COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines
|COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines|
|First outbreak||Wuhan, Hubei, China|
|Arrival date||January 30, 2020[b]|
(1 year, 4 months, 2 weeks and 6 days)
The COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first case in the Philippines was identified on January 30, 2020, and involved a 38-year-old Chinese woman who was confined at San Lazaro Hospital in Metro Manila.[b] On February 1, a posthumous test result from a 44-year-old Chinese man turned out positive for the virus, making the Philippines the first country outside China to record a confirmed death from the disease.
After over a month without recording any cases, the Philippines confirmed its first local transmission on March 7, 2020. Since then, the virus has spread to the country's 81 provinces. National and local governments have been imposing community quarantines since March 15, 2020, as a measure to limit the spread of the virus. These include the Luzon-wide enhanced community quarantine (ECQ) that was implemented in March–May 2020.[c] On March 24, President Rodrigo Duterte signed the Bayanihan to Heal as One Act, a law that granted him additional powers to handle the pandemic. This was repealed by a follow-up law, the Bayanihan to Recover as One Act, which he signed on September 11.
More than 1.3 million cases have been reported since January 2020, resulting in more than 23,000 deaths. In terms of international rankings, it has the 2nd highest in Southeast Asia, 6th in Asia, and 24th in the world. The largest single-day increase in the number of confirmed cases was reported on April 2, 2021, when the Department of Health (DOH) announced 15,310 new cases.
The Philippines had a slightly lower testing capacity than its neighbors in Southeast Asia during the first months of the pandemic in the country. COVID-19 tests had to be taken in Australia, as the Philippines lacked testing kits. By the end of January 2020, the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine (RITM) in Muntinlupa, Metro Manila began its testing operations and became the country's first testing laboratory. 264 laboratories that are capable of detecting the SARS-CoV-2 virus have been accredited by the DOH since then. As of June 13, 2021, 223 of these have conducted 14,137,157 tests from more than 13,270,709 unique individuals.
January to February 2020
The Philippines reported its first suspected case of COVID-19 in January 2020. It involved a 5-year-old boy in Cebu, who arrived in the country on January 12 with his mother. At that time, the Philippines had no capability to conduct COVID-19 tests. The boy tested positive for "non-specific pancoronavirus assay" in the RITM. Samples from the boy were also sent to the Victorian Infectious Disease Reference Laboratory in Melbourne, Australia to determine the specific coronavirus strain. The boy tested negative for COVID-19 but several suspected cases were already reported in various parts of the country.
The first case of COVID-19 in the Philippines was confirmed on the same day. The diagnosed patient was a 38-year-old Chinese woman from Wuhan, who had arrived in Manila from Hong Kong on January 21. She was admitted to the San Lazaro Hospital in Manila on January 25 after she sought a consultation due to a mild cough. At the time of the confirmation announcement, the Chinese woman was already asymptomatic.
The second case was confirmed on February 2, a 44-year-old Chinese male who was the companion of the first case. His death on February 1 was the first recorded outside China. He suffered from coinfection with influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
On February 5, the DOH confirmed a third case in a 60-year-old Chinese woman who flew into Cebu City from Hong Kong on January 20 before she traveled to Bohol where she consulted a doctor at a private hospital on January 22, due to fever and rhinitis. Samples taken from the patient on January 24 returned a negative result, but the DOH was notified on February 3 that samples taken from the patient on January 23 tested positive for the virus. The patient upon recovery on January 31 was allowed to go home to China.
After a month of reporting no new cases, on March 6, the DOH announced two cases consisting of two Filipinos. One is a 48-year-old man with a travel history to Japan, returning on February 25 and reported symptoms on March 3. The other is a 60-year-old man with a history of hypertension and diabetes who experienced symptoms on February 25 and was admitted to a hospital on March 1 when he experienced pneumonia. He had last visited a Muslim prayer hall in San Juan. The DOH confirmed that the fifth case had no travel history outside the Philippines and is, therefore, the first case of local transmission. A sixth case was later confirmed, that of a 59-year-old woman who is the wife of the fifth case. Since then, the Department of Health recorded a continuous increase in the number of COVID-19 cases in the country.
Cases abroad involving foreigners with travel history in the Philippines were reported in early March 2020. The first three recorded cases involving an Australian, a Japanese, and a Taiwanese national had a history of visiting the Philippines in February 2020. Though it was unconfirmed whether or not they had contracted the virus while in the Philippines, speculations arose on undetected local transmissions in the country due to prior confirmation of the Philippines' first case of local transmission.
Retrospective studies have been made to determine the strain of virus responsible for causing the community outbreak of COVID-19 in the Philippines since March 2020. In May 2020, Edsel Salvaña, director of the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology and member of the IATF-EID, said that the strain responsible for the COVID-19 outbreak in the country that started in March 2020 is closely related to the strain affecting India at the time. The virus strain's family tree is said by Salvaña to have appeared in China and Australia. In a July 2020 webinar led by Cynthia Saloma, Executive Director of the UP Philippine Genome Center two hypotheses was presented regarding the source of the March 2020 outbreak in the Philippines. Genetic sequence analysis of samples collected from Philippine General Hospital patients from March 22–28 suggest that there are at least two sources of viral transmission in the Philippines; China, mainly from Shanghai and from Japan specifically through repatriated Filipino seafarers of the Diamond Princess cruise ship.
Several measures were imposed to mitigate the spread of the disease in the country, including bans on travel to mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and South Korea. On March 7, 2020, the Department of Health (DOH) raised its "Code Red Sub-Level 1," with a recommendation to the President of the Philippines to impose a "public health emergency" authorizing the DOH to mobilize resources for the procurement of safety gear and the imposition of preventive quarantine measures. On March 9, President Rodrigo Duterte issued Proclamation No. 922, declaring the country under a state of public health emergency.
On March 12, President Duterte declared "Code Red Sub-Level 2," issuing a partial lockdown on Metro Manila to prevent a nationwide spread of COVID-19. The lockdowns were expanded on March 16, placing the entirety of Luzon under an "enhanced community quarantine" (ECQ). Other local governments outside Luzon followed in implementing similar lockdowns. On March 17, President Duterte issued Proclamation No. 929, declaring the Philippines under a state of calamity for a tentative period of six months.
Additional facilities started to conduct confirmatory testing. On March 20, four facilities, namely the Southern Philippines Medical Center in Davao City, Vicente Sotto Memorial Medical Center in Cebu City, Baguio General Hospital and Medical Center in Benguet, and the San Lazaro Hospital in Manila (where the first case was admitted to), began conducting tests as well augmenting the RITM. Other facilities began operations as well in the following days.
April to May 2020
By April, COVID-19 had spread to all 17 regions of the Philippines, with the confirmation of a case in April 6 of a patient confined at a hospital in Surigao City who had been in the Caraga region since March 12 after traveling from Manila.
President Duterte on April 7 accepted the recommendation of the Inter-Agency Task Force on Emerging Infectious Diseases (IATF-EID) to extend the ECQ in Luzon until April 30.
On April 17, it was reported that the country had been able to bring down the viral disease' reproduction number to 0.65 from 1.5, which meant that the average number of people a person could infect decreased from more than one to less than one. Recent data at the time suggested that the country was doing better in "flattening the curve", but was warned of a "resurgence" and must ramp up mass testing in order to isolate cases and avoid further transmission of COVID-19.
Sometime in late April, local government units (LGUs) were no longer authorized to impose quarantine measures without the consent of the IATF-EID. Prior to that period, LGUs could impose such measures in coordination with the Department of the Interior and Local Government.
The ECQ in Luzon was extended until May 15 in some areas. This included Metro Manila, Calabarzon, Central Luzon (except Aurora), Pangasinan, and Benguet. ECQ measures were also extended in the provinces of Iloilo and Cebu as well as in Davao City. Other areas were downgraded or placed under general community quarantine (GCQ).
On May 14, Typhoon Vongfong (local name: Ambo) landed on Samar Island. In the Philippines, tens of thousands of people who were locked out due to lockdowns were faced with the dual threat of typhoons and viruses, forcing complex and dangerous evacuation. At each shelter in the central part of the Philippines, in order to prevent the spread of coronavirus infection, only half of the capacity was accepted, and a mask was required when evacuating. Typhoon Vongfong killed five people in the Philippines. By the time Vongfong landed, the number of confirmed infections was 11,618 and the number of deaths (due to infectious diseases) was 772 in the Philippines. Vongfong also approached Manila, but due to severe restrictions on going out of Manila, most people, including low-income people living in simple houses, could not go to shelters and were forced to wait at home.
After May 15, the Philippine government revised its quarantine classifications in correspondence to an earlier announcement that "Science and Economics will be considered for any changes of the lockdown measures." A modified enhanced community quarantine (MECQ) was applied to Metro Manila, Laguna and Cebu City, while a GCQ was raised to 41 provinces and 10 cities with moderate risk. Meanwhile, 40 provinces and 11 cities that were considered "low-risk areas" were supposed to be released from community quarantine measures, but were eventually upgraded to a "modified general community quarantine" (MGCQ) after a reportedly "honest mistake" from the national government and requests from respective LGUs.
Once again, the Philippine government revised its announcements and declared the entire country under GCQ, while Metro Manila, Laguna and Cebu City continued to implement an MECQ. This was temporary until guidelines of MGCQ for low-risk areas were finalized. The IATF-EID also reportedly considered the reclassification of provinces and cities in Central Luzon as "high-risk areas" under MECQ.
After receiving petitions from LGUs, the IATF-EID revised its quarantine policies yet again. Cebu City and Mandaue were placed under ECQ, while Metro Manila, Laguna, and Central Luzon (except for Aurora and Tarlac) were all under MECQ. The remaining parts of the country were placed under GCQ.
June to July 2020
Quarantine measures raised throughout the country started to loosen up on June 1, with areas formerly under ECQ transitioning to a less strict quarantine. This led to a significant rise in the number of confirmed cases, as more areas implemented a GCQ.
The official start of classes in the elementary and secondary schools which customarily begin on June was postponed.
The Bayanihan to Heal as One Act expired within this month. According to the national government, the law expired on June 25, due to its sunset provision although there were interpretations that the law expired as early as June 5. Senator Sonny Angara argued that per the Constitution "emergency powers cease upon the next adjournment of Congress" and that he considers the Bayanihan Act as an emergency measure. The national government maintains that the law was to expire on June 25. Upon expiration of the law, the national government is not anymore obliged to hand out cash subsidies to families affected by community quarantine measures.
The DOH reported an overwhelmingly high number of recoveries on July 30, as the department began its "Oplan Recovery" to clear out its discrepancies with LGU counts. Under the data reconciliation of the DOH, starting from July 15, mild cases and asymptomatic cases will be recorded as recovered after 14 days from swab collection for testing. The first set of "mass recovery" was recorded on July 30 with 37,180 recoveries. From July 30, recovery reconciliations will be reported every 15 days.
On August 2, the Philippines surpassed the 100,000 cases mark as the country continues to report around 2,000–3,000 cases a day. The country eventually had the most COVID-19 cases in Southeast Asia when it finally breached Indonesia's total number of confirmed COVID-19 cases.
A modified enhanced community quarantine (MECQ) was placed in Metro Manila, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, and Rizal from August 4 to 18 as a response to the petition of medical front liners requesting an ECQ in Metro Manila.
In early August, the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth) became involved in a corruption scandal, and its executives were alleged to have used the pandemic as a cover-up to steal billions of pesos.
The Philippine Genome Center (PGC) had detected a new variant of the SARS-CoV-2 virus originating in the Philippines. The new variant is said to be globally dominant variant than other variants of the virus at the time of detection and has been associated with the sudden increase of new cases in July.
By August 18, the DOH has identified 1,302 COVID-19 clusters throughout the country with the majority being located in Metro Manila.
September to November 2020
On September 11, President Duterte signed Republic Act No. 11494 or the Bayanihan to Recover as One Act into law. President Duterte then extended the period of the state of calamity until September 2021, through his Proclamation No. 1021 filed on September 18.
The IATF-EID also announced on September 18 that all cemeteries, columbariums, and memorial parks nationwide will be closed from October 29 to November 4 to prevent social gatherings traditionally conducted as part of the All Saints' Day observance. This is similar to the proposal made by Metro Manila mayors few days prior.
