CPR-1000

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The CPR-1000, or CPR1000 (Chinese PWR) is a Generation II+ pressurized water reactor, based on the French 900 MWe three cooling loop design (M310) imported in the 1980s, improved to have a slightly increased net power output of 1,000 MWe (1080 MWe gross) and a 60-year design life.

The CPR-1000 is built and operated by the China General Nuclear Power Group (CGNPG), formerly known as China Guangdong Nuclear Power. Progressively more Chinese manufactured components were used in the units; the second unit built had 70% of its equipment manufactured in China, with a 90% Chinese content target for later builds.[1]

Construction[edit]

On 15 July 2010, China's first CPR-1000 nuclear power plant, Ling Ao-3, was connected to the grid,[2] having started criticality testing on 11 June 2010.[3] It started commercial operations on 27 September 2010,[4] with Ling Ao-4 starting commercial operation on 7 August 2011.[5]

18 CPR-1000 reactors have been built as of December 2019.[6] Besides Ling Ao unit 3 & 4, the CPR-1000 reactor has been realised in Fangchenggang (unit 1 & 2), Fangjiashan (unit 1 & 2), Hongyanhe (unit 1–4), Ningde (unit 1–4), Yangjiang (unit 1–4).[7]

Design[edit]

On the basis of the M310, CGN developed an improved Generation II pressurized water reactor called CPR-1000.[8] CPR-1000 takes a large proportion in all the reactors being built in China. The M310 uses as its base design units 5 & 6 of the Gravelines Nuclear Power Station in France.[1]

The CPR-1000 has a 1086 MWe capacity, a three-loop design and 157 fuel assemblies (active length 12 ft), enriched to 4.5% U-235. The fuel assembly design is AREVA's 17x17 AFA 3G M5, which can be fabricated in China. Other features include has a design life that could extend beyond 40 years and an 18-month fuel cycle. It has a digital instrumentation and control system, and is equipped with hydrogen recombiners and containment spray pumps.[9]

The original M310 reactors at Daya Bay and Ling Ao Phase 1 are sometimes also called CPR-1000s, but these are closely based on the French 900 MWe design (M310), with net power output below 1,000 MWe, and using mostly imported components.[10]

Some CPR-1000 intellectual property rights are retained by Areva, which limits overseas sales potential.[6] However the Financial Times reported in 2010 that Areva was considering marketing the CPR-1000 as a smaller and simpler second-generation reactor design alongside its larger EPR, for countries that are new to nuclear power.[11][12] In January 2012, CGNPG agreed a partnership with Areva and EDF to develop a reactor based on the CPR-1000,[13] which may create a design converged with Mitsubishi and Areva's 1000 MWe Atmea reactor.[14]

CNP-1000 is a similar 3-loop-design by CNNC, but with a different reactor core.

ACPR-1000[edit]

In 2010, CGNPG announced a further design evolution to a Generation III level, the ACPR-1000, which would also replace intellectual property right-limited components from the CPR-1000. CGNPG aimed to be able to independently market the ACPR-1000 for export by 2013.[15] CGNPG has been conducting the development work in cooperation with Dongfang Electric, Shanghai Electric, Harbin Electric, China First Heavy Industries and China Erzhong.[16]

The core of the ACPR1000 comprises 157 fuel assemblies (active length 14 ft) and has a design life of 60 years.[9] Other features include a core catcher and double containment as additional safety measures[17] and ten major technical improvements over its predecessor the CPR-1000. It was the first Chinese reactor to have a domestically developed digital control system.[18] Unit 5 and 6 at Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant are similarly classified as ACPRs.

Yangjiang 5 was the first construction of an ACPR-1000 reactor, starting in late 2013.[19] It began commercial operation in July 2018.

