COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns

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There are curfews, quarantines, and similar restrictions (variously described as stay-at-home orders, shelter-in-place orders, shutdowns or lockdowns) in place in many countries and territories around the world, related to the COVID-19 pandemic and established to prevent the further spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19.[1] By April 2020, about half of the world's population was under lockdown, with more than 3.9 billion people in more than 90 countries or territories having been asked or ordered to stay at home by their governments.[2] The World Health Organization's recommendation on curfews and lockdowns is that they should be short-term measures to reorganize, regroup, rebalance resources, and protect health workers who are exhausted. To achieve a balance between restrictions and normal life, the long-term responses to the pandemic should consist of strict personal hygiene, effective contact tracing, and isolating when ill.[3]

Countries and territories around the world have enforced lockdowns of varying degrees. Some include total movement control while others have enforced restrictions based on time. Mostly, only essential businesses are allowed to remain open. Schools, universities and colleges have closed either on a nationwide or local basis in 80 countries, affecting approximately 61.6 per cent of the world's student population.[4][5]

Table of pandemic lockdowns[edit]

COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns
Country / Territory Place First Lockdown Second Lockdown
Start date End date Length (days) Start Date End Date Length (days) Level
Albania 2020-03-13[6] 2020-06-01[7] 80 National
Algeria Algiers 2020-03-23[8] 2020-05-14[9] 52 City
Blida
Argentina Greater Buenos Aires 2020-03-19[10] 250 Metropolitan Area
Rest of the country 2020-03-19[10] 2020-05-10[11] 52 National
Armenia 2020-03-24[12] 2020-05-04[13] 41 National
Australia Melbourne 2020-07-08[a][14][15] 2020-10-27[16] 111 Metropolitan Area
Regional Victoria[b] 2020-08-06[15] 2020-09-16[15] 41 State
South Australia 2020-11-19[17] 2020-11-22[18] 3
Rest of the country[c] 2020-03-23[19] 2020-05-15[20] 52 National
Austria 2020-03-16[21] 2020-04-13[22] 28 2020-11-03[23] 2020-11-30[23] 27
Azerbaijan 2020-03-31[24] 2020-08-30[24] 152
Bangladesh 2020-03-26[25] 2020-05-16[26] 51
Barbados 2020-03-28[27] 2020-05-03[27] 36
Belgium 2020-03-18[28] 2020-05-04 [29] 47 2020-11-02[30] 2020-12-14[30] 42
Bermuda 2020-04-04[27] 2020-05-02[31] 28
Bhutan 2020-08-11[32] 2020-09-01[33] 105
Bolivia 2020-03-22[34] 2020-07-31[35] 131
Botswana 2020-04-02[36] 2020-04-30[36] 28
Brazil Santa Catarina 2020-03-17[37] 2020-04-07[37] 21 State
São Paulo 2020-03-24[38] 2020-05-10[39] 47
Bulgaria 2020-03-13[d][43][44] 2020-06-15[45][46] 94 National
Colombia 2020-03-25[47] 2020-06-30[48] 97
Congo 2020-03-31[49] 2020-04-20[49] 20
Costa Rica 2020-03-23[50] 2020-05-01[51] 246
Croatia 2020-03-18[52] 2020-04-19[53] 32
Czech Republic 2020-03-16[21] 2020-04-12[54] 27 2020-10-22[55] 2020-11-03[55] 12
Ecuador 2020-03-16[56] 2020-03-31[56] 15
El Salvador 2020-03-12[57] 2020-04-02[57] 21
Eritrea 2020-04-02[58] 2020-04-23[58] 21
Fiji Lautoka 2020-03-20[59] 2020-04-07[60] 18 City
Suva 2020-04-03[61] 2020-04-17[62] 14
France 2020-03-17[63] 2020-05-11[64] 55 2020-10-30[65] 2020-12-01[66] 32 National
Georgia 2020-03-31[67] 2020-04-21[67] 21
Germany Nationwide 2020-03-23[e][69] 2020-04-20[70]
to 2020-05-10[71]
28 2020-11-02[72] 2020-11-30[72] 28
Berchtesgadener Land 2020-10-20[73] 2020-11-03[74] 14 District
Ghana Accra 2020-03-30[75] 2020-04-12[76] 13 Metropolitan Area
Kumasi
Greece Nationwide 2020-03-23[77] 2020-05-04[78] 42 2020-11-03[79] 2020-11-30[80] 27 National
Thessaloniki 2020-11-03[81] 2020-11-17[82] 14 City
Serres 2020-11-03[81] 2020-11-17[82]
Guernsey 2020-03-25[83] 2020-06-20[84] 87 National
Honduras 2020-03-20[85] 2020-05-17[86] 58
Hungary 2020-03-28[87] 2020-04-10[87] 13
India 2020-03-25[88] 2020-06-07[89] 74
Iran 2020-03-14[90] 2020-04-20[91] 37
Iraq 2020-03-22[92] 2020-04-11[93] 20
Ireland All 26 counties 2020-03-12[f][94][95] 2020-05-18[96] 67 2020-10-21[97] 2020-12-01[98] 41
Kildare 2020-08-07[99][100] 2020-08-31[101] 24 Regional
Laois 2020-08-21[102] 14
Offaly
Israel Bnei Brak 2020-04-02[103] 2020-04-16[104] 14 2020-09-18[105] 2020-10-18[106] 30 National
Italy Nationwide 2020-03-09[g][107] 2020-05-18[108] 70 National
