The CPR-1000, or CPR1000, (improved Chinese PWR) is a Generation II+ pressurized water reactor, based on the French 900 MWe three cooling loop design imported in the 1990s, improved to have a net power output of 1,000 MWe (1080 MWe gross) and a 60 year design life.
The CPR-1000 is built and operated by the China General Nuclear Power Group (CGNPG), formerly known as China Guangdong Nuclear Power. For the second unit[clarification needed] 70% of equipment is produced in China, working toward a 90% future target.
This represents the first (principally) Chinese reactor, intended for the international market. If this reactor is built abroad, then China becomes among the six countries to export reactors.
The CPR-1000 has been quickly deployed in China with fifteen units under construction at the time of June 2010. On 15 July 2010, China’s first CPR-1000 nuclear power plant, Ling Ao-3, was connected to the grid, having started criticality testing on 11 June 2010. It started commercial operations on 27 September 2010, with Ling Ao-4 starting commercial operation on 7 August 2011.
Four interim reactors at Daya Bay and Ling Ao Phase 1 are sometimes called CPR-1000s, but these are closely based on the French 900 MWe design (M310), with net power output below 1,000 MWe, and using mostly imported components.
Some CPR-1000 intellectual property rights are retained by Areva, which limits overseas sales potential. However the Financial Times reported in 2010 that Areva was considering marketing the CPR-1000 as a smaller and simpler second-generation reactor design alongside its larger EPR, for countries that are new to nuclear power. In January 2012, CGNPG agreed a partnership with Areva and EDF to develop a reactor based on the CPR-1000, which may create a design converged with Mitsubishi and Areva's 1000 MWe Atmea reactor.
In 2010, CGNPG announced a further design evolution to a Generation III level, the ACPR1000, which would also replace intellectual property right-limited components. CGNPG aimed to be able to independently market the ACPR1000 for export by 2013. CGNPG has been conducting the development work in cooperation with Dongfang Electric, Shanghai Electric, Harbin Electric, China First Heavy Industries and China Erzhong.
Following the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a revised design called at the time ACPR1000+ was described. Features include double containment to protect against external explosions and airplanes, improved seismic capability to 0.3 g, increased core thermal margins and improved operation systems. The gross power output has been increased to 1150 MWe. The ACPR1000+ is envisaged for export from 2014.
Hualong merged design
Since 2011 CGNPG has been progressively merging the ACPR1000 with the China National Nuclear Corporation ACP1000 design, while allowing some differences, under direction of the Chinese nuclear regulator. Both are three-loop designs originally based on the same French design, but now have different nuclear cores.
In early 2014 it was announced that the merged design was moving from preliminary design to detailed design. Power output will be 1150 MWe, with a 60-year design life, and would use a combination of passive and active safety systems with a double containment. Initially the merged design was to be called the ACC1000, but ultimately it was named Hualong One or Hualong-1. In August 2014 the Chinese nuclear regulator review panel classified the design as a Generation III reactor design, with independently owned intellectual property rights.
The first units to be constructed will be Fuqing 5 and 6, and Fangjiashan 3 and 4. Two reactors are planned at Karachi Nuclear Power Complex in Pakistan and a build has been proposed in Argentina.
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