacy. It requires two doses of vaccine per person, so the quantity ordered would only cover 13 million people. Prayut cabinet later approved budget for ordering 35 million additional doses in January 2021. Siam Bioscience, a company owned by King Vajiralongkorn, will received technological transfer for co-investment. The authorities would also imported two million doses of vaccine from Sinovac Biotech, a Chinese company which Thai conglomerate Charoen Pokphand invested in, during February to April 2021.
Likewise, the Thai government also stepped up its attempt to produce its homegrown vaccines amidst criticism, with "ChulaCov19" and set to begin trials in May 2021. Phase I testing of the NDV-HXP-S vaccine began at Mahidol University in March 2021.
The 1.5 million dose of Pfizer vaccine donated by the US government arrived in Thailand in early August 2021. Half of the said amount were allocated to health workers, even though the Ministry of Public Health said earlier that all would be allocated to them. Some hospitals reported allocation cuts.
Sources: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Bangkok Airways announced a plan to cut their executives' salaries, reduce the number of flights, and cancel some routes; staff will be on leave without pay for 10–30 days starting from 1 March 2020 due to the economic downturn and the outbreak of COVID-19.
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization released a report in June 2020 reported that 90% or more of firms expect revenue loss of more than 50% compared to last year.: 1 Automotive sectors had a drop in manufacturing performance index (MPI) in April 2020, about 82% year on year, showing the lowest production since 1987.: 2 Four other leading negatively affected sectors include petroleum and petroleum products, malts and malt beverage, air conditioning systems, and sugar.: 2 On the other hand, sectors which had an increase in MPI include concrete and cement, medicine, electronic circuitboard, frozen seafood, and animal feeds, of which MPI increased ranging from 10% to almost 40% year on year.: 2
In September 2020, World Bank forecast that Thai economy would contract 8.9% by the end of the year.
On 29 February, The 38th Thailand National Book Fair and 18th Bangkok International Book Fair at Impact, Muang Thong Thani were cancelled. It was instead hosted online, making it the first "online national book fair" of Thailand. Chulalongkorn and Mahidol Universities, following the confirmation of COVID-19 cases among its staff and student body, began suspending classes on 16 March, while Kasetsart University took the same action as a precautionary measure.
The "THAI FIGHT" boxing tournament in Chiang Rai has been postponed indefinitely due to concerns of COVID-19.
On 1 March 2020, the Football Association of Thailand decided that all Thai League professional football matches in T1, T2, T3 and T4 between 7 and 31 March will be played behind closed doors as broadcast only events. However, on 4 March 2020, the decision was changed to postpone all matches prior to 18 April indefinitely.
Thailand's tourist industry, which accounts for one-fifth of GDP prior to the pandemic, has been severely affected; the Tourism Authority of Thailand anticipates total tourist arrivals for 2020 to decline by as much as 65%. In the January–March period, foreign tourist arrivals fell by 38% to 6.69 million; Chinese arrivals, the largest source of inbound tourists, plunged 60% to 1.25 million. With its border closed and most international flights cancelled since 4 April, tourist arrivals and spending have both dropped to zero in April, compared to 3.2 million arrivals and $4.6 billion's worth of receipts in the same month last year.
Legend Siam, a theme park in Pattaya, will temporarily close from 3 March because of the lack of tourists during the spread of the virus. The park management promised to hire all staff back when it eventually reopens.
On 16 March, the Ministry of Public Health announced that Songkran holidays and celebrations will be postponed until further notice as the number of cases continued to rise by 33 to 147. The Songkran festival in Khaosan Road, Khon Kaen Province, Pattaya, Bang Saen Beach and Patong will not be held, according to each municipality's announcement. The dates of the holiday are to be postponed as well. Ko Pha-ngan District Chief Somchai Somwong made the decision to suspend a party on Rin Beach to avoid the gathering of tourists, which could pose a risk of virus outbreak. The party had originally been scheduled on the full-moon night of 8 March.
Brian Tan and Shreya Sodhani at Barclays argued that the need for quarantine would mean “the return of tourists could be relatively slow”.