Lombardy 2020-11-06[109] 2020-12-03[110] 27 Region
Piedmont 2020-11-06[109] 2020-12-03[110]
Aosta Valley 2020-11-06[109] 2020-12-03[110]
Calabria 2020-11-06[109] 2020-12-03[110]
Jamaica Saint Catherine 2020-04-15[111] 2020-04-22[111] 7 Parish
Jordan 2020-03-18[112] 2020-04-30[113] 43 2020-11-10[114] 2020-11-15[114] 5 National
Kosovo 2020-03-14[115] 2020-05-04 [116] 51
Kuwait 2020-05-10[117] 2020-05-31[117] 21
Lebanon 2020-03-15[118] 2020-03-28[118] 13 2020-11-14[119] 2020-11-28 14
Libya 2020-03-22[120] 247 National
Lithuania 2020-03-16[121] 2020-06-18[122] 94 2020-11-07[123] 2020-11-28 21
Madagascar Antananarivo 2020-03-23[124] 2020-04-20[125] 28 City
Toamasina
Malaysia 2020-03-18[126] 2020-06-09[127] 83 National
Mexico 2020-03-23[128] 2020-06-01[128] 70
Mongolia 2020-03-10[129] 2020-03-16[129] 6 2020-11-17[130] 2020-12-01 15
Montenegro Tuzi 2020-03-24[131] 2020-05-05[132] 245 Municipality
Morocco 2020-03-19[133] 2020-06-10[134] 83 National
Namibia 2020-03-27[h][135] 2020-05-04[136] 38
Nepal 2020-03-24[137] 2020-06-14[138] 82
New Zealand 2020-03-26[139] 2020-05-14[140] 49
Nigeria Abuja 2020-03-30[141] 2020-04-12[141] 13 City
Lagos
Ogun State
Northern Cyprus 2020-03-30[142] 2020-05-04[143] 35 National
North Korea Kaesong 2020-07-25[144] 2020-08-14[145] 20 City
Oman Muscat 2020-04-10[146] 2020-05-29[147] 49 Governorate
Jalan Bani Bu Ali 2020-04-16[148] TBD[148] 222 Province
Pakistan 2020-03-24[149] 2020-05-09[150] 46 National
Panama 2020-03-25[151] 2020-05-31
(downgraded to a night and weekend curfew)[152]
67
Papua New Guinea 2020-03-24[153] 2020-04-07[153] 14
Paraguay 2020-03-20[154] 2020-05-03[155] 44
Peru 2020-03-16[156] 2020-06-30[157] 106
Philippines Cebu 2020-03-27[158] 2020-05-15[i][159]
to 2020-05-31[j][160]
49 to 65 Province
Davao Region 2020-03-19[161] 2020-05-15[159] 57 Region
Luzon 2020-03-15[k][162] 2020-04-30[l][163]
to 2020-05-15[m][164]
to 2020-05-31[j][160]
46 to 61 to 77 2020-08-04[165][n] 2020-08-18[165][n] 15 Island group
Soccsksargen 2020-03-23[161] 2020-05-15[166] 53 Region
Poland 2020-03-13[167] 2020-04-11[168] 29 National
Portugal 2020-03-19[169] 2020-04-02[168] 14
Qatar Doha Industrial Area 2020-03-11[170] 2020-06-15[171] 258 Industrial park
Romania 2020-03-25[172] 2020-05-12[173] 48 National
Russia Moscow 2020-03-30[174] 2020-05-12[175][176] 43 Metropolitan area
Rest of the country[o] 2020-03-28[177] 2020-04-30[177] 33 National
Rwanda 2020-03-21[178] 2020-04-19[179] 29
Samoa 2020-03-26[180] 2020-04-08[181] 13
San Marino 2020-03-14[182] 2020-05-05[183] 52
Saudi Arabia Jeddah 2020-03-29[184] 2020-06-21[185] 240 City
Mecca 2020-03-26[184] 243
Medina
Qatif 2020-03-09[186] 260 Area
Riyadh 2020-03-26[184] 243 City
Serbia 2020-03-15[168] 2020-04-21[187]
to 2020-05-04[188]
37 to 50 National
Singapore 2020-04-07[189] 2020-06-01[190] 55
South Africa 2020-03-26[191] 2020-04-30[192] 35
Spain 2020-03-14[193] 2020-05-09[194] 56
Sri Lanka 2020-03-18[195] 2020-06-21[196] 95
Switzerland 2020-03-17[197] 2020-04-27[198] 41
Thailand 2020-03-25[199] 2020-05-31[200] 67
Trinidad and Tobago 2020-03-17[201] 2020-03-31[201] 14
Tunisia 2020-03-22[202] 2020-04-19[203] 28
Turkey 2020-04-23[204] 2020-04-27[204] 4 Only in 30 metropolitan cities and Zonguldak.
Ukraine 2020-03-17[168] 2020-04-24[168] 38 National
United Arab Emirates 2020-03-26[205] 2020-04-17[206] 22
United Kingdom England 2020-03-23[207] 2020-07-04[208] 103 2020-11-05[209] 2020-12-02[209] 27
Scotland 2020-06-29[210] 98
Northern Ireland 2020-07-03[211] 102 2020-10-16[212] 2020-11-26[213] 41 Country
Wales 2020-07-13[214] 112 2020-10-23[215] 2020-11-09[215] 17
Glasgow 2020-11-20[216] 2020-12-11[216] 21 Country
East Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire
East Dunbartonshire
West Dunbartonshire
North Lanarkshire
South Lanarkshire
East Ayrshire
South Ayrshire
West Lothian
Stirling
United States California 2020-03-19[217] 2020-05-08[218] 250 State
Clark County in Nevada 2020-03-20 249 County
Connecticut 2020-03-23[219] 2020-04-22[220] 30 State
Illinois 2020-03-21[221] 2020-05-30[222] 70
Kansas City in Kansas 2020-03-24[223] 2020-04-19[224] 26 City
Massachusetts 2020-03-24[225] 2020-05-04[225] 41 State
Michigan 2020-03-24[226] 2020-04-13[220] 20
New York 2020-03-22[227] 2020-06-13[228] 83
Oregon 2020-03-24[229] 245
Wisconsin 2020-03-24[230] 245
Venezuela 2020-03-17[231] 2020-05-13[232] 57 National
Vietnam 2020-04-01[233] 2020-04-22[234] 21
Zimbabwe 2020-03-30[235] 2020-05-02[236] 33
Outbreak ongoing: Lockdown data as of 24 November 2020