In mid-December, a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 known as Lineage B.1.1.7 was identified in the United Kingdom and is reportedly more contagious than earlier variants of the virus. This has led to several countries to restrict or ban travel from the United Kingdom, including the Philippines. The Philippines also banned travel from 19 other nations which has reported cases of more-infectious variants of SARS-CoV-2.
The DOH announced in a briefing held in January 2021 that the U.K. variant is already in the Philippines as early as December 2020. One of the samples collected by the health department on December 10 tested positive for the variant on January 21, 2021.
By January 2021, the DOH is already monitoring at least two other noted mutations aside from the U.K. variant, namely the 501.V2 variant which originated from South Africa and another variant from Malaysia.
On January 5, 2021, Hong Kong reported that they detected the U.K. variant from a 30-year-old woman who arrived in the city from the Philippines on December 22, 2020, raising concerns that the strain may already be in the Philippines. The following day, a joint DOH–PGC study said that it has not detected the U.K. variant among 305 samples collected from November to December hospital admissions involving inbound travellers who have tested positive for COVID-19 upon arrival in the country.
Epidemiologist John Wong, who is part of DOH's technical advisory working group, said in a press briefing on January 6 that if Lineage B.1.1.7 establishes itself in the Philippines, the total number of cases could rise about fifteen-fold. Wong provided two scenarios which assumed there are 20,000 cases at the beginning of the month. In the first scenario, COVID-19 has a r rate of 1.1 and the U.K. variant does not reach the Philippines which project an increase of cases to 32,000 by the end of the month. In the second scenario where Lineage B.1.1.7 does indeed establish itself in the country, the projected rise of cases could go as high as 300,000 in the same time period.
On January 13, the DOH announced that the U.K. variant has been detected in the country when a 29-year-old man from Quezon City, who arrived in the country from the United Arab Emirates on January 7, tested positive for COVID-19. 13 individuals who came in contact with the man also tested positive for COVID-19 days later. On January 22, 16 new cases associated with the U.K. variant has been confirmed in several places in country including Benguet, Laguna, and Mountain Province. A case each in Benguet and Laguna had no known contact with a confirmed case or a travel history outside the country.
On February 18, the DOH in Central Visayas announced that two mutations of SARS-CoV-2 were discovered in Cebu. The mutations were classified as "mutations under investigation" and were tagged as E484K and N501Y.
The DOH announced the detection of the South African variant of SARS-CoV-2 in Pasay on March 2. On March 12, Lineage P.1, commonly known as the Brazilian variant, was detected in the country, along with a "unique" variant originating from the Philippines which was designated as the P.3 variant, which in turn related to the aforementioned variant. Japan also detected the P.3 variant on a man who traveled from the Philippines.
As a response to the recent spike in cases, the Greater Manila Area, which the government called "NCR Plus", was placed under general community quarantine (GCQ) on March 22 and was originally set to expire on April 4. It was further intensified to the stricter enhanced community quarantine (ECQ) from March 29 to April 11, when the positivity rate of the area remained high.
On March 17, the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) reported that there have been at least 27,967 deaths caused by, or associated with, COVID-19 by the end of 2020. 19,758 of these were tagged "COVID-19 virus not identified", while 8,209 were tagged "COVID-19 virus identified". The discrepancy between the tallies of the DOH and the PSA is due to the inclusion of probable and suspect cases in the PSA's tally.
On April 2, the Philippines has logged 15,310 new cases, the highest number of daily cases since the beginning of the pandemic.
Metro Manila, having over 516,745 cases and 7,768 deaths, is considered as the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines. More than half of the total number of cases in the country was attributed to it during the first months of the pandemic. It is followed by the neighboring regions of Calabarzon and Central Luzon with 230,825 and 119,563 cases, respectively. Bangsamoro, on the other hand, has the least cases.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2020)
Front line workers
As of June 13, 2021, there have been 19,470 healthcare workers that tested positive for COVID-19. 19,235 out of these cases have already recovered, while 98 have died. In the early months of the pandemic in the country, the number of healthcare workers infected by the virus was significantly higher compared to the infection rate of other health care workers in the Western Pacific Region.
By January 2021, the SARS-CoV-2 virus had infected more than 9,381 police officers from the Philippine National Police (PNP), 1,137 military personnel from the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), and 160 members of the Presidential Security Group (PSG).
Locally stranded individuals
Of the 1,226,781 returning overseas Filipinos (ROF) reported on June 13, 2021, 1,218,566 have tested negative for the disease and have been discharged from quarantine facilities, while 18,311 have tested positive.
The Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) provides information regarding the number of Filipino nationals abroad to have contracted COVID-19. The DFA keeps an official tally of confirmed Filipino COVID-19 cases per region instead of by country. As of June 14, there have been 20,267 overseas Filipinos from 94 countries and territories that tested positive for COVID-19. This count is not included in the national tally of cases by the DOH.
The DOH previously used the designation "patients under investigation" (PUIs) and "persons under monitoring" (PUMs) to manage suspected and confirmed cases. PUIs involved individuals who had a travel history to Wuhan but by February 3, 2020, the DOH has expanded the scope of PUIs to include individuals who had a travel history to any part of China. "Persons under monitoring" are asymptomatic individuals with known history of exposure to another person with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.
On April 11, 2020, the DOH revised its terminology for PUIs; "suspect" and "probable" cases. Suspect cases involve individuals exhibiting flu-like symptoms and have a history of travel to areas with reported local transmission within 14 days before the manifestation of their symptoms. Someone with fever, cough, or shortness of breath who is above 60 years old, pregnant, with other underlying illness, or a health worker could also be considered as a suspect case. Patients admitted to a hospital due to severe symptoms caused by an undetermined lung disease could also be tagged as a suspect case. Probable cases involve persons who underwent testing with results that need further validation, and those who were tested but whose test was not facilitated in an official laboratory for a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test.
The usage of the PUM designation has since been discontinued. It was reasoned that it is assumed that the general public has been exposed to COVID-19 due to local or community transmission already ongoing in several parts of the Philippines.
By July 14, 2020, there had been 38,909 suspected cases (958 probable and 37,951 suspect) in the country.
Hospital admission policy
The DOH has issued a reminder, that Level 2 and 3 hospitals cannot deny admittance of people suspected or confirmed to have COVID-19 infection and refusal of admission is a "violation of the signed Performance Commitment and shall be dealt with by the PhilHealth accordingly". The department said that Level 2 and 3 hospitals can accommodate individuals with mild COVID-19 symptoms while individuals in a serious or critical condition may be transferred to one of the DOH's three main referral hospitals, which was increased over time to 75 designated hospitals as of April 13 with a combined bed capacity of 3,194.
On March 16, the DOH announced a revision on their protocol on hospital admission for COVID-19 positive patients. A week prior, the DOH began sending both asymptomatic patients and individuals with mild symptoms back to their homes for quarantine and continued health monitoring until they have been deemed recovered. Priority was given to high-risk patients or those with severe symptoms for hospital admission.
Drug therapy and vaccine development
Vaccine trial participation
The Philippines, with at least 45 other countries, has joined the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Solidarity trial to study the effectivity of certain drugs in treating COVID-19 patients. Dr. Marissa Alejandria of the Philippine Society of Microbiology and Infectious Disease is the Philippines' representative in the study with Health Undersecretary Maria Rosario Vergeire as the official liaison of the DOH in the multinational study.
The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) announced that it is seeking bilateral collaboration with other countries such as China, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom on endeavors related to the vaccine development for COVID-19. President Rodrigo Duterte declared a bounty for anyone who could produce a vaccine against COVID-19, an amount later increased to ₱50 million (around $1 million).
Research on other treatments
The Philippine Council on Health Research and Development at the DOST plans to distribute an undisclosed "functional food," while Presidential Spokesman Harry Roque also revealed that the DOST, Philippine General Hospital, and the Ateneo de Manila University, are collaborating with the Duke–NUS Medical School in Singapore to evaluate the feasibility of lauric acid from virgin coconut oil, Vitex negundo (known locally as Lagundi), and Euphorbia hirta (known locally as Tawa-tawa) as a "dietary regimen supplement" to help COVID-19 patients combat the disease. A "functional food" or "dietary regimen supplement" is described as similar to how tawa-tawa is also used as a remedy against dengue by incorporating it to the diet of diagnosed patients.
The Philippine government has been negotiating with various foreign vaccine manufacturers to secure the country's COVID-19 vaccine supply. These manufacturers include Sinovac Biotech (China), Gamaleya Research Institute (Russia), Moderna (United States), and Pfizer (United States). The private sector, with government sanction, has secured at least 2.6 million vaccine doses from British-Swedish manufacturer AstraZeneca. Negotiations are also ongoing with American firm Novavax which would supply at least 30 million doses from the Serum Institute of India. The country is projected to at least 60 million doses from various manufacturers in 2021.
The procurement efforts of the national government has been a subject of various controversies. Health Secretary Francisco Duque has been alleged to "dropped the ball" in a deal with Pfizer vaccine deal which could have secured 10 million doses by as early as January 2021. Plans to secure 25 million doses from China's Sinovac has also been put into scrutiny in the Congress due to its reported efficacy rate. Late stage trials of Sinovac's vaccine in Brazil reported an efficacy rate of only 50 percent. There were concerns within the Senate that the reported 50-percent efficacy rate of Sinovac's vaccine would not garner public trust and would be a waste of government funds. The Department of Health said that Sinovac's vaccine satisfy the World Health Organization standards of at least 50 percent efficacy rate while the FDA pointed out that Sinovac is yet to publish an official and published scientific report on their vaccines efficacy rate and that the clinical trial for the vaccine is conducted in different countries and the efficacy rate per country will vary; as low as 50 percent in Brazil and as high as above 90 percent in Turkey.
Authorization and usage
On December 2, 2020, President Rodrigo Duterte signed an executive order allowing the Food and Drug Administration to grant emergency-use authorization (EUA) to COVID-19 vaccines and treatments. Under certain conditions, vaccines and drugs could be approved within a month instead of undergoing the usual six-month review process. Among the conditions is for a vaccine manufacturer to obtain prior EUA in its country of origin or other countries with a "mature" regulator. The FDA announced that three vaccine manufactures namely Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and Sinovac have inquired on the process of obtaining an EUA in the Philippines. On December 23, Pfizer has applied for an EUA for its vaccine.
Duterte also said in December 2020 that some members of the military already received COVID-19 vaccine from Chinese manufacturer, Sinopharm despite the vaccine not yet officially approved by the country's health authorities. Few days later, it was reported that some members of the Presidential Security Group had also received vaccine from unknown manufacturer.
Early COVID-19 testing in the Philippines was only limited to persons with travel history to countries with cases of local transmission and those with exposure to the individuals confirmed to have COVID-19. The testing protocols were revised sometime in mid-March 2020 to give priority to the testing of any individual with severe symptoms as well as to the elderly, pregnant and immunocompromised persons with at least mild symptoms. On March 30, symptomatic healthcare workers are also considered priority for testing.
During his press briefing on May 19, Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque said that the people aimed to be tested in the government's "expanded targeted testing" are as follows: "(1) all symptomatic cases, (2) all of those coming from abroad, (3) all close contacts of confirmed cases that were found through contact tracing, and (4) all of those who tested positive on rapid antibody tests." The government is also opting to test through benchmarks, by testing 1–2% of the Philippines' entire population and 10–12% of the worst affected region in the country, which is Metro Manila.
In late March 2020, some politicians and their relatives were reportedly tested for the disease despite not showing any symptoms, causing public backlash amidst a shortage of testing kits since it was against DOH guidelines to test asymptomatic individuals. The DOH responded to the public criticism by clarifying that, while there is "no policy for VIP treatment" with regard to testing for COVID-19 and that "all specimens are being processed on a first-in, first-out basis," it "extends courtesy" to front line government officials, specifically those involved in national security and public health. Some senators who were tested claim that they used rapid antibody tests not accredited by the DOH at that time.
On January 24, 2021, after receiving a go-signal from the national government, the Philippine Red Cross announced that they will start conducting COVID-19 tests using saliva samples on January 25.