Xenophobia and racism
A restaurant in Chiang Mai displayed a sign which read "We apologize we are not accepting CHINESE customers. Thank you", after a customer left the restaurant upon noticing a group of Chinese people inside. The police demanded that the sign be taken down, but suggested that it could be rewritten in Chinese as "We ran out of food". A similar sign was seen outside a restaurant in Ao Sane Beach in Phuket.
Health minister Anutin Charnvirakul posted negative comments on Twitter about "dirty" Westerners, saying they "never shower" and are more likely to spread the virus than Asians. The post attracted negative reaction in Thailand and the UK and was quickly removed. Mr. Charnvirakul stated the tweet was posted by his staff and not by him personally.
Criticism of government response
The government has been criticised for various aspects of its response to the crisis, especially over its early handling of the pandemic, slow procurement of vaccines, and the April 2021 outbreak.
In early February 2020, in response to concerns over hoarding and price gouging of face masks, the government issued price controls and intervened in their distribution. The move failed to prevent shortages among hospitals, and became a scandal over perceived corruption and siphoning of supplies. Criticism was also aimed at the government's inconsistent policy over international travel and quarantine requirements, indecisiveness and slowness to act, and poor communication—many official announcements were made available to the public, only to be quickly retracted or contradicted by other government units, and later changed. The abrupt closure of Bangkok businesses prompted tens of thousands of workers to travel to their hometowns, reflecting the failure among agencies to coordinate a unified response. After the virus's third wave in April 2021, the government was criticized for failing to acquire a suffient stock of vaccines.
Possible spread to other countries
South Korea On 4 February, a South Korean woman, who recently visited Bangkok on a vacation, was tested positive and confirmed as the 16th case of the country
Germany On 4 March, Cologne city government announced five confirmed cases, including a woman who was previously on vacation in Thailand and is believed to have been infected there.
India On 6 March, India reported its 31st confirmed case. The patient is an Indian national who has a travel history from Thailand and Malaysia.
Egypt In May 2021, the UK authorities reported that they found a COVID-19 variant that was first discovered in Thailand from immigrants from Egypt.
Transition to endemic management
On 1 June 2022, the Ministry of Public Health shut down its COVID-19 location tracking app MorChana in anticipation of endemic classification of the disease. The decision was made given improvements in the local situation, and since arriving people are no longer required to use the app. The Ministry plans to declare COVID-19 an endemic disease on 1 July, with that from 23 June 2022, mask wearing is optional outdoors at the countryside areas (such as Phuket and Don Mueang) whereas mask wearing is still mandatory at indoors and at crowded areas such as Bangkok and on public transport.
Cumulative number of confirmed cases, recoveries, active cases and deaths
Confirmed new cases per day
Confirmed deaths per day
Confirmed recoveries per day
- Also titled in full as the "Centre for the Administration of the Situation due to the Outbreak of the Communicable Disease Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19)".
- "COVID-19 Outbreak". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 25 June 2022.
- "ไทยรู้สู้โควิด". Twitter (in Thai). Ministry of Health (Thailand). 25 June 2022. Retrieved 25 June 2022.
- Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2021). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
- Panyaarvudh, Jintana (7 April 2020). "Dr Taweesin: Shining the light of clarity on Covid-19 situation". Thai PBS World. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- Abuza, Zachary (21 April 2020). "Explaining Successful (and Unsuccessful) COVID-19 Responses in Southeast Asia". The Diplomat. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- Bello, Walden (3 June 2020). "How Thailand Contained COVID-19". Foreign Policy In Focus. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- Hui Yee, Tan (11 January 2021). "Thai government's reluctance to impose Covid-19 lockdown stirs unease". The Straits Times. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- Sivasomboon, Busaba; Peck, Grant (15 April 2021). "Bangkok nightlife clusters expose Thailand's virus stumbles". Associated Press. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- Paweewun, Oranan (16 April 2020). "IMF: Thai GDP down 6.7%". Bangkok Post. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- Theparat, Chatrudee (7 April 2020). "Cabinet gives green light to B1.9tn stimulus". Bangkok Post. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021.