Notes

  1. ^ Stage 3 lockdown imposed on 8 July; Stage 4 lockdown imposed on 2 August 2020
  2. ^ Applies for all Regional Victoria outside Melbourne
  3. ^ Applies for further measures in each Australian state and territory
  4. ^ Closures of universities, schools, restaurants and other establishments, a ban on mass gatherings, suspension of sports competitions for more than two months, certain temporary restrictions on the free movement of citizens, but no strict stay-at-home-order.[40] A number of lockdown measures were already eased or lifted in April[41] and May 2020.[42]
  5. ^ Lockdown was started in Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria on 20 March 2020. Three days later, it was expanded to the whole of Germany[68]
  6. ^ A national stay-at-home order was officially declared on 27 March
  7. ^ Lockdown was first started in Northern Italy on 8 March 2020, then expanded to the rest of Italy the following day
  8. ^ Lockdown was started in the regions of Erongo and Khomas but effectively enforced countrywide. On 14 April the lockdown was extended to 4 May and to all of Namibia.
  9. ^ Except in Cebu City only where it was extended to 16 days
  10. ^ a b Lockdown was extended to areas under high risk COVID-19 zones
  11. ^ Lockdown was started in Metro Manila, but expanded to the rest of Luzon two days later, 17 March 2020
  12. ^ In most Luzon areas only, except Metro Manila and selected areas of Luzon are on high risk COVID-19 zones
  13. ^ Lockdown was extended to Metro Manila and remaining areas of Luzon
  14. ^ a b Metro Manila, Bulacan, Cavite and Rizal only.
  15. ^ Applies for mandatory holidays and further measures in each Russian region

In the table pandemic lockdowns are defined as the shutdown of parts of the economy,[237] due to non-pharmaceutical anti-pandemic measures and are enforceable by law like:

These measures are considered to have caused the coronavirus recession in 2020.[238] The table does not contain:

The pandemic has resulted in the largest number of shutdowns/lockdowns worldwide at the same time in history.[citation needed]. By 26 March, 1.7 billion people worldwide were under some form of lockdown,[239] which increased to 3.9 billion people by the first week of April – more than half of the world's population.[240][241]

Restrictions first began in China,[242] with other countries in East Asia like Vietnam soon following it in implementing widespread containment measures. Much of Europe, North America and Africa took much longer to bring in tough measures. Lockdowns between and within nations are of varying stringency.[243]

By mid April, nearly 300 million people, or about 90 per cent of the population, were under some form of lockdown in the United States,[244] around 100 million in the Philippines,[245] about 59 million in South Africa,[246] and 1.3 billion were under lockdown in India; the largest of all lockdowns. Check the list of COVID-19 Hotspots or containment Zones of India.[247][248]

By the end of April, around 300 million people were under lockdown in various countries of Europe, including but not limited to Italy, Spain, France, and the United Kingdom; while around 200 million people were under lockdown in Latin America.[245]

Countries and territories with lockdowns[edit]

Australia[edit]

Main article: COVID-19_pandemic_in_Australia

Australia first re-opened its nation borders to New Zealand on 2 October 2020.[249]

Victoria[edit]

On 7 July, after recording 191 new cases, Premier Daniel Andrews announced that metropolitan Melbourne and the Shire of Mitchell would re-enter a Stage 3 lockdown from 12am on 9 July, for 6 weeks.

Initial lockdown measures included the closure of all non-essential services, including retail and gyms. Hospitality establishments were permitted to open in take-away and delivery capacities only. Schools and childcare facilities were also ordered to close. Face coverings were made mandatory as of 23 July 2020, with a fine of $200 AUD for non-compliance to those above 12 years of age, although formal exemptions could be acquired.