On March 9, 2020, a total of 2,000 tests has been conducted at a rate of 200 to 250 people accommodated by tests per day. The testing capacity of the Philippine government has been expanded by late March 2020. As of March 23, the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine (RITM) in Muntinlupa alone can test 600 people per day, other laboratories except for the facility of San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, can do 100 tests, while the said hospital can do 50 tests per day. By March 27, the release of test results conducted at the RITM takes five to seven days due to backlog, but the institute is committed to reducing the turnaround to two to three days. The DOH announced that the country will conduct targeted mass testing on April 14, which will be administered strictly for susceptible, probable, and high-risk patients, such as health workers, expectant mothers, and patients with other medical conditions. The country's testing continuously increased, except when RITM temporarily scaled down its operations from April 20–24 after 43 of its staffs tested positive for the virus.
The Philippines has the capability to conduct mass testing, either through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or rapid antibody testing, given the increased number and improving capacity of the country's accredited laboratories and the procurement of more testing kits. The first localized targeted mass testing began in Valenzuela, Metro Manila on April 11. Other local government units followed suit shortly after the Inter-Agency Task Force on Emerging Infectious Diseases (IATF-EID) adopted a resolution that commences 'a national government-enabled, local government unit-led, and people-centered response' to COVID-19.
The Food and Drug Administration has approved the usage of 75 PCR test kits (including one locally developed kit), 79 rapid antibody testing kits, 53 immunoassay testing kits, and 7 other testing kits as of July 30.
A locally developed PCR testing kit has been made by the National Institutes of Health at the University of the Philippines Manila. It is reportedly six times cheaper than its foreign counterparts. It was first approved for commercial use in April 2020 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) but some kits were recalled in May by its manufacturer, after it was found out that testing using the kits yields indeterminate results 30 percent at the time. A month later, the testing kit were re-approved after its defects were fixed.
Before January 30, there were no medical facilities in the country that can confirm cases of the virus. Before that date, the RITM conducted preliminary tests on suspected cases to determine if they are infected with a coronavirus but could not detect the new strain on patients. Samples from suspected cases with confirmed coronavirus infection had to be sent abroad to the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory in Melbourne, Australia, for confirmatory testing specifically for SARS-CoV-2.
The National Task Force for COVID-19 created the Task Force T3 (Test, Trace, and Treat) to establish public-private partnerships that would conduct mass testings. The task force cited the San Miguel Corporation as a pioneer in the move to open its COVID-19 testing laboratory to initially test all of its 70,000 employees. As of August 24, the country has 110 subnational laboratories capable of detecting SARS-CoV-2.
From May 29 to June 17, 2020, the DOH had included testing backlogs on their daily case bulletin. These backlogs were referred to as "late cases" and were validated by the DOH's Epidemiology Bureau after more than four days of the release of test results. Late cases were reported alongside new cases or "fresh cases", which corresponded to the cases that were validated three days within the release of test results. This change was implemented by the health department to clarify the sudden increase of cases in the country. The then-largest single-day increase on the number of confirmed cases in the country has been accounted to the backlog in late June 2020, when 2,434 new cases were announced. 1,147 out of these cases were fresh cases and the remaining 1,287 were late cases. It surpassed the backlog in late May 2020, where 1,000 out of 1,046 cases were reported to be late cases.
The national government declared a state of calamity over all of the Philippines on March 16, 2020, by virtue of Proclamation No. 929 signed by President Rodrigo Duterte. The declaration brings into effect for six months the following:
- price control of basic needs and commodities,
- granting interest-free loans,
- distribution of calamity funds,
- authorization of importation and receipt of donations, and
- hazard allowance for public health workers and government personnel in the fields of science and technology.
Following the sharp increase of confirmed cases, President Duterte called on Congress to hold special sessions on March 23 to enact the Bayanihan to Heal as One Act upon his request, which would authorize Duterte to "reallocate, realign, and reprogram" a budget of almost ₱275 billion ($5.37 billion) from the estimated ₱438 billion ($8.55 billion) national budget approved for 2020, in response to the pandemic.
In the House of Representatives, the bill was introduced as House Bill No. 6616 with House Speaker Alan Peter Cayetano of Pateros–Taguig as its principal sponsor and was defended on the floor by Deputy Speaker Luis Raymund Villafuerte of Camarines Sur's 2nd district. In the Senate of the Philippines, the bill was introduced as Senate Bill No. 1418 with Senate President Tito Sotto and Senator Pia Cayetano as its principal sponsors.
The House version of the bill passed the House of Representatives in a 284–9 vote without abstentions, while its Senate version unanimously passed the Senate. President Duterte signed the bill into law on March 25. The law was effective for three months until June 25, owing to its sunset provision.
A legislation was proposed to replace the Bayanihan Act, dubbed as the Bayanihan to Recover as One Act or Bayanihan 2. On August 20, the bicameral committee approved a reconciled version of the bill. It was signed into law by President Duterte on September 11.
The government has varying levels of lockdown and/or stay-at-home orders across all the country's local government units characterized as "community quarantines". The strictest of these measures is designated as enhanced community quarantine (ECQ). Restrictions were imposed on various aspects of society such as mass public transportation, mass gathering, and operation of businesses.
In April 2020, President Rodrigo Duterte warned anyone who violates the country's lockdown measures could be shot for causing trouble.
Travel of foreign nationals to the Philippines is banned with few exceptions since March 2020. The issuance of visas to all foreign national on March 19 was stopped and all visas already issued are voided except to those issued to families of Filipino nationals would remain valid. Three days later a travel ban was imposed on all foreign nationals, except spouses of Filipino citizens (and their children), and workers for international organizations and non-governmental organizations accredited in the country.
The government of China and the United States has pledged support to the Philippine government response against COVID-19. China announced that it would be donating medical supplies including 100,000 testing kits, 100,000 surgical masks, 10,000 N95 masks, and 10,000 sets of personal protective equipment. The United States Agency for International Development also pledged $2.7 million worth of aid to help the Philippines develop adequate testing capabilities, and ensure the availability of medical supplies through the agency's "on-the-ground partners". China's aid was received on March 21, 2020.
On March 22, 2020, the DFA said that the Philippines would be receiving a donation from Singapore consisting of 3,000 testing kits and a polymerase chain reaction machine. In early April 2020, the DFA announced it received 20 units of testing kits, capable of 1,000 tests, from Brunei. The United Arab Emirates also donated medical supplies in May 2020.
On March 28, 2020, it was disclosed that some of the test kits made in China were only 40% accurate in testing for signs of the COVID-19 on an individual suspected to be infected with the disease. The test kits were donated by a private foundation.
The National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) revised its economic growth outlook for the Philippines in 2020 from a 6.5% to 7.5% gross domestic product (GDP) growth registered in late 2019 to a 5.5% to 6.5% GDP growth, following the pandemic. The NEDA cited the decline in service exports, especially tourism. Moody's Analytics also reduced their GDP growth outlook for the country, from 5.9% in 2019 to 4.9% following the pandemic. Meanwhile, Nomura gave a bitter prediction of 1.6%, while the International Monetary Fund (IMF) gave an almost flat growth of 0.6% for this year before rebounding to 7.6% in 2021.
Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) Governor Benjamin Diokno and then-NEDA Director-General Ernesto Pernia forecast that the Philippine economy would likely enter a recession in 2020 due to the effect of the pandemic. Diokno stated that, although the first quarter is likely to grow by 3% since the Luzon-wide enhanced community quarantine only took effect near the end of the quarter, the second and third quarters would likely experience contractions in economic growth.
The Philippines' real GDP contracted by 0.2% in the first quarter of 2020, the first contraction since the fourth quarter of 1998, a year after the Asian financial crisis, with a technical recession deemed "likely" to be posted within 2020.
On the other hand, the BSP records an inflation rate of 2.2% in April and 2.5% in March compared from 2.6% in February and 2.9% in January. The average rate of 2.6% for the period of January to April 2020 is also 1% lower compared to the inflation rate from the same period in the previous year. The event was primarily and hugely caused by lower oil prices and transportation costs, even if the prices of food supplies and alcoholic beverages and tobacco slightly rose.
In terms of the amount of economic loss that the Philippines is projected to suffer, NEDA gave a value of up to ₱2.0 trillion, or equivalent to about 9.4% of 2020 nominal GDP, while the Philippine Institute for Development Studies estimates at a maximum of ₱2.5 trillion. International organizations also gave their predictions, with the Friedrich Naumann Foundation envisioning a ₱273-billion loss and the Europe Solidaire Sans Frontières envisioning a combined loss of more than ₱1 trillion just in the month of April.
The pandemic also affected the goal of the Philippines to be among the countries with upper-middle-income country status by nominal GNI per capita. Before his resignation, Pernia said that the country will still achieve this goal by 2020, while his replacement, acting NEDA Director-General Karl Kendrick Chua, said last May that this goal will be achieved in 2022. Daniel Ross of Bloomberg also stated that the Philippines, which is "an economic star poised to outpace long-time regional winners such as China, Indonesia and India," will face hindrances amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.
On March 9, 2020, the Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE) index lost 457.77 points or 6.76%, its steepest decline since the financial crisis of 2007–08. The following day, shares plunged by 6.23% to ₱5,957.35 (US$117.54), settling below the 6,000 level benchmark and entering the bear market territory. The mining and oil industries were the most affected with a 9.05% drop, followed by holding companies with a 6.93% drop. The PSE's circuit breaker mechanism was invoked for the second time since the measure's introduction in 2008 halting trade for 15 minutes.
The Philippines' GDP saw its worst contraction since World War II posting a growth of −9.5% for 2020 according to the Philippine Statistics Authority records from 1947. The last full-year contraction was in 1998 amidst the Asian financial crisis where the GDP grew by −0.5%. The 2020 contraction was also worse than the – 7% contraction in 1984.
In terms of unemployment rate, the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) records an estimated unemployment rate of 5.3% in January 2020, which is the same with January 2019. Moody's Analytics puts its estimate at 5.3% for the first quarter of 2020, while Nomura expects 7.5% for Q1 and a 13-year high of 8% in Q2 of this year. Meanwhile, the IMF stated that the unemployment rate in the country would be 6.2% for this year compared to 5.1% in 2019. A higher rate of 6.8% for this year was also predicted by S&P Global Ratings.
The Trade Union Congress of the Philippines estimates that around 7,000 people may lose jobs within the first half of 2020 due to the pandemic. Economists from the Ateneo de Manila University estimate that 57% of the country's workforce may be displaced within the end of the first quarter of 2020. It comprises around 15 million workers in Luzon that were laid off due to the enhanced community quarantine, around four million of whom are based in Metro Manila, as well as an estimated 4.3 million workers in Visayas and another 4.3 million in Mindanao that were laid off due to quarantine restrictions.
In March, the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) stated that 1.05 million workers were displaced due to the pandemic, even after they released guidelines for employers in handling the impact of COVID-19.
Some German businesses that are based in the country also reported to reduce investments in the country, but will continue to maintain their employees.
In early 2021, there were reports that some employers are requiring its workers to get vaccinated before allowing them to physically report for work, with some workers threatened to be placed on floating status if they are not able to comply. DOLE released a statement that such practice is illegal and workers should be only vaccinated on a voluntary basis.
Food service and supply
Following directives from the Philippine government, several fast food and restaurant chains suspended dine-in services and restricted operations to take-out and delivery. Online food ordering services such as GrabFood and Foodpanda temporarily halted during the enhanced community quarantine but eventually resumed operations in Luzon during the quarantine period.
Production and distribution
Food production and distribution slowed down during the pandemic, especially in Luzon, primarily due to the lack of financial assistance and inaccessibility of transportation resulting from community quarantine measures being implemented across numerous local governments. The delivery of fresh vegetables from the province of Benguet, which supplies the country with over 80 percent of the country's highland vegetable requirements, was halted due to the implementation of an "extreme enhanced" community quarantine in La Trinidad. Local government officials advised local rice farmers to sell their harvests to them, assuring them that they would help distribute it to their respective communities amid the border restrictions.
On March 27, Vietnam announced that it would reduce its production and exportation of rice due to food security amid the pandemic. The Philippines, the largest importer of rice in the world, imports 25% of its rice from Vietnam. Agriculture Secretary William Dar assured that there would be "no shortage of the staple during the duration of the enhanced community quarantine and beyond" as "harvest [is] already coming in." Dar also stated the Department of Agriculture's plans to initiate early planting in the Cagayan Valley and Central Luzon, two of the largest rice producers in the country, ahead of the third quarter of 2020.