- Elsevier. "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Reynolds, Matt (4 March 2020). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- "Crunching the numbers for coronavirus". Imperial News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- "High consequence infectious diseases (HCID); Guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their management in England". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "World Federation Of Societies of Anaesthesiologists – Coronavirus". www.wfsahq.org. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Schnirring, Lisa (14 January 2020). "Report: Thailand's coronavirus patient didn't visit outbreak market". CIDRAP. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- "Novel coronavirus (02): Thailand ex China (HU) WHO. Archive Number: 20200113.6886644". International Society for Infectious Diseases. Retrieved 14 January 2020 – via Pro-MED-mail.
- Cheung, Elizabeth (13 January 2020). "Thailand confirms first case of Wuhan virus outside China". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
- Sui-Lee Wee (15 January 2020). "Japan and Thailand Confirm New Cases of Chinese Coronavirus". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 16 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- Thepgumpanat, Panarat; Chankaew, Prapan; Tanakasempipat, Patpicha; Fernandez, Clarence (17 January 2020). "Thailand finds second case of new Chinese virus, says no outbreak". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
- "สธ.แถลง พบคนขับแท็กซี่ ติดไวรัสโคโรน่า เป็นคนไทยรายแรก ไม่มีประวัติไปจีน" [MOPH announces taxi driver infected with coronavirus; first Thai case with no records of travelling to China]. Thairath Online (in Thai). 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
- "Thailand confirms first human-to-human coronavirus transmission, total cases rises to 19". CNA. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- "Human transmission of coronavirus confirmed in Thailand". Bangkok Post. Reuters. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 13 October 2021. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Satrusayang, Cod (21 March 2020). "Thailand announces 89 new coronavirus cases; malls ordered closed until April 12". Thai Enquirer. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- "Thailand sees biggest jump in coronavirus cases". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- "ผู้ป่วยโควิด-19 ในไทย ปะทุจากผับกทม.4 ย่านดัง- สนามมวยแพร่ไป 9 จ." [COVID-19 cases in Thailand surge; spreads from four major Bangkok-area entertainment districts – boxing stadiums to 9 provinces]. Krungthep Turakij (in Thai). 20 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- "กทม.และ 5 จังหวัด ประกาศปิดห้างกับ 25 สถานที่ (คลิป)" [Bangkok and five other provinces close malls and 25 other locations (with clip)]. Thairath Online (in Thai). 22 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- "เผยคนแห่นั่งรถทัวร์ กลับบ้านหนีโควิด เกือบแสน! รมว.คมนาคม สั่งทำ 7 ขั้นตอน" [Nearly 100,000 flock home on tour buses to flee COVID! Transport Minister orders 7-step procedure]. Khaosod (in Thai). 22 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- The Standard Team (24 March 2020). "นายกฯ ประกาศใช้ พ.ร.ก. ฉุกเฉิน คุมโควิด-19 มีผล 26 มี.ค. ย้ำยังไม่ประกาศเคอร์ฟิวห้ามออกนอกบ้าน" [PM declares state of emergency effective 26 March in response to COVID-19; maintains there is no curfew yet]. The Standard (in Thai). Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- "Curfew starts today". Bangkok Post. 3 April 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- Kuhakan, Jiraporn (18 May 2020). "Thai traffic back to gridlock as coronavirus measures ease". Reuters. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- "'Phase 3' business reopening confirmed, curfew shortened". Khaosod English. 29 May 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- "โควิด-19: ผลการสืบสวนโรคพบผู้ที่ต้องเฝ้าระวังจากกรณีเด็กหญิงซูดานและทหารอียิปต์มีทั้งหมด 36 คน". BBC Thai (in Thai). 16 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "ปชช.กังวลทหารอียิปต์-ครอบครัวซูดาน ทำ COVID-19 ระบาดใหม่". Thai PBS (in Thai). 19 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "ศบค.ชุดใหญ่ เคาะต่ออายุ พรก.ฉุกเฉินอีก 1 เดือน". โพสต์ทูเดย์. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