As of 6pm on 2 August 2020, Premier Andrews declared stronger lockdown laws, transitioning from Stage 3 to Stage 4.

The strongest restrictions imposed under Stage 4 included:

  • Ban on travelling further than a 5km radius from place of residence (adjusted to 25km on 19 October 2020)[250]
  • Night-time curfew of 8pm to 5am
  • One hour time limit imposed on outdoor exercise
  • Shopping for essentials limited to one person per household per day
  • Public gatherings limited to a maximum of two people

Initially proposed to end on 13 September, Melbourne officially exited Stage 4 lockdown on 28 October 2020 after 112 days, concluding the longest COVID-19 related lockdown period noted globally as of October 2020.[177]

State borders between Victoria and New South Wales have been announced to open as of 23 November 2020.

China[edit]

China was the first country to enforce the quarantine and lockdown of cities and later whole provinces in late January. Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping said he personally authorized the unprecedented lockdown of Wuhan and other cities beginning on January 23.[251] Although such measures are a very old tool of epidemic control,[252][253] their use at the scale of a large city such as Wuhan or the even larger scale of provinces was controversial among experts at the time, with questions on their effectiveness[254][255][256] and their ethics.[257][253][258] Some public health experts, while not always condemning the measure, raised the issue of the inevitable psychological toll such measures would have.[259][260][261] An ex-World Health Organization (WHO) official who headed the organization's Western Pacific Region during the SARS outbreak said that "the containment of a city [hadn't] been done in the history of international public health policy".[255] The WHO called the decision to quarantine Wuhan "new to science".[262] By early April, all lockdowns had ended or relaxed to a certain degree as the cases started to dwindle and the outbreak had come under control.[242][263]

Cities under quarantine in China
Place Province Start date End date City level Population Cases Deaths Recoveries Active
Border shutdown[264]
Wuhan Hubei 2020-01-23 2020-04-08[265][266][267] Sub-provincial 11,081,000 50,340 3,869 46,471 0
Xiaogan Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[268] Prefectural 4,920,000 3,518 129 3,389 0
Huanggang Hubei 2020-01-23 2020-03-25[268] Prefectural 6,330,000 2,907 125 2,782 0
Jingzhou Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-17[269] Prefectural 5,590,200 1,580 52 1,528 0
Ezhou Hubei 2020-01-23 2020-03-25[268] Prefectural 1,077,700 1,394 59 1,335 0
Suizhou Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[268] Prefectural 2,216,700 1,307 45 1,262 0
Xiangyang Hubei 2020-01-28[270] 2020-03-25[268] Prefectural 5,669,000 1,175 40 1,135 0
Huangshi Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-13[271] Prefectural 2,470,700 1,015 39 976 0
Yichang Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[268] Prefectural 4,135,850 931 37 894 0
Jingmen Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[268] Prefectural 2,896,500 928 41 887 0
Xianning Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[268] Prefectural 2,543,300 836 15 821 0
Shiyan Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[268] Prefectural 3,406,000 672 8 664 0
Xiantao Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[268] Sub-prefectural 1,140,500 575 22 553 0
Tianmen Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[268] Sub-prefectural 1,272,300 496 15 481 0
Enshi Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[268] Prefectural 3,378,000 252 7 245 0
Qianjiang Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-13[272] Sub-prefectural 966,000 198 9 189 0
Shennongjia Hubei 2020-01-27 2020-03-25[268] Sub-prefectural 78,912 11 0 11 0
Quarantine total 59,172,000 68,135 4,512 63,623 0
Outbreak ongoing: Infection and fatality data as of 24:00 (UTC+8) 4 June 2020.[273][274][275] Totals will evolve.

Fiji[edit]

On 19 March, Fiji confirmed its first case in Lautoka. In response, the Government of Fiji ordered the lockdown of the city on 20 March with closures of all schools and non-essential services all over the country.[276] On 3 April, Fiji's capital, Suva, went into lockdown after confirming two new cases. More than 300,000 residents was confined at their homes and all non-essential services in the city was closed for two weeks.[277]

France[edit]

From 17 March 2020,[278] all people in France were required to complete and carry an exemption form to leave their homes and can be fined for non-essential journeys.[278] Essential journeys include shopping for food, travelling to and from work, accessing healthcare, and exercising within 1 km of the home for up to 1 hour. Police around the country had set up road blocks to check people who were out and about had good reason and that their exemption declarations were in order. These measures were lifted on May 11, 2020, with remaining restrictions on travel further than 100 km away from one's residence. The latter restrictions were lifted on June 2, 2020.

On October 28, president Emmanuel Macron announced a second lockdown until at least December 1, 2020. During this second lockdown, schools remain open and more industries can keep operating (construction, public services...). Like the first lockdown, citizens need to sign their certificates to can go around within 1 km up to hour per day.[279]Fines are 135 euros the 1st time, 200 euros for 2 times within 15 days and 3750 euros and 6 months jail sentence for 3 times within 30 days.[280]

India[edit]

On 22 March 2020, the Government of India decided to completely lockdown 82 districts in 22 states and Union Territories of country where confirmed cases have been reported till 31 March.[281] Essential services and commodities were allowed. 80 cities including major cities such as Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai, Pune and Kolkata were also put under lockdown until 31 March.[282] The country entered complete lockdown from 25 March 2020 for 21 days amid increase in number of cases.[283]

Indonesia[edit]

Indonesia reported its first two positive COVID-19 cases on 2 March 2020.[284] Cases grew throughout the month of March, as the government resisted implementing curfew or lockdown measures. The capital of Jakarta finally introduced a stay-at-home order, called the PSBB (Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar, or Large-scale Social Restrictions) starting on 10 April, followed by many other provinces and cities. However, no nationwide lockdown measures were implemented by the central government.