Production of canned fish in the country was adversely affected with Zamboanga City, which accounts for 85% of the country's canned fish industry, announcing it would reduce the production of canned fish in the Philippines by 50–60% due to difficulties encountered following the implementation of a city-wide lockdown.
The Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR) ordered the suspension of all gaming operations in the country, including the land-based casinos in Entertainment City and Newport City, on March 15. The gaming regulator also announced that they were limiting the operations of Philippine offshore gaming operations in the region.
Illegal gambling activities conducted online, including online cockfighting or e-sabong, through social media has proliferated amidst the pandemic. PAGCOR has aimed to regulate online cockfighting, as part of efforts to expand the source of funds for the government.
A shortage of medical masks was reported in various parts of the country due to concerns over the pandemic. RITM director Celia Carlos urged the public against hoarding masks to ensure ample supply for medical workers directly dealing with patients suspected or confirmed to have COVID-19 infection. The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), in cooperation with the Philippine National Police, are acting against reports of traders hoarding face masks and selling said item at an overpriced rate. The DTI has also directed its Philippine International Trading Corp. to import 5 million masks from overseas. Medtecs International Corp. Ltd., the sole manufacturer of medical mask in the country, has committed to supply the government through the DTI. However, due of the Philippine procurement law, local manufacturers are having difficulty competing with foreign suppliers that have a lower cost but may have substandard quality.
Doctors in the Philippines have deplored the shortages in personal protective equipment amid the pandemic, and was even cited as the cause of high infection rate and death rate of healthcare workers in the country. To address this issue, the Philippine government continues to procure and stockpile such equipment, as the pandemic is expected to last until 2021.
According to Health Undersecretary Maria Rosario Vergeire, the country also issued requests for ventilators and respirators that will be used for severe or critical COVID-19 patients, as there are reported shortages of these equipment.
According to the Philippine Retailers Association, the "total retail environment" saw a decline of 30–50%. SM Investments, the country's largest retailer, saw a decline of 10–20% in domestic sales. Despite the decline, most retail stores that provide essential services, including supermarkets, convenience stores, hardware stores, and pharmacies, remained open across the country to sustain consumers while other establishments at malls closed down. Such retail stores, however, imposed strict social distancing measures with some supermarkets only allowing 50 customers inside at a time and placing stickers on the floor to indicate that customers must stand one meter apart from each other. Stores were also regularly disinfected and customers were required to undergo a temperature check before entering. In the Greater Manila Area, several online grocers continued to operate, but with limited delivery slots. After most industries in the country being closed for two months, many stores in the retail sector are already allowed to open under revised guidelines of eased community quarantines.
Panic buying and hoarding became rampant across the country, especially with essential goods such as food and sanitation products. The Philippine Amalgamated Supermarkets Association reported that the purchases of masks, alcohol, and other personal hygiene products in supermarkets across the country had already surged, urging the public against panic buying.
Economic think-tank Fitch Solutions forecasts that the consumer and retail sector, especially non-essential businesses, would be one of the hardest-hit sectors in the Philippines as it loses sales revenue for an entire month due to the Luzon enhanced community quarantine (Luzon accounts for 73% of the country's GDP). Fitch Solutions forecasts the household final consumption expenditure for the country in 2020 to expand by 6.7% year-over-year, which was adjusted from a "pre-coronavirus projection" for 2020 of 7% growth year-over-year.
Mall operators across the country, such as Ayala, Megaworld, SM, Robinsons, and Vista, initially shortened the operating hours of its malls to comply with government quarantine measures. While doing so, malls were asked to implement social distancing measures; for example, several malls implemented a "single-seat gap" policy in cinemas, in which moviegoers were required to sit one seat apart from each other. However, most malls in the country have since limited its operations to establishments providing essential services, particularly groceries, banks, and hardware stores.
Local airlines AirAsia, Philippine Airlines, and Cebu Pacific suspended flights in response to the imposition of travel bans by the Philippine government and some foreign governments. The airlines have suspended flights as early as February 2, 2020, covering routes involving destinations in China, Hong Kong and Macau. At least Philippine Airlines has suspended all of its flights by March 2020, although the airline has announced plans to resume selected flights by June 1, 2020.
The 2020 census of population and housing in the Philippines was originally scheduled in May but was postponed indefinitely due to the increasing number of cases in the country. As the quarantine measures began to ease, the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) started to conduct the census in September, despite the risk of spreading the virus.
2019–20 academic year
Suspension of classes began as early as March 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. On March 16, the Department of Education (DepEd) issued guidelines prohibiting public schools in areas with suspended classes from administering the final examinations of students and instead compute the students' final grades for the 2019–20 academic year based on "their current academic standing." and directed schools in other areas to administer final examinations within that week on a "staggered basis" and for teachers and students to observe social distancing measures.
Some universities resorted to implementing online learning alternatives. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) also advised institutions of higher education to implement distance education methods of learning for its classes, such as the use of educational technology, to maximize the academic term despite the suspensions; However, following the announcement of the enhanced community quarantine in Luzon and other areas, colleges and universities suspended mandatory online classes in consideration of the welfare of its students, faculty, and staff. Academic administration offices continued to operate with a skeleton crew, while other offices in colleges and universities operated through telecommuting arrangements. Some schools, however, continued to hold online classes, and in response, several student groups appealed to CHED to suspend mandatory online classes in consideration of the logistical limitations and well-being of a majority of students.
2020–21 academic year
The official start of classes for the 2020–21 school year could only be legally set as late as the last day of August. However, Republic Act No. 11480 was signed into law to allow the start of classes to be set beyond August. The Department of Education has moved the opening of classes to October 5, 2020. Earlier in June, officials reported that schools will not open until a vaccine is available, though remote learning should resume at the end of August.
CHED left the decision of starting semesters to college administrators, although urged them to shift into the new semestral calendar and start 'flexible classes' in August and face-to-face classes in September as well. Certain measures have been proposed to be implemented during the opening of classes, such as the airing of lectures on television and radio, a "mandatory face mask policy," maintaining physical distancing, and limiting class sizes.
The NEDA reported that the coronavirus pandemic would incur a ₱22.7 billion ($448 million) monthly loss of tourism revenue for the Philippines and the impact of the pandemic could last around five to six months based from past experiences from the SARS, H1N1, and the MERS outbreaks. Over 5,200 flights covering two months, which was to be serviced by member airlines of the Air-Carriers Association of the Philippines, were canceled. Meanwhile, the Asian Development Bank predicts a ₱111 billion ($2.2 billion) loss in the tourism sector, while the Tourism Congress of the Philippines estimates the figures at around ₱20 billion ($395 thousand), considering that 12.7% of the Philippines' GDP is generated through tourism. Europe Solidaire Sans Frontières also reported potential damage in Philippine tourism.
The Philippine Shopping Festival, a nationwide mall sale event backed by the Department of Tourism originally scheduled on March 1–31, 2020, was postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Several local festivals across the country were also either canceled or postponed due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
The impact of COVID-19 in prisons in the Philippines is projected to be "dangerous," since its jails have the highest occupancy rate in the world that stands at 534%. The Bureau of Jail Management and Penology has temporarily suspended the acceptance of visitors in prisons it manages as early as March 2020, encouraging would-be visitors to avail the e-dalaw service which would allow inmates to communicate with relatives online.
Certain human rights groups raised their concerns on the issue. Human Rights Watch flagged the cases of dying inmates in prison cells and called for the freedom of minor offenders, the elderly, and the ill. Karapatan and KAPATID both called for the release of political prisoners that belongs to vulnerable sector as a way to decongest Philippine jails amidst COVID-19 pandemic.
A group of 22 high-risk prisoners (either of old age, immunocompromised, or pregnant) also asked for temporary liberty due to 'humanitarian grounds' since "hellish prison conditions in the Philippines make the detainees vulnerable to COVID-19." All of the 22 prisoners, five of which are consultants of New Peoples' Army (NPA), are asking to be allowed to post bail or to be released under personal recognizance. They are represented by Public Interest Law Center (PILC) and the National Union of People's Lawyers (NUPL). Similarly, one of the suspects in the death of Horacio "Atio" Castillo III pleaded for freedom under the guise of the COVID-19's threat.
In mid-April, the Supreme Court (SC) reiterated its 2014 circular, which allows the temporary freedom of "persons deprived of liberty" who were able to serve their minimum penalty during an ongoing trial or those whose trial are paused due to lack of witnesses. Chief Justice Diosdado Peralta and Justice Secretary Menardo Guevarra also signed resolutions that relaxes bail prices for indigent inmates and requirements to avail parole and executive clemency. On May 2, Associate Justice Mario Victor Leonen announced that there were 9,731 detainees released temporarily by the SC from March 17 to April 29 as a way to alleviate the country's overcrowding prisons.
Entertainment and media
The DOH issued an advisory for the cancellation of large public events and mass gatherings, such as concerts, until further notice to minimize the risk of spreading the disease. This prompted several local and international artists to either cancel or postpone their scheduled concerts and fan meets.
Local television networks temporarily stopped admitting live audiences for their television shows, including variety shows Eat Bulaga! on GMA Network as well as It's Showtime and ASAP on ABS-CBN. On March 13, both ABS-CBN and GMA announced that they would suspend productions on their drama shows as well as other entertainment programs by March 15, replacing affected programs with reruns of previous series or extended newscast runs.
Broadcast radio companies are also curtailing their operations during the quarantine period, either by shortening their broadcast hours and/or suspending regular programming in favor of "special broadcasts".
The Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines has issued preventive guidelines against the pandemic through the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP). In January 2020, the CBCP issued a liturgical guideline which urges Mass attendees to "practice ordinarily" the receiving of communion by hand, and avoid holding hands while praying the Lord's Prayer during Mass. As a spiritual measure against the spread of the disease, the CBCP also composed an oratio imperata (obligatory prayer) which is to be recited during Mass. In February 2020, the CBCP issued a second liturgical guideline in anticipation of the Lenten season. The bishops suggested that during Ash Wednesday, ashes would be sprinkled on the faithfuls' head instead of the customary marking of the forehead with a cross to minimize body contact. The CBCP also urged people to refrain from kissing or touching the cross for veneration during Good Friday, particularly the celebration of the Passion of Jesus. They suggested genuflection or bowing as an alternative to the practice. Dioceses across the country have suspended the public celebration of Masses. On April 8, Holy Wednesday, the CBCP organized an interfaith prayer service against the spread of the coronavirus, which was televised nationwide.
Other Christian denominations and organizations, such as the Iglesia ni Cristo and the Jehovah's Witnesses, have suspended live worship services and resorted to organizing worship services through online platforms. The Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches, an organization composed of Evangelical and Protestant church member organizations in the country, also adopted similar measures.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints directed missionaries assigned in the Philippines who are not native to the country to move out for temporary reassignment to another country. They were ordered to self-quarantine in their new homes for 14 days.
The Islamic community in the Philippines has also adopted measures against COVID-19. The Regional Darul Ifta' of Bangsamoro suspended all congregational prayers in the Bangsamoro region from March 19 to April 10.
Several ongoing or scheduled seasons of sports leagues in the Philippines, such as the ASEAN Basketball League, Maharlika Pilipinas Basketball League, Philippine Basketball Association, National Basketball League, Philippines Football League, and Philippine Super Liga, were suspended. Upcoming sporting competitions hosted by the country, specifically the Badminton Asia Championships (initially scheduled to be hosted in Wuhan but was moved to Manila) and the AFF Women's Championship, were postponed. Regional qualification games involving Philippine national teams were likewise postponed.
On April 29, 2020, the Philippine Sports Commission have announced that they will cancel all of their sporting events until December 2020 to comply with government directives that prohibit mass gathering events. This meant that the Palarong Pambansa in Marikina, the Philippine National Games, and the ASEAN Para Games were all cancelled.
The Commission on Elections has suspended the nationwide voter registration on March 10 until the end of the month due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The registration period began on January 20, 2020, and is scheduled to run until September 30, 2021. The suspension was later extended to last until the end of April. The issuance of voter's certification is also suspended until further notice. The next national elections scheduled in the Philippines are in May 2022. The plebiscite to ratify legislation that proposes the partition of Palawan into three smaller provinces scheduled for May 2020 was also delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Misinformation and hoaxes
After the initial outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines, conspiracy theories, misinformation, and disinformation emerged online regarding the origin, scale, prevention, treatment, and various other aspects of the disease. Among these hoaxes include:
- SARS-CoV-2 being a type of rabies along with advice to not eat bats. The virus is in the coronavirus family and is unrelated to rabies.