- Macan-Markar, Marwaan (29 June 2020). "Thailand seeks to extend COVID emergency despite no new cases". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- Harmer, Jerry (21 October 2020). "39 Chinese are Thailand's 1st foreign tourists in 7 months". Associated Press. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- Sriring, Orathai (26 November 2020). "Thailand sees first trickle of tourists in October as curbs ease". Reuters. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
- Wipatayotin, Apinya; Chaolan, Supapong (24 October 2020). "Infected tourist on Samui". Bangkok Post. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
- "State of emergency extended to Jan 15". Bangkok Post. 23 November 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
- "Fourth woman who sneaked back from Myanmar found infected". Bangkok Post. 1 December 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
- "More Covid cases from Tachilek, some in Bangkok". Bangkok Post. 2 December 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
- Yuda, Masayuki (21 December 2020). "Thailand to test thousands as COVID strikes Myanmarese workers". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
- Kuhakan, Jiraporn; Sriring, Orathai (22 December 2020). "Thai PM blames virus surge on illegal migration, hints at new curbs". Reuters. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
- "Thailand confirms 67 new coronavirus infections". Reuters. 24 December 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
- "After months of calm, Thailand grapples with COVID-19 outbreak". ChannelNewsAsia.com. 23 December 2020. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
- "Thailand reports COVID-19 death, imposes entertainment curbs in Bangkok". ChannelNewsAsia.com. Reuters. 28 December 2020. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
- "First Covid-19 death in two months". Bangkok Post. 28 December 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
- "Bangkok to close schools for two weeks as number of COVID-19 cases rise". Reuters. 1 January 2021. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
- "UPDATE 3-Thailand mulls more restrictions amid second wave of coronavirus". Reuters. 3 January 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
- "Thailand Confirms Coronavirus Outbreak in Nightspots, Prison". CNA. Associated Press. 5 April 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- "Bangkok nightlife clusters expose Thailand's virus stumbles". Associated Press. 15 April 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- "GOV'T WANTS TO BUY MORE VACCINES AS SURGE WORSENS". Khaosod English. Associated Press. 8 May 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
- "WHO | Novel Coronavirus – Thailand (ex-China)". WHO. 14 January 2020. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- "Wuhan viral pneumonia alert". Chiang Mai Citylife. 7 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- "รายงานข่าวกรณีโรคปอดอักเสบจากเชื้อไวรัสโคโรนาสายพันธุ์ใหม่ 2019 (Novel Coronavirus;2019-nCoV) ประจำวันที่ 1 กุมภาพันธ์ 2563" [Report of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) situation in Thailand, 1 February 2020] (in Thai). 1 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020 – via Ministry of Public Health, Thailand.
- Slessor, Camron (11 February 2020). "Westerdam cruise ship stranded at sea again after being refused entry to Thailand amid coronavirus fears". ABC News. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
- "Thailand bars Westerdam cruise ship, China virus toll tops 1,000". Bangkok Post. 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2020. Alt URL
- "Phuket liner let-in cops flak". Bangkok Post. 14 February 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- "สรุปประเด็นเรือสำราญเทียบท่าภูเก็ต". The Standard. 13 February 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- "รายงานข่าวกรณีโรคปอดอักเสบจากเชื้อไวรัสโคโรนาสายพันธุ์ใหม่ 2019 (Novel Coronavirus;2019-nCoV) ประจำวันที่ 18 กุมภาพันธ์ 2563" [Report of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) situation in Thailand, 18 February 2020] (in Thai). 18 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020 – via Ministry of Public Health, Thailand.