PSBB measures were lifted throughout the month of May despite continued community transmission of the virus. The capital of Jakarta became the final region to lift the most stringent PSBB measures on 4 June, as it shifted towards what governor Anies Baswedan described as a "transitional phase".[285] The transition phase remains in effect in Jakarta as of July 2020.

Ireland[edit]

On 12 March, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar announced the closure of all schools, colleges and childcare facilities in Ireland until the end of August.[286][287] On 27 March, Varadkar announced a national stay-at-home order for at least two weeks; the public were ordered to stay at home in all circumstances. All non-essential shops and services, including all pubs, bars, hotels and nightclubs closed and all public and private gatherings of any number of people was banned.[288][289] The Garda Síochána (Irish police) were given power to enforce the measures, which were repeatedly extended until 18 May.[290]

A roadmap to easing restrictions in Ireland that includes five stages was adopted by the government on 1 May 2020 and subsequently published online.[291][292] On 5 June, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar announced a series of changes to the government's roadmap of easing COVID-19 restrictions in Ireland, which he summed up as: "Stay Local".[293] The fourth and final phase of easing COVID-19 restrictions in Ireland was initially scheduled to take place on 20 July, but was repeatedly postponed until 31 August at the earliest.[294][295]

On 7 August, Taoiseach Micheál Martin announced a regional lockdown and a series of measures for counties Kildare, Laois and Offaly following significant increases of COVID-19 cases in the three counties, which came into effect from midnight and will remain in place for two weeks.[296][297][298] On 21 August, localised restrictions in Laois and Offaly were lifted, but was extended for another two weeks in Kildare.[299] Restrictions in Kildare were lifted by the government with immediate effect on 31 August.[300]

On 15 September, the Government of Ireland announced a medium-term plan for living with COVID-19 that includes five levels of restrictions, with the entire country at Level 2 and specific restrictions in Dublin.[301][302]

All non-essential businesses and services closed and all public and private gatherings of any number of people was banned again on 21 October following the Government's announcement to move the entire country to Level 5 lockdown restrictions for six weeks until 1 December.[303][304][305]

Italy[edit]

Queue in front of an Italian supermarket after the introduction of social distancing rules

On 9 March 2020, the government of Italy under Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte imposed a national quarantine, restricting the movement of the population except for necessity, work, and health circumstances, in response to the growing pandemic of COVID-19 in the country. Additional lockdown restrictions mandated the temporary closure of non-essential shops and businesses. This followed a restriction announced on the previous day which affected sixteen million people in the whole region of Lombardy and in fourteen largely-neighbouring provinces in Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, Piedmont and Marche, and prior to that a smaller-scale lockdown of ten municipalities in the province of Lodi and one in the province of Padua that had begun in late February. The restrictions were loosened in May 2020.

The lockdown measures, despite being widely approved by the public opinion,[306] were also described as the largest suppression of constitutional rights in the history of the republic.[307] Nevertheless, Article 16 of the Constitution states that travel restrictions may be established by law for reasons of health or security.[308]

Malaysia[edit]

Namibia[edit]

Beginning 27 March, a 21-day lockdown of the regions of Erongo and Khomas was announced.[309] On 14 April the lockdown was extended to 4 May. It now officially applied to all regions, although the stay-at-home order was already enforced countrywide. Only essential businesses remained open. Schools were closed, parliamentary sessions suspended, and generally all gatherings of more than 10 people were prohibited.[310] Formal and informal bars were closed and the sale of alcohol prohibited. This "stage 1" of the lockdown was in force until 4 May 2020. From then on, regulations are to be gradually eased.[311]

New Zealand[edit]

On 23 March 2020, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern raised New Zealand's COVID-19 alert level[312] to three and announced the closure of all schools beginning on that day, and two days later moved to four at 11:59 p.m. on 25 March 2020 – a nationwide lockdown. While all sporting matches and events as well as non-essential services such as pools, bars, cafes, restaurants, playgrounds closed, essential services such as supermarkets, petrol stations, and health services remained open.[313][314][315]

The alert level was moved back down to Level 3 at 11:59 pm on 27 April, and moved to Level 2 at 11:59 pm on 13 May, lifting the rest of the lockdown restrictions while maintaining physical distancing.[316] On 8 June, Prime Minister Ardern announced that New Zealand would be entering into Alert Level 1 at midnight on 9 June, lifting restrictions on daily life, business activities, mass gatherings and public transportation. However, the country's borders would remain closed to most international travel.[317]

Following a new outbreak of community transmission in Auckland on 11 August, the Government placed the Auckland Region on a Level 3 lockdown from 12:00 am on 12 August while the rest of the country move to Level 2 at the same time.[318][319][320] On 30 August, Prime Minister Ardern announced that Auckland would enter into "Alert Level 2.5" from 11:59pm on that night while the rest of the country would remain on Level 2. Under Level 2.5, all social gatherings including birthday parties will be limited to ten people; masks will be mandatory for all Aucklanders using public transportation; and aged care facilities will be operating under strict conditions. The only public gatherings allowed in Auckland are funerals and tangihanga, which will be limited to 50 people.[321][322]

Philippines[edit]

Community quarantines in the Philippines (as of October 1)
  Modified enhanced community quarantine
  General community quarantine
  Modified general community quarantine
As a measure to limit the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Philippines, lockdowns, officially characterized as "community quarantines" by the government, of varying strictness were imposed in numerous parts of the country. The "enhanced community quarantine" (ECQ) is the strictest of such measures. The largest of these measures was the enhanced community quarantine in Luzon.