- Boiled ginger as a cure for COVID-19. There is no concrete scientific proof for this claim. Mark Pasayan, a doctor from the Philippine Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases says that while a cold weather may make one more susceptible to the COVID-19 infection, the intake of hot or cold food does not correlate with the prevention and treatment of the disease.
- In the first week of February, the government supposedly imposed a 14-day quarantine for travelers coming from 20 countries. An infographic supporting the claim was circulated purportedly from the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG). On February 7, the DILG denied the claim. At that time the quarantine measure is only being imposed from travelers from three territories: Mainland China, Macau, and Hong Kong.
- Viral posts with various claims such as avoidance of eating ice cream and cold food, and encouraging exposure to sunlight as a means of prevention against COVID-19 purportedly from UNICEF. UNICEF Philippines has issued a statement disassociating itself from the posts peddling false and misleading information.
- The DOH supposedly issuing an advisory on the proliferation of fake cigarettes which is claimed to be a method of transmission of COVID-19. The government agency did not issue such advisory.
- A widely circulated graphic on social media claimed that gargling warm water with salt would "eliminate the virus." DOH Undersecretary Eric Domingo said that while the saline water has been a recognized home treatment for symptoms of a sore throat for many generations, there is no evidence suggesting its capability to kill the virus.
- A supposed video spread on the internet about how bananas can cure COVID-19. This information was even advocated by the presidential Spokesperson Salvador Panelo. However, DOH Spokesperson Ma. Rosario Vergeire debunked this claim, saying that while bananas is a healthy food source, there are no conclusive evidences yet about its effectivity against coronavirus.
- On March 21, 2020, several netizens on Facebook shared misleading posts about the Philippine Air Force and the Philippine National Police using helicopters to spray pesticides among major cities in an effort to disinfect the virus. The Armed Forces of the Philippines, the Philippine National Police, the Department of Health, and the Inter-Agency Task Force for the Management of Emerging Infectious Diseases (IATF-EID) have refuted these claims. Furthermore, the Department of Health added on its official website that there is no evidence that pesticide sprays can kill the Coronavirus.
- The Palace also disproved posts circulating online about the declaration of "Total Lockdown" nationwide and warned its peddlers of imminent arrest. At the time of the circulation, the enhanced community quarantine in Luzon was already in effect.
- A controversial statement from President Rodrigo Duterte claiming that gasoline may be used as a disinfectant in absence of hand sanitizers has been refuted by the Integrated Chemists of the Philippines and warned the public that gasoline is harmful to the body especially if inhaled.
The DOH has advised against spreading misinformation and unverified claims concerning the pandemic.
The Philippine National Police has taken action against the spread of misinformation related to the pandemic and has warned the public that misinformation purveyors could be charged for violating Presidential Decree no. 90 for "declaring local rumor, mongering and spreading false information". In the case of misinformation circulated online, violators could be charged for violating the Cybercrime Prevention Act which has a maximum penalty of imprisonment for 12 years. The Bayanihan to Heal as One Act also punishes fake news peddlers of two months jail time or fine of up to ₱1 million.
According to the DOH, the cremation of the body of the first confirmed COVID-19 death in the Philippines has been hampered by the proliferation of misinformation.
|Note: Data as of June 7, 2021; 4:00 p.m. (PhST)|
Source: Department of Health's COVID-19 Case Tracker
In the table below, the general lethality of COVID-19 in the Philippines is presently given around 1.7%, implying around 2 deaths and 98 potential survivors per 100 cases. To compare the three well-known coronavirus diseases, the case fatality rate of the 2002 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak was higher at 11%, while that of the 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak was much higher at 36%.
- Breakdown of confirmed cases is according to the COVID-19 Tracker of the Department of Health (DOH). Take note that the map may not reflect all affected localities. The methodology on how COVID-19 patients are recorded in a particular locality in the tracker is unclear and may vary. Cases under validation including cases among repatriates may not reflect on the map.
- Other independent cities' cases are grouped with their geographically and statistically associated provinces (e.g. Puerto Princesa with Palawan, Zamboanga City with non-contiguous Zamboanga del Sur).
- Cotabato City's cases are still considered as cases under the Soccsksargen region despite being part of Bangsamoro since the city has not yet formally been turned over to the Bangsamoro regional government at the time records began. For the purpose of the map, its cases are considered part of Maguindanao.
- The patient arrived in the Philippines from Wuhan, China via Hong Kong on January 21 and sought consultation on January 25 after experiencing a mild cough.
- The first imposition of the ECQ in Luzon encompassed the whole island group.
- Breakdown of confirmed cases by region is according to the COVID-19 Tracker of the Department of Health (DOH). Cases in Cotabato City, a part of Bangsamoro, is under the Soccsksargen region since the city has not yet formally been turned over to the Bangsamoro regional government.
- "Be the Solution to COVID-19". BIDA is an acronym for "bawal walang mask" ("no wearing of face mask is prohibited"), "i-sanitize ang mga kamay" ("sanitize hands"), "dumistansya ng isang metro" ("observe distancing of one meter"), and "alamin ang tamang impormasyon" ("be correctly informed").
- 2009 swine flu pandemic in the Philippines
- 2019–2021 polio outbreak in the Philippines
- 2019 measles outbreak in the Philippines
- "COVID-19 Tracker". Department of Health. Department of Health. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
- "Beat COVID-19 Situationer #413.pdf". Department of Health (Philippines). June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
- "Philippines confirms first case of new coronavirus". ABS-CBN News. January 30, 2020. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
- "DOH recommends declaration of public health emergency after COVID-19 local transmission". GMA News. March 7, 2020. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
- Ramzy, Austin; May, Tiffany (February 2, 2020). "Philippines Reports First Coronavirus Death Outside China". The New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
- "Coronavirus: What we know about first death outside China". Rappler. Agence France-Presse. February 2, 2020. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
- "Coronavirus: What we know about first death outside China". ABS-CBN News. Agence France-Presse. February 2, 2020. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
- "San Juan prayer hall frequented by coronavirus patient temporarily closed". CNN Philippines. March 6, 2020. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- "Greenhills Mall implements 'precautionary measures' vs coronavirus". ABS-CBN News. March 6, 2020. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- "Batanes records first COVID-19 case". CNN Philippines. September 29, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
- Olanday, Dan; Rigby, Jennifer (July 11, 2020). "Inside the world's longest and strictest coronavirus lockdown in the Philippines". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved August 26, 2020.
- "The Philippines' fierce lockdown drags on, despite uncertain benefits". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved August 26, 2020.
- Rey, Aika (June 2, 2020). "Bayanihan Act effective until June 5, new law underway". Rappler. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
- "COVID-19". endcov.ph. University of the Philippines. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
- "COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
- Casilao, Joahna Lei (April 2, 2021). "Philippines logs new all-time high 15,310 COVID-19 cases". GMA News. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
- Casilao, Joahna Lei (June 27, 2020). "Philippines' biggest molecular lab opens as COVID-19 testing center -PRC". GMA News. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
- Malindog-Uy, Anna (May 31, 2020). "Is The Philippines Winning Its COVID-19 Fight?". The ASEAN Post. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
- Paris, Janella (January 29, 2020). "Philippines now has capability to test samples for novel coronavirus – Duque". Rappler. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
- Meniano, Sarwell (January 30, 2020). "Suspected nCoV carrier in Tacloban still under close watch". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
- Sabillo, Kristine. "RITM can now run 1,000 tests daily; turnaround time shortened to 48–72 hours". Retrieved June 27, 2020.
- "LICENSED COVID-19 TESTING LABORATORIES IN THE PHILIPPINES". Department of Health (Philippines). June 19, 2021. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
- Crisostomo, Sheila (January 22, 2020). "DOH probing Philippines' 1st suspected case of coronavirus". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "Why nCoV fatality's infection was confirmed later than Philippines' first case". GMA News. February 3, 2020. Archived from the original on February 3, 2020. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
"Since we (RITM) already had the capability for testing Thursday last week, we decided to test the sample of the other PUIs sent to us," RITM director Dr. Celia Carlos said in a separate press briefing in Malacañang.
- Panganiban-Perez, Tina (January 31, 2020). "RITM now running nCoV tests – DOH spox". GMA News. Archived from the original on February 2, 2020. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- Arcilla, Jan (January 26, 2020). "DoH tracks suspected new cases of 2019-nCoV". The Manila Times. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- Magsino, Dona (January 31, 2020). "Companion of first nCoV patient in Philippines also at San Lazaro —DOH". GMA News. Archived from the original on January 31, 2020. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
- "First coronavirus death outside China reported in Philippines". NBC News. February 2, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
- "DOH confirms 3rd 2019-nCoV ARD Case iN PH". Department of Health (Philippines). February 5, 2020. Archived from the original on February 5, 2020. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- Punzalan, Jamaine (March 6, 2020). "Philippines' new coronavirus cases now at 5, including potential local transmission". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
- "CODE RED: Philippines' coronavirus cases rise to 6, DOH confirms local transmission". ABS-CBN News. March 7, 2020. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
- Ornedo, Julia Mari (March 30, 2020). "Philippines' COVID-19 death toll rises to 78; cases soar to 1,546". GMA News. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- Malasig, Jeline (March 6, 2020). "More questions raised as foreigners with travel history to Philippines test positive for COVID-19". InterAksyon. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "DOH REPORTS 1 COVID DEATH AND 3 NEW CASES". Department of Health. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- "Two people who visited PH tested positive for COVID-19 in Australia". CNN Philippines.
- "Coronavirus strain in PH likely to have originated from India, expert says". ABS-CBN. May 21, 2020. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- Parrocha, Azer (March 9, 2020). "State of public health emergency declared in PH". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved March 9, 2020.
- "Code Red Sub-Level 2: Duterte announces 'community quarantine' vs. COVID-19". GMA News. March 12, 2020. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
- "Duterte declares lockdown of Metro Manila for 30 days due to COVID-19". CNN Philippines. March 12, 2020. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
- Lopez, Virgil (March 16, 2020). "Duterte orders lockdown of entire Luzon due to COVID-19 threat". GMA News. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Kabiling, Genalyn (March 17, 2020). "Duterte declares state of calamity over PH for next 6 months amid rise in COVID-19 cases". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
- Modesto, Catherine (March 20, 2020). "How COVID-19 testing is conducted in PH". CNN Philippines. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- Tomacruz, Sofia (March 25, 2020). "Duterte signs law granting himself special powers to address coronavirus outbreak". Rappler. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
- Aguilar, Krissy (March 25, 2020). "Duterte signs law on special powers vs COVID-19". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
- "Caraga put under enhanced quarantine after confirming region's first COVID-19 case". CNN Philippines. April 6, 2020. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- "Caraga reports first COVID-19 case". CNN Philippines. April 6, 2020. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- Panganiban, Chris (April 6, 2020). "Caraga region no longer COVID-19 free". MindaNews. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- "Duterte approves Luzon-wide community quarantine until April 30". The Philippine Star. April 7, 2020. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- "Filipinos start to 'flatten curve' but expert warns vs. 'resurgence' of COVID-19 cases if they let their guard down". CNN Philippines. April 17, 2020. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
- "Recent data suggests the Philippines is doing better in flattening the curve". ABS-CBN News. April 19, 2020. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
- Chavez, Chito (April 24, 2020). "LGUs need go signal from IATF to impose lockdowns". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- "Philippines extends lockdown of Manila, high-risk areas until May 15". Kyodo News. April 24, 2020.
- Lopez, Virgil (April 28, 2020). "Philippines revises list of areas under ECQ from May 1 to 15". GMA News.
- "Duterte extends enhanced community quarantine in NCR, 7 other 'high-risk' areas". GMA News. April 24, 2020. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
- Lopez, Virgil (April 24, 2020). "Areas under enhanced community quarantine, general community quarantine". GMA News.