ACPR-1000+[edit]

Following the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a revised design called at the time ACPR-1000+ was described. Features include double containment to protect against external explosions and airplanes, improved seismic capability to 0.3 g, increased core thermal margins and improved operation systems.[20] The gross power output has been increased to 1150 MWe.[21] The ACPR-1000+ was envisaged for export from 2014.[13]

Merger of ACP-1000 and ACPR-1000 into Hualong One[edit]

Since 2011, CNNC has been progressively merging its ACP-1000 nuclear power station design[22] with the CGN ACPR-1000 design, while allowing some differences, under direction of the Chinese nuclear regulator. Both are three-loop designs originally based on the same French M310 design used in Daya Bay with 157 fuel assemblies, but went through different development processes (CNNC's ACP-1000 has a more domestic design with 177 fuel assemblies while CGN's ACPR-1000 is a closer copy with 157 fuel assemblies).[23] In early 2014, it was announced that the merged design was moving from preliminary design to detailed design. Power output will be 1150 MWe, with a 60-year design life, and would use a combination of passive and active safety systems with a double containment. CNNC's 177 fuel assembly design was retained.

Initially the merged design was to be called the ACC-1000,[24][25][26] but ultimately it was named Hualong One. In August 2014 the Chinese nuclear regulator review panel classified the design as a Generation III reactor design, with independently owned intellectual property rights.[27][28] As a result of the success of the merger, ACP-1000 and ACPR-1000 designs are no longer being offered.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lau, Steven (5 July 2011). "CPR1000 Design, Safety Performance and Operability" (PDF). Daya Bay Nuclear Power Operations and Management Company. IAEA. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  2. ^ "First power at China's Ling Ao". Nuclear Engineering International. 16 July 2010. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
  3. ^ "Reactor starts up at Ling Ao II". World Nuclear News. 11 June 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  4. ^ "New Ling Ao II unit enters into service". World Nuclear News. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
  5. ^ "Second Ling Ao II unit enters service". World Nuclear News. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  6. ^ a b "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. December 2019. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  7. ^ "China, People's Republic of". Power Reactor Information System (PRIS). International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 2020-01-02. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  8. ^ "Cpr1000,中国改进型压水堆核电技术". Archived from the original on 2010-03-31. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
  9. ^ a b "Chinese reactor design evolution - Nuclear Engineering International".
  10. ^ "Fuel loading starts at new Chinese reactor". World Nuclear News. 22 April 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  11. ^ Peggy Hollinger (15 January 2010). "Areva considers producing cheaper reactors". Financial Times. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  12. ^ Peggy Hollinger (19 October 2010). "Energy: Cooling ambitions". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
  13. ^ a b "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. July 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  14. ^ Geert De Clercq and Benjamin Mallet (28 February 2013). "Areva sticks with plan to build 10 nuclear reactors by 2016". Reuters. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  15. ^ "China prepares to export reactors". World Nuclear News. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  16. ^ "The ACPR1000 with Chinese IPR debuts at the international market". Xinhua. 17 November 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-10-22. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  17. ^ Yun Zhou (31 July 2013). "China: The next few years are crucial for nuclear industry growth". Ux Consulting. Nuclear Engineering International. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  18. ^ "Yangjiang 5 enters commercial operation". World Nuclear News. 13 July 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  19. ^ "Yangjiang 1 commercial operation makes site China's sixth working NPP". Nuclear Engineering International. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  20. ^ "ACPR1000+". China Guangdong Nuclear Power Company. Archived from the original on 2013-05-13. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  21. ^ "ACPR1000+ (powerpoint)". China Guangdong Nuclear Power Company. Archived from the original on 2013-05-13. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  22. ^ Wang Yanjun; et al. (22 May 2013). "I&C application status in NPPs in China" (PDF). China Nuclear Power Engineering Co. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  23. ^ "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. 24 September 2013. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  24. ^ "CGN Chairman He Yu Makes Proposal for Promoting Export of China-designed Nuclear Power Technology ACC1000". CGN. 6 March 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  25. ^ "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. April 2014. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  26. ^ Caroline Peachey (22 May 2014). "Chinese reactor design evolution". Nuclear Engineering International. Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  27. ^ "China's new nuclear baby". World Nuclear News. 2 September 2014. Archived from the original on 8 September 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  28. ^ "Independent Gen-III Hualong-1 reactor technology passes national review". CGN. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.

External links[edit]