Singapore[edit]

The 2020 Singapore circuit breaker measures, abbreviated as CB, was a stay-at-home order and cordon sanitaire implemented as a preventive measure by the Government of Singapore in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the country on 7 April 2020.

Officially, the CB was enforced by the COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) (Control Order) Regulations 2020, published on 7 April 2020.[323]

United Kingdom[edit]

At 8:30 p.m. on 23 March 2020, Boris Johnson announced a stay-at-home order effective immediately,[324][dubious ] though only legally effective from 1:00 p.m. on 26 March 2020, through The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Restrictions) (England) Regulations 2020.[325] The slogan "Stay Home, Protect the NHS, Save Lives" was used. All non-essential shops and services were ordered to close, and police were granted powers to issue fines, send people home, especially persons suspected of being infected, and to break up gatherings of more than two people. The British population was instructed to stay home, except for exercise once a day (such as running, walking or cycling), shopping for essential items, any medical need, providing care to a vulnerable person, or travelling to work where the work in question was vital and could not be done from home. Johnson stated that the stay-at-home order would be reviewed every three weeks.[326] Working with general practitioners, the NHS strongly advised (though did not mandate) that those at the highest risk of severe complications from COVID-19 follow special shielding measures. These included not leaving their home at all, even for essential reasons, and keeping two meters apart from other household members.

The April lockdown left an significant impact on the economy, resulting in shrinking it by a fifth, i.e. 20%. The "circuit-breaker" lockdown, which is expected to be relatively less intense could hit the economy by 5% or more. As per Capital Economics, the estimated time required for the economy to get back to the pre-pandemic levels is a year to 2023.[327]

On 11 May, the UK-wide rules fractured and separate rules were announced at various times for the country's constituent territories. In England, the slogan changed to "Stay Alert, Control the Virus, Save Lives" and those who could not work from home, including specifically construction and manufacturing workers, were encouraged to return to work albeit avoiding the use of public transport. Additionally, the once-a-day limit on exercise was lifted. The COVID-19 threat level system was introduced, and the "Stay Home" phase was announced to be equivalent to Level 4 (where 1 meant "COVID-19 is not known to be present in the UK", and 5 meant "The circulation of COVID-19 is high and rising exponentially and there is a material risk of healthcare being overwhelmed"). Meanwhile, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland retained "Stay home, Protect the NHS, Save Lives" for the time being.

On 13 May, those in England were allowed to meet one other person not from their household outside whilst maintaining a 2-metre social distance,[328] and from 28 May groups of up to six from different households were allowed to meet outside, keeping a safe distance.

From 1 June, English primary schools were encouraged to re-open to Reception, Year 1 and Year 6, and extremely vulnerable people shielding at home were advised it was safe to go outside for once-daily, socially-distanced exercise, for the first time in approximately two months.

From 15 June, non-essential retail reopened, and English secondary schools were asked to prepare to provide Year 10 and Year 12 students with some face-to-face meetings to support their home learning for essential upcoming exams the next year. It also became mandatory to wear face coverings in healthcare settings and on public transport.

From 4 July, most other businesses were allowed to reopen, except for those considered to pose the highest risk such as indoor gyms, and social gathering rules were relaxed further. Most notably, the two-meter rule was relaxed to one meter apart, where other mitigations such as face coverings were being used. The only legal measure that remained, except for face coverings on public transport and in healthcare, was an upper legal limit of 30 on gatherings (except in 'local lockdown' areas, see below), but people were advised to limit gatherings to either two households in any indoor or outdoor, public or private setting, or to a maximum of six, outdoors only, when people gathering were from more than two households.

From 24 July, it became mandatory in England to wear a face covering in shops and supermarkets.[329]

By 15 August, most other businesses, including indoor theatres, casinos and bowling alleys, had been allowed to reopen. Nightclubs and sexual entertainment venues, however, remained closed.

On 16 October, Northern Ireland commenced a partial lockdown.[330][331]

Starting on 17 October, the government announced that London would move to Tier 2 lockdown following a spike in cases, banning people from mixing indoors privately.[332]

On 23 October, Wales commenced a partial lockdown.