- Gita-Carlos, Ruth Abbey (May 1, 2020). "Duterte issues EO on ECQ, GCQ implementation". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- "コロナ外出制限下のフィリピンを台風直撃、二重の脅威に直面する避難者". www.msn.com (in Japanese). Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- "台風がフィリピン上陸、新型コロナ厳戒下で数万人が避難". CNN.co.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- "コロナ外出制限下のフィリピンを台風直撃、二重の脅威に直面する避難者". www.afpbb.com (in Japanese). Retrieved May 14, 2020.
- "台風1号がマニラ接近も外出制限で避難できず 5月17~18日に台湾や沖縄に接近見込み | 社会 | 全国のニュース". 福井新聞ONLINE (in Japanese). Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- "台風１号、マニラに接近 厳格な外出制限で避難できず". Sanyo News (in Japanese). May 15, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
- "'Science, economics' to determine possible modification of COVID-19 lockdown – Roque". CNN Philippines. May 4, 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
- Aurelio, Julie (May 13, 2020). "Eased lockdown till May 31 in Metro Manila, Cebu City, Laguna". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
- Ranada, Pia (May 12, 2020). "Metro Manila, Cebu City, Laguna under 'modified' ECQ until May 31". Rappler. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
- Esguerra, Darryl John (May 13, 2020). "BREAKING: Govt recalls lifting of coronavirus lockdown in low-risk areas". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
- Parrocha, Azer (May 14, 2020). "GCQ, not MGCQ, to be implemented in low-risk Covid-19 area". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- Gita-Carlos, Ruth Abbey (May 15, 2020). "IATF-EID reviews appeals to include provinces under MECQ". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- Hallare, Katrina (May 16, 2020). "Cebu City, Mandaue City under ECQ; more Luzon provinces now MECQ until May 31". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- Aguilar, Krissy (August 14, 2020). "DepEd moves opening of classes to October 5". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
- Marquez, Consuelo (June 6, 2020). "Bayanihan Law effective until June 25 due to 'sunset provision'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 23, 2020.
- "DOH tags 38K recoveries from Oplan Recovery". PTV News. Department of Health. July 30, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2020.
- Crisostomo, Sheila (August 3, 2020). "COVID-19 cases breach 100,000". The Philippine Star. Retrieved August 17, 2020.
- Robles, Raissa (August 19, 2020). "In Philippines, coronavirus crisis led to massive PhilHealth corruption, whistle-blowers claim". South China Morning Post. Retrieved August 23, 2020.
- Ornedo, Julia Mari (August 16, 2020). "More infectious, dominant novel coronavirus strain detected in Philippines". GMA News. Retrieved August 17, 2020.
- "DOH identifies 27 more COVID-19 clusters, total now at 1,302". Retrieved August 26, 2020.
- "Duterte signs P165.5-B Bayanihan 2 law". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
- Merez, Arianne (September 18, 2020). "Duterte places Philippines under state of calamity until September 12, 2021". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
- "Undas 2020: Cemeteries, columbariums closed from Oct. 29 to Nov. 4". CNN Philippines. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
- "Undas 2020: NCR mayors want cemeteries closed for a week". CNN Philippines. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
- Mocon-Ciriaco, Claudeth (September 30, 2020). "DOH: Batanes no longer Covid-free, all PHL provinces now have Covid cases". BusinessMirror. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
- Hallare, Katrina; Visaya, Villamor Jr. (September 29, 2020). "LSI is Batanes' 1st COVID-19 case". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
- Higgins-Dunn, Noah (December 19, 2020). "The U.K. has identified a new Covid-19 strain that spreads more quickly. Here's what they know". CNBC. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Esguerra, Darryl John (December 13, 2020). "PH orders temporary ban on UK travellers amid new COVID-19 variant". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- "Philippines bans travellers from 20 nations with new Covid-19 strain". The Straits Times. December 29, 2020. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Gregorio, Xave (January 23, 2021). "New coronavirus variant in Philippines as early as December 10". The Philippine Star. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- Sabillo, Kristine (January 8, 2021). "PH gov't now monitoring 3 new COVID-19 variants". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
- News, ABS-CBN (January 5, 2021). "DOH looking into report HK resident from Manila tested positive for COVID-19 variant". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Magsambol, Bonz. "Expert says new COVID-19 variant may spike PH cases by 15-fold". Rappler. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Sabillo, Kristine (January 13, 2021). "PH detects new COVID variant – DOH". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
- Tan, Lara (January 20, 2021). "13 contacts of Filipino with UK variant test positive for COVID-19". CNN Philippines. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
- Yumol, David Tristan (January 22, 2021). "16 new cases of UK COVID-19 variant detected in PH". CNN Philippines. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- "PH authorizes Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use". CNN Philippines. January 14, 2021. Retrieved January 14, 2021.
- Erram, Morexette Marie B. (February 18, 2021). "2 unknown mutations of SARS-CoV-2 found in Cebu". Cebu Daily News. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 18, 2021. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
- Ropero, Gillan (March 2, 2021). "Philippines detects first cases of South Africa COVID-19 variant". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
- Santos, Elmor (March 13, 2021). "DOH reports COVID-19 variant 'unique' to PH, first case of Brazil variant". CNN Philippines. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
- Cordero, Ted (March 13, 2021). "New coronavirus variant found in Japan unique to Philippines —expert". GMA News. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
- Magsambol, Bonz (March 13, 2021). "Japan detects new COVID-19 variant in traveler from PH". Rappler. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
- "Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, and Rizal revert to GCQ until April 4 as COVID-19 cases continue to rise". CNN Philippines. March 21, 2021. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
- "IATF Resolution 103" (PDF).
- "Metro Manila, four provinces shift to stricter ECQ for one week". CNN Philippines. March 27, 2021. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
- "DOH: PSA's 27k COVID death count for 2020 include suspect, probable cases". ABS-CBN News. March 17, 2021. Retrieved April 17, 2021.
- Lalu, Gabriel Pabico (April 2, 2021). "Highest number ever: PH logs 15,310 new COVID-19 cases". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
- Robles, Raissa (March 28, 2021). "Philippines locks down capital ahead of Easter as virus cases surge". South China Morning Post. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
- Cabico, Gaea Katreena (April 5, 2021). "DOH: COVID-19 transmission in Metro Manila not yet slowing down". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
- "WHO works with PH on 'worrisome' COVID-19 infection rate of frontliners". CNN Philippines. April 22, 2020. Retrieved May 10, 2020.
- Caliwan, Christopher Lloyd. "PNP's Covid-19 recovery tally now over 9K". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved January 14, 2021.
- Sadongdong, Martin (August 9, 2020). "Navy captain dies due to COVID-19 infection". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
- Lopez, Virgil (May 19, 2020). "160 PSG members test positive for COVID-19 via rapid test; Duterte shielded, PSG assures". GMA News. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
- "Eastern Visayas solons call for review of 'Hatid Probinsya' program amid rising COVID-19 cases". GMA News. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- "Returning LSIs not to blame for spike in COVID-19 cases in provinces, says DOH". GMA News. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- "COVID-19 emerging hotspots in Cebu, Ormoc, Leyte, Samar, says DOH". GMA News. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- "Number of COVID-19 Cases Among Filipinos Abroad (As of 14 June 2021)". Department of Foreign Affairs (Philippines). June 11, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
- San Juan, Ratziel (April 11, 2020). "Asymptomatic cases excluded in DOH's new COVID-19 classifications". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
- "DOH issues new classification for patients checked for Covid-19". SunStar. April 11, 2020. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
- "Beat COVID-19 Situationer #110.pdf". Department of Health (Philippines). August 25, 2020. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
- "Duque warns hospitals against refusing patients linked to COVID-19". GMA News. March 9, 2020. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
- Ramos, Christia Marie (April 13, 2020). "PH now has 75 COVID-19 referral hospitals that can take in 3,194 patients". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- "DOH revises hospital admission rules for COVID-19 patients". CNN Philippines. March 16, 2020. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
- Tantuco, Vernise (April 8, 2020). "IN NUMBERS: What hospitals need to treat COVID-19 patients". Rappler. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- Galvez, Daphne (April 2, 2020). "PH to join WHO's 'solidarity trial' for COVID-19 cure". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
- "PH SOLIDARITY TRIAL FOR COVID-19 TREATMENTS RECEIVES GREEN LIGHT FROM ETHICS REVIEW BODY". Department of Health. April 22, 2020. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
- Nazario, Dhel (April 2, 2020). "DOST open to COVID-19 vaccine development collaboration with other countries". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
- Rocamora, Joyce Ann (April 23, 2020). "PH keen to join Russia-led clinical trials for Covid-19 vaccine". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
- Esguerra, Darryl John (April 24, 2020). "Duterte increases COVID-19 vaccine reward to P50 M". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
- Resurreccion, Lyn (February 20, 2020). "PHL 'functional food' vs COVID-19 available soon". BusinessMirror. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Nazario, Dhel (April 27, 2020). "DOST looks into herbal medicine against COVID-19". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
- Colina, Anthony (April 30, 2020). "VCO may work against COVID-19 – DOST". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
- Ramos, Christia Marie (December 27, 2020). "Moderna 'accelerating huge shipment' of COVID-19 vaccines to PH – Locsin". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
- Aurelio, Julie; Salaverria, Leila (December 27, 2020). "DOH: 50% vaccine efficacy is OK". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
- Ranada, Pia (December 22, 2020). "Philippines eyes 30 million doses of Novavax vaccine". Rappler. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
- "Lacson: Philippines might have to settle for Sinovac after Duterte's threat vs. US on terminating VFA". GMA News. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
- "FDA chief: Scientific publication on Sinovac's efficacy yet to be released". GMA News. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
- "Duterte allows FDA to issue emergency use authorization for COVID-19 vaccines, drugs". CNN Philippines. December 2, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
- "Three drugmakers eye vaccine emergency use in PH". CNN Philippines. December 15, 2020. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
- Esguerra, Darryl John (December 26, 2020). "Pfizer applies for authorization of its COVID vaccine in Philippines". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
- "Duterte claims many in PH have received Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine". Manila Bulletin. December 27, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
- "Vaccination probe: NBI counting on PSG chief's cooperation". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
- "PSG chief: 'I take full responsibility' for unregistered vaccine use". Rappler. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
- "DOH may again revise COVID-19 testing protocols". CNN Philippines. March 24, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
- Magsombol, Bonz (March 16, 2020). "When should you get tested for coronavirus?". Rappler. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- Magsambol, Bonz (March 30, 2020). "DOH to include health workers with mild symptoms in its testing protocol". Rappler. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- Morong, Joseph (May 19, 2020). "24 Oras: Malacañang: Hindi kayang ipa-COVID-19 test ang lahat ng Pilipino (01:26–01:52)". GMA News (YouTube Channel). Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- "Press Briefing of Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque – May 19, 2020". Presidential Communications Operations Office. May 19, 2020. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- Calleja, Joseph Peter. "Covid-19 testing for VIPs sparks outrage in Philippines". UCA News. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
- Sabillo, Kristine (March 23, 2020). "DOH denies expedited COVID-19 testing for VIPs, only extends 'courtesy' to some officials". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- Tan, Lara (March 23, 2020). "Health Dept. gives COVID-19 testing 'courtesy' to officials involved in nat'l security, public health". CNN Philippines. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- "PH Red Cross to start saliva testing for COVID-19 on Jan. 25". CNN Philippines. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
- "PH surpasses target of 1M tests in July | Bases Conversion and Development Authority". bcda.gov.ph. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
- "PH surpasses 3 million COVID-19 tests | Bases Conversion and Development Authority". www.bcda.gov.ph. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
- Magtulis, Prinz (March 9, 2020). "With only 250 people tested a day, Philippine health sector appears ill-prepared for COVID-19". The Philippine Star. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- "DOH sends 100,000 test kits to RITM, testing centers nationwide". CNN Philippines. March 23, 2020. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
- "COVID-19 test results from RITM out in 5 to 7 days, but not for long, DOH says". CNN Philippines. March 27, 2020. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
- Crisostomo, Shiela (April 14, 2020). "COVID mass testing begins in Metro Manila today". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
- Ramos, Mariejo S.; Valenzuela, Nikka G. (April 12, 2020). "Mass testing in Metro Manila under way". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
- "RITM temporarily scales down lab ops, prioritizes employee welfare". Research Institute for Tropical Medicine. April 20, 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2020.[permanent dead link]
- Peralta, Janine (April 4, 2020). "'Mass testing' for suspected COVID-19 cases, high-risk patients only". CNN Philippines. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- Cerrudo, Aileen (April 9, 2020). "Valenzuela City to begin mass testing for COVID-19 on April 11". UNTV. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- "LGUs will now lead fight vs coronavirus – IATF". Rappler. April 18, 2020. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- "List of Approved PCR Based Test Kits for Commercial Use". Food and Drug Administration. July 30, 2020. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- "List of Approved Rapid Antibody Test Kits for Commercial Use". Food and Drug Administration. July 30, 2020. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- "List of Approved Immunoassay Test Kits for Commercial Use". Food and Drug Administration. July 30, 2020. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
- "List of Other Approved COVID 19 Test Kits for Commercial Use". Food and Drug Administration. July 30, 2020. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- "UP develops test kit for novel coronavirus". CNN Philippines. February 5, 2020. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- Resurreccion, Lyn (March 11, 2020). "DOST-funded COVID test kit project clears FDA". BusinessMirror. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
- "UP-developed COVID-19 testing kit is 6 times cheaper than foreign counterparts". GMA News. March 10, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
- "UP-developed virus test kits ready for commercial use – DOH". Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 19, 2020. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- "Recalled COVID-19 test kits from UP no longer available commercially, FDA assures". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 21, 2020. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- Romero, Sheila Crisostomo, Alexis. "DOH probes 8 cases of suspected nCoV". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on January 27, 2020. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
- "PH acquires confirmatory test kits for novel coronavirus". CNN Philippines. January 29, 2020. Archived from the original on January 29, 2020. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
- "Everyone should work together to control COVID spread, keep economy open | Bases Conversion and Development Authority". bcda.gov.ph. Archived from the original on July 13, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
- Galvez, Daphne (May 28, 2020). "DOH targets zero-backlog in processing of COVID-19 tests". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
- Magsambol, Bonz. "DOH: 'Fresh, late' case classifications to continue until backlogs cleared". Rappler. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
- "Philippines records highest single-day jump in COVID-19 cases at 2,434; total exceeds 44,000". CNN Philippines. July 5, 2020. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
- "DOH confirms 1,046 new COVID-19 cases bringing total to 16,634". CNN Philippines. May 29, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- Rey, Aika (March 17, 2020). "Duterte declares state of calamity in PH due to coronavirus". Rappler. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
- "Proclamation No. 929 s. 2020 Declaring a State of Calamity Throughout the Philippines due to Corona Virus Disease 2019". Official Gazette GOV.PH. March 17, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
- "Dagling Paliwanag: Ano ang State of Calamity?". Official Gazette GOV.PH. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
- Parrocha, Azer (March 22, 2020). "Duterte seeks 'more powers,' urgent measures vs. Covid-19". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
- Luci-Atienza, Charissa (March 24, 2020). "House approves 'Bayanihan' bill on 3rd reading in historic virtual special session; grants PRRD 'necessary' powers to handle COVID-19 crisis". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
- "Senators seek ₱1-M death benefit; ₱100K aid for COVID-infected health workers". CNN Philippines. March 24, 2020. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
- Mercado, Neil Arwin (March 24, 2020). "House OKs bill granting Duterte 'necessary' powers due to COVID-19 crisis". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
- Ramos, Christia Marie; Lalu, Gabriel Palico (March 24, 2020). "Senate OKs bill granting Duterte special powers to fight COVID-19". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
- Valente, Catherine (March 25, 2020). "Duterte signs measure on special powers into law". The Manila Times. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
- Ramos, Christia Marie (August 20, 2020). "Bicam approves 'Bayanihan 2' for COVID-19 response, recovery". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 23, 2020.