- "Thailand records 1 new case of coronavirus". Bangkok Post. 17 February 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- "Japanese and S'pore arrivals screened". Bangkok Post. 18 February 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- "Thailand expands virus detection". Bangkok Post. 21 February 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
- "ประกาศสกัดโควิด-19 ต่างชาติเข้าไทยต้องมีใบรับรองแพทย์-ประกันภัยแสนเหรียญ" [To curb COVID-19, foreigners arriving in Thailand now required to possess medical certificate – 100,000 USD health insurance]. Thairath Online (in Thai). 19 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- "Covid-19: Thailand's strict new entry requirements take effect". New Straits Times. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- hermesauto (4 April 2020). "Coronavirus: Thailand suspends all incoming passenger flights for 3 days". The Straits Times. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- hermesauto (6 April 2020). "The Notification of the Civil Aviation Authority of Thailand on Temporary Ban on All International Flights to Thailand (No. 2)". CAAT. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- "Thailand reopening: vaccinated travellers can now visit Koh Samui, Tao and Phangan". The National. 18 July 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
- "Phuket Sandbox Rules - Read This Before Booking Your Thailand Trip!". Explorient Travel Services. 1 July 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
- "Samui Plus Reopening Rules: Read This Before Booking Your Thailand Trip". Explorient Travel Services. 13 July 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
- "Thailand may resume quarantine requirement to stem spread of Omicron". ThaiPBSWorld.com. 21 December 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
- "Thailand limits arrivals, with 'Thailand Pass' applications suspended over Omicron concerns". ThaiPBSWorld.com. 21 December 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
- Yuda, Masayuki (21 December 2021). "Omicron makes Thailand cancel quarantine-free inbound travel". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
- "'Test & Go' to resume Feb 1 with extra test requirement". Bangkok Post. 21 January 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
- "'UPDATED! TEST & GO rules from 1 March 2022". Bangkok Post. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
- "Thailand lifts RT-PCR testing requirement for international arrivals from 1 May 2022". TATnews. 22 April 2022. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
- "เขตติดโรคอันตรายและพื้นที่ที่มีการระบาดต่อเนื่อง". 6 March 2020.
- "Govt ramps up Covid-19 measures". Bangkok Post. 10 March 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021.
- "ออกกม.คุมห้ามกักตุน 'หน้ากากอนามัย-เจลล้างมือ'". Daily News (in Thai). 4 February 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "'นายกฯ' คาดโทษ จนท. หากพบขึ้นราคา-กักตุนหน้ากากอนามัย". Krungthep Turakij (in Thai). 6 February 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- Kuhakan, Jiraporn (12 March 2020). "'Better than nothing': Thailand encourages cloth masks amid surgical mask shortage".
- "Bangkok malls to close from Sunday". Bangkok Post. 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- "Breaking News : กทม.สั่งปิดสถานที่เสี่ยงเพิ่ม 22 วัน เริ่ม 22 มี.ค. -12 เม.ย. 63 เว้นซูเปอร์มาร์เก็ต ร้านสะดวกซื้อ ร้านอาหารขายได้เฉพาะหิ้วกลับบ้าน". Spring News. 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- Pulitzer, Greeley (2 April 2020). "National curfew announced. Takes effect tomorrow". The Thaiger.
- "Some leaders use pandemic to sharpen tools against critics". ABC News. 16 April 2020.
- "Coronavirus Has Started a Censorship Pandemic". The Foreign Policy. 1 April 2020.
- "Curfew ending, country remains closed to outsiders". The Bangkok Post. 12 June 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- Thailand orders bar closings in capital to stop virus spread
- Thailand and Cambodia rush to halt waves of Covid cases
- Thailand reports daily record of over 2,000 COVID-19 cases, 4 new deaths. Thomson Reuters. Apr 22, 2021
- Thailand's new COVID wave slams hospitals, ignites public anger
- Wannigama, Dhammika Leshan; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hurst, Cameron; Phattharapornjaroen, Phatthranit; Abe, Shuichi; Hongsing, Parichart; Rad, S.M. Ali Hosseini; Pearson, Lachlan; Saethang, Thammakorn; Luk-in, Sirirat; Kueakulpattana, Naris (July 2021). "Tracking COVID-19 with wastewater to understand asymptomatic transmission". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 108: 296–299. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.05.005. ISSN 1201-9712. PMC 8111879. PMID 33989774.
- "สธ.ยกระดับควบคุมป้องกันโรค ประกาศคำเตือนระดับ 3 หลีกเลี่ยงเดินทางไปพื้นที่ระบาด" [MOPH ramps up disease control measures; issues level 3 warning to avoid areas with ongoing transmission]. The Bangkok Insight (in Thai). 31 January 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- "Thailand News: PM Prayut orders action against COVID-19 fake news". The Phuket News Com. 29 July 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.