On 31 October, it was announced that a partial lockdown would commence in England from 5 November 2020, to last for 4 weeks up to and including 2 December.[333]

United States[edit]

States, territories, and counties that issued a stay-at-home order:
  Came into effect before 22 March
  Came into effect before 29 March
  Came into effect before 5 April
  Came into effect before 12 April

Stay-at-home orders in the United States have come from several states and a large number of local jurisdictions, sometimes leading to conflicts between different levels of government and a patchwork of inconsistent dates and rules.[334][335][336]

On 15 March 2020, Puerto Rico governor Wanda Vázquez Garced signed an executive order to order all citizens to stay home starting at 9 p.m. with exceptions in limited circumstances between 5 a.m. and 9 pm. Governmental operations and non-essential businesses were to be closed until 30 March.[337]

The first order within the states was simultaneously imposed by health authorities in heart of the San Francisco Bay Area (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Mateo, and Santa Clara counties and the cities of San Francisco and Berkeley) effective 17 March 2020, affecting nearly 6.7 million people.[338] Other cities and counties across the state followed suit over the next two days, until Gavin Newsom, the governor of California, issued a statewide order effective 19 March 2020.[339]

On 20 March 2020, New York governor Andrew Cuomo announced the statewide stay-at-home order with a mandate that 100% of non-essential workforce to be conducted as working from home effective 22 March.[340] Illinois governor J. B. Pritzker followed that lead on the same day with a statewide order which would go into effect on 21 March at 5 pm.[341] Ned Lamont, the governor of Connecticut, signed an executive order called "Stay Safe, Stay At Home" to take effect statewide on 23 March at 8 p.m.

On 20 March 2020, Navajo Nation announced that it had broadened the stay-at-home order to cover the entire reservation, the largest in the country.[342]

On 21 March 2020, New Jersey governor Phil Murphy announced a statewide stay-at-home order effective at 9 p.m. on the same day.[343]

On 22 March 2020, Ohio governor Mike DeWine and Ohio Department of Health director Amy Acton issued a statewide stay-at-home order effective 23 March.[344] In the afternoon, the Louisiana governor John Bel Edwards announced a statewide stay-at-home order in a press conference.[345] Delaware governor John Carney followed suit with a stay-at-home order for his state.[346]

Variable-message sign along Interstate 95 in Prince George's County, Maryland telling people to stay home and only travel for essential purposes

On 23 March 2020, several state governors announced their statewide stay-at-home order:

  • Massachusetts governor Charlie Baker ordered non-essential businesses to close in-person operations effective 24 March until 7 April and directed the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to issue a stay-at-home advisory.[347]
  • Michigan governor Gretchen Whitmer announced her statewide executive order to stay-at-home at 11:00 am for all non-essential businesses effective 24 March until 28 May.[348]
  • Indiana governor Eric Holcomb announced statewide stay-at-home order effective 25 March until 7 April.[349]
  • West Virginia governor Jim Justice ordered non-essential businesses to be closed immediately, and stay-at-home order effective at 8 pm.[350]
  • After growing calls from local officials on Sunday, Oregon governor Kate Brown issued a stay-at-home order on Monday effective immediately with class C misdemeanor charges for violators.[351]
  • New Mexico governor Michelle Lujan Grisham announced a statewide stay-at-home order that requires 100% of non-essential business workforce to work from home effective 24 March until 10 April.[352]
  • Washington governor Jay Inslee signed a statewide stay-at-home proclamation and ordered to close non-essential businesses effective 25 March for two weeks.[353]
  • Hawaii governor David Ige issued a statewide stay-at-home order effective 25 March which was similar to the orders that were previously issued for Maui and Honolulu counties.[354][355]

On 23 March 2020, Yakama Nation announced its "Stay Home, Stay Healthy" order.[356]

On 24 March 2020, Wisconsin governor Tony Evers issued a statewide stay-at-home order to close all non-essential businesses and ordered no gatherings of any size effective 25 March until 24 April.[357] Vermont governor Phil Scott signed a stay-at-home order and directed closure of in-person operations of non-essential businesses effective 25 March until 15 April.[358]

On 25 March, Idaho governor Brad Little and Minnesota governor Tim Walz issued stay-at-home orders for their respective states.[359][360] Colorado Governor Jared Polis issued a stay at home order effective on Thursday the 26th at 6 a.m. through 11 April 2020.[361]

On 2 April, Georgia governor Brian Kemp issued a stay-at-home order effective Friday, 3 April 2020, until Monday, 13 April 2020.[362] It overrules any local stay-at-home restrictions previously in place, and instructs residents to stay at home unless they're conducting "essential services," meaning either traveling to and from jobs or other exceptions, including buying groceries; purchasing medical equipment; going out to exercise; and visiting medical facilities.[363] The same day, Dr. Anthony Fauci publicly questioned why all states were not under stay-at-home orders.[364][365]

In late May 2020, citywide curfews were enacted in San Francisco and several surrounding cities; San Jose; Minneapolis; Atlanta; Chicago; Cleveland; Columbus; Denver; Jacksonville, FL; Los Angeles; Memphis, TN; Omaha, Nebraska; Lincoln, Nebraska; Pittsburgh, Philadelphia; Portland; Salt Lake City; San Antonio; Buffalo, New York; Rochester; Syracuse; New York City; Milwaukee; Seattle; Cincinnati; Indianapolis, Indiana; Fayetteville; Raleigh, North Carolina; Charleston, SC; Sacramento, CA; Columbia, SC; and Asheville, NC due to protests[366] regarding the killing of George Floyd. Countywide curfews were enacted for Los Angeles County, California and Alameda County, California as well. Arizona enacted a statewide curfew. These curfews are imposed as complemented to stay-at-home order that imposed by state or local authorities.