- Ismael, Javier Joe (September 12, 2020). "Duterte signs Bayanihan 2". The Manila Times. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
- "'Shoot them dead': Duterte warns against violating lockdown". Al-Jazeera. April 2, 2020.
- "Philippines suspends visa issuance as worldwide COVID-19 cases soar – Locsin". CNN Philippines. March 19, 2020. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- Cordero, Ted (March 20, 2019). "Foreigners banned from entering Philippines starting March 22 – DOTr". GMA News.
- Del Callar, Michaela (March 18, 2020). "China to aid Philippines with 100k COVID-19 test kits". GMA News. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
- "US commits P139 million aid to Philippines for COVID-19 response". ABS-CBN News. March 17, 2020. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
- "Thousands of test kits, masks from China arrive in PH to aid COVID-19 fight". ABS-CBN News. March 21, 2020. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
- "Singapore donates 3,000 test kits". Manila Bulletin. March 22, 2020. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
- "Secretary Locsin receives COVID-19 Test Kits, PCR Machine from Singapore". Department of Foreign Affairs. March 24, 2020.
- "PH receives COVID-19 test kits from Brunei". Manila Bulletin. April 9, 2020. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- "Embassy of the United Arab Emirates Donates Various Ppes for the Philippines' Response Efforts For Covid-19". Department of Health. May 21, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
- "Some test kits sent from China only 40 percent accurate: DOH". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- "DOH clarifies: COVID-19 test kits from China assessed, 'at par' with WHO standards". CNN Philippines. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
- "China denies donating COVID-19 test kits yielding 'inaccurate' results". Philippine Daily Inquirer. March 29, 2020. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- Noble, Luz Wendy (March 13, 2020). "Economic growth may fall below 5% this year". BusinessWorld. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
- Dumlao-Abadilla, Doris (March 31, 2020). "Nomura downgrades PH growth forecast to 1.6%". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
- De Vera, Ben O. (April 14, 2020). "IMF cuts 2020 PH growth forecast to 0.6%, expects unemployment to rise amid COVID-19 pandemic". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
- Noble, Luz Wendy; Laforga, Beatrice (March 30, 2020). "PHL may go into recession – Diokno". BusinessWorld. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- Venzon, Cliff (May 7, 2020). "Coronavirus snaps Philippines' 21-year growth streak". Nikkei Asia Review. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
- "Inflation Rate (April '20) – BSP". Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- Mapa, Claire Dennis (May 5, 2020). "Summary Inflation Report Consumer Price Index (2012=100): April 2020 (2020-075)". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- Rivas, Ralf (May 5, 2020). "Inflation slips to 2.2% in April 2020 as virus freezes economy". Rappler. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- Luz Lopez, Melissa (May 13, 2020). "Deeper than expected economic slump seen as gov't counts ₱2-T losses from COVID-19 crisis". CNN Philippines. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
- Ramos, Christia Marie (April 17, 2020). "COVID-19 impact study: Losses may hit P2.5 trillion; ease economic restrictions". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
- Punongbayan, JC (April 15, 2020). "The Economic Fallout of COVID-19 in the Philippines". Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung für die Freiheit. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
- De Silva, Raymund (May 4, 2020). "COVID-19: Its Impact on the Philippines – Parts I, II, III and IV of V". Europe Solidaire Sans Frontières. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
- De Vera, Ben (March 16, 2020). "PH seen achieving upper middle-income status this year despite COVID-19". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
- Ranada, Pia (May 9, 2020). "PH can still be upper-middle income in 2022 despite pandemic – NEDA". Rappler. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
- Ross, Daniel (April 2, 2020). "The Philippines Was an Economic Star. Until Covid-19". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
- Dumlao-Abadilla, Doris (March 9, 2020). "PH stocks see worst bloodbath in 12 years". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
- Lopez, Melissa (March 12, 2020). "Local stocks plunge below 6,000 mark as COVID-19 now called a pandemic". CNN Philippines. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
- News, ABS-CBN (January 28, 2021). "PH posts worst GDP contraction since World War 2 with −9.5 pct growth in 2020". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
- "Employment Rate in January 2020 is Estimated at 94.7 Percent (2020-051)". Philippine Statistics Authority. March 5, 2020. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
- Rivas, Ralf (March 5, 2020). "Philippine employment, unemployment rates steady in January 2020". Rappler. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
- "Philippines – Unemployment Rate". Moody's Analytics. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
- Caraballo, Mayvelin (April 13, 2020). "PH unemployment rate forecast to hit 13-yr high in Q2". The Manila Times. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
- Noble, Luz Wendy (April 21, 2020). "S&P raises PHL 2020 unemployment estimate to 6.8%". BusinessWorld. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
- Arcangel, Xianne (March 1, 2020). "Labor group warns 7,000 workers may lose jobs due to coronavirus outbreak". CNN Philippines. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
- Valencia, Czeriza (April 5, 2020). "Luzon-wide ECQ displaced 15 million workers, Ateneo study shows". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- "Over 1 million workers nationwide lose jobs due to COVID-19 quarantine – DOLE". CNN Philippines. April 12, 2020. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
- Tomacruz, Sofia (March 4, 2020). "DOLE issues guidelines for employers amid coronavirus outbreak". Rappler. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
- Camus, Miguel (March 17, 2020). "As PH airlines 'get hit on all sides' by COVID-19 threat, workers' fears heighten". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
- "Airlines ask gov't for help as COVID-19 clips industry's wings". ABS-CBN News. March 31, 2020. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
- Cahiles-Magkilat, Bernie (April 22, 2020). "German businesses here consider PH situation bad". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- "Bello says 'no vaccine, no work' policy illegal". CNN Philippines. March 6, 2021. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
- "Where to Order Food for Take Out and Delivery Amidst Enhanced Community Quarantine". Philippine Primer. March 19, 2020. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
- "These businesses are giving free stuff to health workers amid the COVID-19 threat". GMA News. March 14, 2020. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- "Shops offer free coffee, food to healthcare workers amid coronavirus". Rappler. March 14, 2020. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- Visaya, Villamor Jr.; Sotelo, Yolanda; Quitasol, Kimberlie; Lapniten, Karlston; Ramos, Marlon; Yap, DJ (March 30, 2020). "Food shortage looms amid quarantine". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 4, 2020.
- Louis, Jillian (April 1, 2020). "Virus sparks food shortage in the Philippines". The ASEAN Post. Retrieved April 4, 2020.
- Simeon, Louise Maureen (March 27, 2020). "Philippines rice inventory in peril as Vietnam reduces exports". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 4, 2020.
- Alipala, Julie (March 30, 2020). "Fish canneries cut output by 50–60%". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 4, 2020.
- "PAGCOR suspends casino, gaming operations during Metro Manila quarantine". ABS-CBN News. March 15, 2020. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "Regulations allowing 'e-sabong' to protect bettors, help gov't collect proper taxes: PAGCOR". ABS-CBN News. October 14, 2020. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
- "Filipinos on surgical mask frenzy mode as PH confirms first novel coronavirus case". CNN Philippines. January 31, 2020. Archived from the original on January 31, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- Lalu, Gabriel Pabico (January 30, 2020). "Metro drugstores run out of masks, disinfectants as first nCoV case confirmed". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on January 31, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- Romero, Alexis (February 3, 2020). "Public urged not to hoard face masks needed by frontline health workers battling nCoV". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on February 4, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- Caliwan, Christopher Lloyd (February 3, 2020). "PNP to help vs. face masks hoarding". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- Desiderio, Louella (February 4, 2020). "DTI orders imports of masks as local supply tightens". The Philippine Star. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- "DTI: Amend procurement law so local products could get priority in govt. purchase". CNN. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
- Magsino, Dona (March 25, 2020). "PMA exec: No shortage of doctors in Philippines but PPEs lacking amid COVID-19 emergency". GMA News. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- Nicholls, AC (March 31, 2020). "Medical group cites protective equipment lack for death of 17 doctors". CNN Philippines. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- Mendoza, Francisco (March 24, 2020). "IN PHOTOS: Volunteers, medical frontliners improvise PPEs amid shortage". Rappler. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- Magsombol, Bonz (March 30, 2020). "DOH acquires P1.8 billion worth of PPEs for health workers". Rappler. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- "Govt. to procure more PPE to address COVID-19 doctor deaths". CNN Philippines. April 5, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- "Galvez: Gov't procures 3 million PPE sets for June–August". Rappler. May 9, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- Magsambol, Bonz (March 30, 2020). "DOH asks for respirators, ventilators amid rising coronavirus cases in PH". Rappler. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
- Van, Tong (February 20, 2020). "Philippine retailers experiencing coronavirus-related sales slump". Inside Retail Asia. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
- Desiderio, Louella; Gonzales, Iris; Cabrera, Romina (March 16, 2020). "Several malls close; supermarkets, banks, pharmacies open". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- Garcia, Maria Angelica (March 17, 2020). "Supermarkets impose social distancing to curb COVID-19". GMA News. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- Bigtas, Jannielyn Ann (March 16, 2020). "Online groceries to check out when you can't leave your house". GMA News. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- "LIST: Businesses allowed to reopen in Metro Manila, areas under modified ECQ by May 16". CNN Philippines. May 13, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
- Robles, Raissa (March 11, 2020). "Coronavirus: panic buying in Manila, some flee to countryside as first Filipino fatality confirmed and cases rise to 49". South China Morning Post. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- Hilotin, Jay (March 11, 2020). "Panic buying, price gouging reported in Manila over coronavirus". Gulf News. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- Gonzales, Cathrine (April 1, 2020). "Consumer and retail sector to bear the brunt of month-long ECQ, says think tank". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- "Metro Manila malls to shut down early ahead of quarantine". ABS-CBN News. March 14, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
- Mercado, Neil Arwin (March 13, 2020). "One seat apart: Some malls take steps vs coronavirus threat". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
- "UPDATED: Which NCR malls are closed and which cities have curfew? See list". Spin.ph. March 15, 2020. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "PAL, Cebu Pacific suspend flights between Philippines, China". ABS-CBN News. February 2, 2020. Archived from the original on February 2, 2020. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- Arayata, Maria Christina (March 17, 2020). "PAL cancels all domestic flights in Luzon from March 17 to Apr 12". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
- Mercado, Neil Arwin (March 24, 2020). "PAL stops international flights from March 26 to April 14". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
- "PAL to resume limited international, domestic flights starting June 1". ABS-CBN News. May 30, 2020. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
- de Vera, Ben O. (August 27, 2020). "Despite pandemic, population census pushing through in September". Retrieved September 9, 2020.
