The CPR-1000, or CPR1000, (improved Chinese PWR) is a Generation II+ pressurized water reactor, based on the French 900 MWe three cooling loop design imported in the 1990s, improved to have a net power output of 1,000 MWe (1080 MWe gross) and a 60-year design life.
The CPR-1000 is built and operated by the China General Nuclear Power Group (CGNPG), formerly known as China Guangdong Nuclear Power. For the second unit[clarification needed] 70% of equipment is produced in China, working toward a 90% future target.
This represents the first (principally) Chinese reactor, intended for the international market. If this reactor is built abroad, then China becomes among the six countries to export reactors.
The CPR-1000 has been quickly deployed in China with fifteen units under construction at the time of June 2010. On 15 July 2010, China’s first CPR-1000 nuclear power plant, Ling Ao-3, was connected to the grid, having started criticality testing on 11 June 2010. It started commercial operations on 27 September 2010, with Ling Ao-4 starting commercial operation on 7 August 2011.
Four interim reactors at Daya Bay and Ling Ao Phase 1 are sometimes called CPR-1000s, but these are closely based on the French 900 MWe design (M310), with net power output below 1,000 MWe, and using mostly imported components.
Some CPR-1000 intellectual property rights are retained by Areva, which limits overseas sales potential. However the Financial Times reported in 2010 that Areva was considering marketing the CPR-1000 as a smaller and simpler second-generation reactor design alongside its larger EPR, for countries that are new to nuclear power. In January 2012, CGNPG agreed a partnership with Areva and EDF to develop a reactor based on the CPR-1000, which may create a design converged with Mitsubishi and Areva's 1000 MWe Atmea reactor.
In 2010, CGNPG announced a further design evolution to a Generation III level, the ACPR1000, which would also replace intellectual property right-limited components. CGNPG aimed to be able to independently market the ACPR1000 for export by 2013. CGNPG has been conducting the development work in cooperation with Dongfang Electric, Shanghai Electric, Harbin Electric, China First Heavy Industries and China Erzhong.
Following the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a revised design called at the time ACPR1000+ was described. Features include double containment to protect against external explosions and airplanes, improved seismic capability to 0.3 g, increased core thermal margins and improved operation systems. The gross power output has been increased to 1150 MWe. The ACPR1000+ is envisaged for export from 2014.
Hualong One merged design
Since 2011 CGNPG has been progressively merging the ACPR1000 with the China National Nuclear Corporation ACP1000 design, while allowing some differences, under direction of the Chinese nuclear regulator. Both are three-loop designs originally based on the same French design, but now have different nuclear cores.
In early 2014 it was announced that the merged design was moving from preliminary design to detailed design. Power output will be 1150 MWe, with a 60-year design life, and would use a combination of passive and active safety systems with a double containment. Initially the merged design was to be called the ACC1000, but ultimately it was named Hualong One or Hualong-1, or HPR-1000 ending 2015. In August 2014 the Chinese nuclear regulator review panel classified the design as a Generation III reactor design, with independently owned intellectual property rights.
The first units to be constructed will be Fuqing 5 and 6, followed by Fangjiashan 3 and 4, Fangchenggang 3 and 4. Two reactors are planned at Karachi Nuclear Power Complex in Pakistan and a build has been proposed in Argentina.
In December 2015 China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGN) and China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) agreed to create Hualong International Nuclear Power Technology Co as a joint venture to promote the Hualong One in overseas markets.
- "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. 2 July 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "First power at China’s Ling Ao". Nuclear Engineering International. 16 July 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
- "Reactor starts up at Ling Ao II". World Nuclear News. 11 June 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "New Ling Ao II unit enters into service". World Nuclear News. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- "Second Ling Ao II unit enters service". World Nuclear News. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- CPR1000 Design, Safety Performance and Operability, Steven Lau, Daya Bay Nuclear Power Operations and Management Company, 5 July 2011
- "Fuel loading starts at new Chinese reactor". World Nuclear News. 22 April 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- Peggy Hollinger (15 January 2010). "Areva considers producing cheaper reactors". Financial Times. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- Peggy Hollinger (19 October 2010). "Energy: Cooling ambitions". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
- "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. July 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- Geert De Clercq and Benjamin Mallet (28 February 2013). "Areva sticks with plan to build 10 nuclear reactors by 2016". Reuters. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "China prepares to export reactors". World Nuclear News. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- "The ACPR1000 with Chinese IPR debuts at the international market". Xinhua. 17 November 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- "Yangjiang 1 commercial operation makes site China's sixth working NPP". Nuclear Engineering International. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- Yun Zhou (31 July 2013). "China: The next few years are crucial for nuclear industry growth". Ux Consulting (Nuclear Engineering International). Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- "ACPR1000+". China Guangdong Nuclear Power Company. Archived from the original on 2013-05-13. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "ACPR1000+ (powerpoint)". China Guangdong Nuclear Power Company. Archived from the original on 2013-05-13. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. 24 September 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- "CGN Chairman He Yu Makes Proposal for Promoting Export of China-designed Nuclear Power Technology ACC1000". CGN. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- Caroline Peachey (22 May 2014). "Chinese reactor design evolution". Nuclear Engineering International. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "CGN’s Fangchenggang-3 begins construction with first concrete pour". China General Nuclear Power Corporation. 24 December 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "Chinese firms join forces to market Hualong One abroad". World Nuclear News. 31 December 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "China's new nuclear baby". World Nuclear News. 2 September 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- "Independent Gen-III Hualong-1 reactor technology passes national review". CGN. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- "Construction cleared for China's first Hualong One units". World Nuclear News. 16 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- China commits $6.5 billion for nuclear power project in Karachi
- Local Fallout From Pakistan's Nuclear Energy Bet
- Construction cleared for China's first Hualong One units
- "Hualong One deployment at Fuqing 5". World Nuclear News. 4 November 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- "Hualong One selected for Argentina". World Nuclear News. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Charlie Zhu and David Stanway (6 March 2015). "'Made in China' nuclear reactors a tough sell in global market". Reuters. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- CPR1000 Design, Safety Performance and Operability, Steven Lau, Daya Bay Nuclear Power Operations and Management Company, 5 July 2011.
- The Proprietary Brand Technology of Chinese Nuclear Power 1000MW - CPR1000, Dr. Shaozhang Cui, President, China Nuclear Power Design Company, ISSNP 2008.