On 2 November 2020, Massachusetts governor Charlie Baker issued a nighttime stay-at-home order effective 6 November 2020.[367]

Countries and territories without lockdowns[edit]

Almost all countries and territories affected with COVID-19 have introduced and enforced some form of lockdown. However, countries like South Korea and Taiwan, which relied on contact tracing by cellphones, have far fewer cases and deaths. Among the ones not following this strategy are, most notably, Sweden.[368] Measures in Sweden included the closing of universities and high schools and asking older and at-risk residents to avoid social contact, while keeping restaurants, primary schools and kindergartens open.[369]

Countries in Asia without lockdowns include, Japan[370] and South Korea.[371]

Nicaragua[372] is also yet to impose a lockdown while a proposed lockdown by the government has been ordered to be delayed by the High Court in Malawi.[373]

In the United States and Brazil, a handful of states have not introduced any lockdown-type measures (commonly known as "stay-at-home orders").[374][375]

Countries and territories without lockdowns
Countries and territories Ref
Belarus [376]
Brazil Roraima [377][378]
Rondônia
Burundi [379]
East Timor
Estonia
Finland
Iceland
Japan [370]
Latvia
Malawi [373]
Tanzania
Nicaragua [372]
South Korea [371]
Sweden
Taiwan [380]
United States Arkansas [374][375]
Iowa
Nebraska
North Dakota
South Dakota
Wyoming
Florida
Uruguay [381]

Debate[edit]

Several analysts have claimed that lockdowns have saved lives in the aggregate, although admitting that data is insufficient to know how much of the reduction came from voluntary social distancing.[382][383] A study investigating the spread based on studies of the most common symptoms such as loss of taste and smell in France, Italy and the UK showed a marked decrease in new symptoms just a few days after the start of confinement on the countries (Italy and France) with the strongest lockdowns.[384]

Other epidemiologists have asserted that generalized lockdowns were enacted without reliable supporting data.[385][386] Empirical studies[387][388] have questioned whether lockdowns actually saved lives, since they did not target the most vulnerable and elderly populations[389] yet risked new "deaths of despair" from unemployment and poverty.[390] Further criticism has targeted the Imperial College projection[391] that originally motivated generalized lockdowns in the US[392] and UK[393] as overly extreme and based on poorly designed code.[394] Other academics have defended the Imperial projection as fundamentally sound, while admitting the code was "a buggy mess."[395]

Some advocates of small government claim that the state will be reluctant to give up power once the crisis is over, as has often been the case historically.[396] Due to the perceived severity of such measures and the increase in government power, there has been much controversy surrounding lockdowns as a concept, with epidemiologists being divided on the issue, with notable proponents for lockdowns including Imperial College London's Neil Ferguson and Cambridge's Rajiv Chowdhury, and those against lockdowns including Mainz's Sucharit Bhakdi and Sweden's state epidemiologist: Anders Tegnell.[397][398] American global health physicians Ranu Dhillon and Abraar Karan have argued for "smarter lockdowns" which use granular epidemiological data to only impose restrictions on areas with high levels of transmission, and to increase support to vulnerable populations in these locations to offset the economic costs.[399]

Economists generally supported increased government funding for mitigation efforts, even at the cost of tolerating a very large economic contraction. They agreed that lockdowns should continue until the threat of resurgence has declined, even when considering only the economic impact.[400] There was consensus, at least in some economic circles, that "severe lockdowns — including closing non-essential businesses and strict limitations on people's movement — are likely to be better for the economy in the medium term than less aggressive measures".[401]

Lockdowns also have significant psychosocial impacts with increased rates of psychological distress, anxiety, and family harm being reported during stringent lockdowns.[402][403] However, it is not yet clear to what extent this increase in psychological distress is attributable directly to lockdown factors (e.g., isolation and direct economic impacts of lockdown), as opposed to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, which would persist in the absence of a lockdown.

Both the World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have published statements noting the impact of the lockdowns on livelihoods and food security, and Dr David Nabarro, WHO Special Envoy on COVID-19 stated in October 2020 that "lockdowns just have one consequence that you must never ever belittle, and that is making poor people an awful lot poorer".[404][405][406]

Voluntary versus mandatory lockdown[edit]

One study led by an Obama administration economist at the University of Chicago found that involuntary lockdowns had little impact, with voluntary distancing making up nearly 90% of the fall in consumer traffic as people feared the virus itself.[407] Similarly, a NBER study found stay-at-home orders increased staying at home by just 5–10%.[408] Another study from Yale University found that most social distancing was voluntary, driven primarily by "media coverage of morbidity and mortality."[409]

On the other hand, two studies have argued[383][410] that coercive measures probably decreased interactions, while accepting that most of the reduction may have been voluntary. One widely cited economic simulation asserting that shelter-in-place orders reduced total cases three-fold, however, held voluntary distancing constant.[411] Another study found a 30% difference among border-counties where stay-at-home orders were imposed.[412]

Since the beginning of the pandemic, Google has consistently collected data on movements, showing rapid declines in public activity long before legal restrictions were imposed. An April poll found that 93% of Americans voluntarily chose to only leave home when necessary, regardless of legal restrictions.

See also[edit]

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