- "Solon hits PSA for threatening pandemic-weary Filipinos with penalties". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
- Casas, Willie; Araja, Rio (March 10, 2020). "Duterte suspends classes in Metro Manila Until March 14". Manila Standard. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- Gapayao, Kier Gideon Paolo (March 11, 2020). "Prevention measures upped across Rizal Province as COVID-19 cases on the rise". Philippine Information Agency. Philippine Information Agency. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- "DepEd: No more final exams in public schools covered by community quarantine". CNN Philippines. March 16, 2020. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- Colcol, Erwin (March 12, 2020). "UP Diliman's shift to online classes due to COVID-19 begins on Monday". GMA News. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- Agoncillo, Jodee; Ramos, Mariejo; Valenzuela, Nikka (March 15, 2020). "Metro Manila schools cope by holding online classes". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- Hernando-Malipot, Merlina; San Juan, Alexandria (March 12, 2020). "Learning in the time of coronavirus". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- "UP Diliman suspends online classes due to enhanced COVID-19 quarantine". ABS-CBN News. March 17, 2020. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- Bagayas, Samantha (March 23, 2020). "Students urge suspension of online classes during coronavirus lockdown". Rappler. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- Guno, Niña (March 25, 2020). "Students from 'Big 4' universities seek online class suspension from CHED". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- "Situational Report No.6 of the National Task Force (NTF) for COVID-19" (PDF). National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. April 6, 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 30, 2020. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "DepEd: No graduation rites during COVID-19 crisis". Philippine Daily Inquirer. April 13, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "The Philippine Department of Education launches first virtual graduation-in-a-box program, #Hello2020Graduates". Microsoft News Center Philippines. May 27, 2020. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
- Rebecca Ratcliffe (June 9, 2020). "Global report: Philippines says schools won't reopen until there is a Covid-19 vaccine". The Guardian. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- "UP experts propose no classes until December to stop COVID-19 spread". CNN Philippines. April 21, 2020. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- Magsambol, Bonz (April 30, 2020). "Universities, colleges with 'flexible' learning can start classes in August – CHED". Rappler. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- San Juan, Alex (May 11, 2020). "Private universities and colleges should start this August – CHED". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- Magsambol, Bonz (April 20, 2020). "Lessons may be delivered via TV, radio for school year 2020–2021 – DepEd". Rappler. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- Hernando-Malipot, Merlina (May 6, 2020). "DepEd braces for 'grueling transition, birth pains' as it adapts into new normal in education". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- Quismorio, Ellson (February 12, 2020). "PH to suffer P22.7-B losses monthly from COVID-19 scare, NEDA tells solons". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
- Leyco, Chino (March 6, 2020). "ADB: PH tourism to lose up to $2.2 B due to COVID-19". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- Mogato, Manuel; Crisostomo, Shiela (February 13, 2020). "COVID-19 Outbreak Expected To Impact on the Local Economy; DOH Bracing For Local Transmission". One News by Philippine Star. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- "National Museum closes to the public 'until further notice' over coronavirus fears". Rappler. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "Philippines postpones nationwide mall sale amid coronavirus threat". The Star. February 29, 2020. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
- "Virus takes luster off PH festivals". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 24, 2020. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
- "COVID-19: Lessons from Philippines jails show how to fight infectious coronavirus disease". International Committee of the Red Cross. March 24, 2020. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- "BJMP temporarily suspends jail visits due to COVID-19". PTV News. March 11, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
- "Philippines: Reduce Crowded Jails to Stop COVID-19". Human Rights Watch. April 6, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
- "Philippines: Prison Deaths Unreported Amid Pandemic". Human Rights Watch. April 28, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
- "Karapatan: Stop the delays, stop the excuses, release political prisoners now!". Karapatan. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
- Gavilan, Jodesz (March 15, 2020). "KAPATID appeals for release of low-level offenders, elderly, sick prisoners amid coronavirus outbreak". Rappler. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
- Pazzibugan, Dona (April 9, 2020). "SC asked: Temporary freedom for elderly, political detainees". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- Adonis, Meg (April 21, 2020). "UST hazing suspect wants out of jail due to virus". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- Buan, Lian (April 20, 2020). "SC orders urgent release of inmates with lapsed jail time, shelved cases". Rappler. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- "Philippines: Nearly 10,000 prisoners released over virus fears". Al Jazeera. May 2, 2020. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
- "Health Department warns Filipinos not to attend concerts, other public events to avoid coronavirus infection". Coconuts Manila. February 10, 2020. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- Ruiz, Marah; et al. (March 27, 2020). "UPDATED: Cancelled and Postponed Concerts, Shows and Meet and Greets Due to the COVID-19 Scare". GMA News. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
- "LIST: PH events canceled due to novel coronavirus threat". CNN Philippines. February 6, 2020. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
- Rosales, Clara (March 5, 2020). "Heads Up: These 2020 Concerts in Manila Have Been Canceled". Spot.ph. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- "No studio audience for 'It's Showtime,' 'ASAP,' to prevent coronavirus spread". Rappler. March 10, 2020. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
- Anarcon, James Patrick (March 14, 2020). "ABS-CBN announces temporary lineup of primetime programs as teleseryes go on taping break". Philippine Entertainment Portal. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
- Anarcon, James Patrick (March 14, 2020). "GMA-7 suspends production of teleseryes, entertainment shows to combat spread of COVID-19". Philippine Entertainment Portal. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
- "DZMM temporarily halts operations as personnel go on quarantine". CNN Philippines. April 2, 2020. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
- Gomes, Robin (February 21, 2020). "Philippine Church takes measures against COVID-19 during Lent". Vatican News. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
- "CBCP calls for tolling of bells on April 8, joining in ecumenical prayer amid COVID-19 crisis". ABS-CBN News. April 7, 2020. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- Garcia, Maria Angelica (April 8, 2020). "Church bells in Philippines simultaneously ring out vs. COVID-19". GMA News. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Iglesia ni Cristo to hold no worship service at chapels amid COVID-19 quarantine". GMA News. March 19, 2020. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
- "INC to hold livestreamed worship services". SunStar. March 20, 2020. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
- Soliman, Michelle Anne P. (March 18, 2020). "Virtual religious gatherings amidst COVID-19". BusinessWorld Online. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
- Aquino, Leslie Ann (March 13, 2020). "PCEC calls for cancellation of worship services". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
- Walch, Tad (March 17, 2020). "Church reassigning nonnative missionaries from 23 missions in the Philippines". Deseret News. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
- Saiden, Albashir (March 20, 2020). "BARMM suspends all congregational prayers due to Covid-19". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- Dalupang, Denison Rey (March 14, 2020). "PBA: Teams can't hold practices, scrimmages". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
- "PFF And PFL Statement – Postponement Of Philippines Football League Season 2020". Philippine Football Federation. March 13, 2020. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- Cabildo, Leigh Nald (March 13, 2020). "LIST: Philippine leagues suspended amid coronavirus outbreak". Rappler. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- "BWF suspends 2020 Badminton Asia Manila Championships". Tiebreaker Times. May 4, 2020. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
- Yumol, David Tristan (March 26, 2020). "AFF Women's Championship in the Philippines postponed due to COVID-19 threat". CNN Philippines. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
- Terrado, Jonas (February 14, 2020). "FIBA officially postpones Gilas Pilipinas home match vs Thailand due to COVID-19". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- Sevilla, Jeremiah (March 11, 2020). "Azkals' WC qualifying games canceled". The Manila Times. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- "PSC cancels sports events, assures support for national athletes". ABS-CBN News. April 29, 2020. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- "2020 ASEAN Para Games officially canceled". The Jakarta Post. May 9, 2020. Retrieved May 10, 2020.
- Patinio, Ferdinand (March 9, 2020). "Comelec suspends voter registration amid Covid-19 threat". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
- "COMELEC extends suspension of voter registration to April 30". CNN Philippines. April 27, 2020. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
- Magdayao, Aira Genesa (March 26, 2020). "Postponement of Palawan division plebiscite sought". Palawan News. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
- "Philippine health chief dismisses 'ridiculous' hoax that novel coronavirus is a type of rabies". AFP Fact Check. Agence France-Presse Philippines. January 30, 2020. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
- "Doctors refute misleading online claim that consuming boiled ginger can cure novel coronavirus infections". AFP Fact Check. Agence France-Presse Philippines. February 15, 2020. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
- "DILG: 14-day quarantine on travelers from over 20 countries a hoax". GMA News. February 7, 2020. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
- Malasig, Jeline (March 9, 2020). "'Misinformation': UNICEF Philippines tags viral posts sharing COVID-19 info using its name". InterAksyon. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
- "False: DOH says fake cigarettes that 'spread coronavirus' have reached PH". Rappler. March 9, 2020. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
- "FALSE: Gargling salt water 'eliminates' coronavirus". Rappler. March 14, 2020. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "DOH debunks claims bananas can prevent COVID-19 infection". CNN Philippines. March 18, 2020. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
- "False claim circulates online that certain countries in Asia are using helicopters to spray 'COVID-19 disinfectant'". AFP Fact Check. March 27, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
- Geducos, Argyll Cyrus (March 27, 2020). "Palace denies total lockdown rumors; fake news peddlers face arrest". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved March 28, 2020.
- "AMID DUTERTE STATEMENT: Gasoline must not be used as disinfectant, chemists warn public". GMA News. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
- "Virus 'infodemic': DOH urges Pinoys not to spread fake news on coronavirus". ABS-CBN News. January 27, 2020. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
- Caliwan, Christopher Lloyd (February 5, 2020). "PNP monitors 6 'hoax posts' on nCoV threat". Philippine News Agency. Philippine News Agency. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
- Gregorio, Xave (March 25, 2020). "Jail time, up to ₱1-M fine await peddlers of fake COVID-19 news". CNN Philippines. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
- Punzalan, Jamaine (February 6, 2020). "'Fake news' hampers cremation of Philippines' first novel coronavirus fatality". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
- Chan-Yeung, M; Xu, RH (November 2003). "SARS: epidemiology". Respirology (Carlton, Vic.). 8 Suppl: S9–14. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1843.2003.00518.x. PMC 7169193. PMID 15018127.
- "Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)". World Health Organization. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines.|
- COVID-19 Dashboard (Laging Handa) – an online portal by the government of the Philippines
- COVID-19 Tracker – a case and situation tracker by the Department of Health (DOH)
- EndCOV PH – a case and situation tracker by the UP Resilience Institute (UPRI)
- LGU vs COVID PH – an online portal for local government units (LGUs)