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CSMG-2 motor coach (no. 1410) on
Budapest's line 24 in 2014
Budapešť 1078.jpg
Interior of a modernized CSMG (KCSV-7)
motor coach in 2011
In service 1967–present
(48–49 years)
Manufacturer underframe, bogies and carbody:
Ganz-MÁVAG Mozdony-, Vagon- és Gépgyár
Budapest Hungary
traction system:
Ganz Villamossági Gyár
Budapest Hungary
Replaced FVV CSM Bengáli, Ganz UV
Constructed CSMG prototypes:
Entered service 1967
(49 years ago)
Refurbishment 1970–1975,
(1 CSMG into KCSV-5),
(20 CSMG into KCSV-7)
Scrapped 2009
Number built CSMG prototypes: 2
CSMG-1: 35
CSMG-2: 87
CSMG-3: 30
total: 154
Number preserved at least 1
Number scrapped at least 2
(CSMG prototypes)
Formation MC,[a] MC+MC
Fleet numbers CSMG prototypes:
3730, 3731
1336–1390, 1420–1451
Capacity CSMG cars:
201 passengers,[b]
30 seats
(13xx cars)
196 passengers,
38 seats
(14xx cars)
201 passengers,
30 seats
192 passengers,
36 seats
Operator(s) Fővárosi Villamosvasút (FVV),
Budapest,  Hungary
Budapesti Közlekedési Vállalat (BKV),
Budapest,  Hungary
Car body construction steel
Car length carbody:
26,000 mm (85 ft 4 in)
between couplers:
26,900 mm (88 ft 3 in)
Width 2,300 mm (7 ft 7 in)
Height CSMG cars:
3,100 mm (10 ft 2 in)
KCSV cars:
3,500 mm (11 ft 6 in)
Floor height 850 mm (2 ft 9 in)
Entry step
Doors folding doors,
5 per side,
CSMG prototypes until 1974:
folding doors,
4 per side,
Articulated sections two
CSMG prototypes until 1974:
Wheel diameter 670 mm (2 ft 2 in)
Wheelbase 1,800 mm (5 ft 11 in)
Maximum speed 50 km/h (31 mph)
Weight CSMG cars:
33,600 kg (37.0 short tons)
KCSV cars:
34,000 kg (37 short tons)
Traction system 4 × Ganz TK 44
Power output CSMG cars:
4 × 66 hp (49 kW)
(=264 hp (197 kW))
KCSV cars:
4 × 61 hp (46 kW)
(=244 hp (182 kW))
Auxiliaries 24 V DC
Power supply 24 V DC
Train heating electric heating
(originally only on CSMG-1)
Electric system(s) 600 V DC from overhead line
Current collection method pantograph
UIC classification Bo'2'2'Bo'tr[c]
CSMG prototypes until 1974:
Bogies pivoting
Braking system(s) electric
Safety system(s) proprietary tramset breakage sensing system
Coupling system mechanical:
Alemann-type trichterkupplung
proprietary DC connectors
Multiple working only with same type
Headlight type incandescent light bulbs
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)

The Ganz CSMG (Hungarian pronunciation: [ɡɒŋz ˈt͡ʃeːɛmɡeː]), known in official FVV/BKV records as GCSM,[d] or sometimes known as ICS,[e] is a series of tramcars which was manufactured by Hungarian companies Ganz-MÁVAG Mozdony-, Vagon- és Gépgyár ("Ganz-MÁVAG Locomotive, Carriage and Machine Factory") and Ganz Villamossági Gyár ("Ganz Electric Factory"). The CSMG tramcars have three main variants, which are all eight axle rail motor coaches with a Bo'2'2'Bo'tr axle arrangement, capable of operating as electric multiple units. The cars were manufactured in Budapest between 1964 and 1978, and in overall 152 regular units and two prototypes were made.

The official CSMG type designation resolves to Csuklós Motorkocsi, Ganz ("Articulated Motor Coach, Ganz"), this was changed to GCSM in FVV and BKV records, and the semi-official ICS resolves to Ipari Csuklós ("Industrial Articulated"), because it was the first articulated tram design in Hungary which was produced by a regular manufacturing company instead of an in-house workshop of a transit company. The units are capable of controlling another unit of their type through proprietary 50-wire cables, though traction current isn't shared between them. The trams are also capable of sensing the breakup of the tramset with a proprietary system implemented along the couplers. Two prototypes, sometimes referred to as CSMG-0, were made before mass production started, these cars originally had a single articulated joint instead of two, but later these were extended. The production variants CSMG-1, CSMG-2 and CSMG-3 were unified over the years and now they are referred to as CSMG-E. One damaged car was rebuilt with experimental features, and its type is referred to as KCSV-5.[f] Partly based on the operating experiences of this car, in the 1990s 20 CSMG cars were refurbished, their type is referred to as KCSV-7. The CSMG was intended to replace the lower capacity Ganz UV[g] and obsolete, in-house FVV CSM[h] Bengáli trams.

CSMG tramcars are still in active service in Budapest, whereas (with the exception of the two prototypes) the first scrapping took place only in 2009, when the only KCSV-5 car was taken out of service owing to maintenance difficulties. The first tramcar entered passenger service in 1967, thus the type is now in continuous service for 48–49 years. The type also carries the distinction of having one of the cars take Diana, Princess of Wales on a ride along the city's scenic Line 2 on the Danube's bank. CSMG tramcars are nicknamed as ICS or ipari csuklós ("industrial articulated"), Ganz csuklós ("Ganz articulated"), or when running in pairs, Góliát ("Goliath").

Design and manufacturing[edit]

The CSMG series was Ganz's, and thus Hungarian machine industry's first foray into articulated rail vehicle production as the obsolete CSM Bengáli tramcars made by FVV's in-house Árpád Füzesi Workshop, and Ganz's own lower capacity UV series proved to be inadequate for the growing demands of Budapest's tram network. Thus two CSMG prototypes, sometimes referred to as CSMG-0, were manufactured between 1964 and 1965. These had only one articulation, but were expanded with another body section later to resemble the production variants, as they were in passenger service for some years. After the first CSMG production run however, features were scaled back, this resulted in tramcars having less comfort, but after years of repairs and refurbishments, almost all CSMG cars converged to a general set of specifications referred to as CSMG-E (Csuklós Motorkocsi, Ganz – Egységesített, "Articulated Motor Coach, Ganz – Unified").

Eventually 3 main variants of CSMG tramcars were produced, these variants are shown in the following table.

Variant Production years Production numbers Fleet numbers Notes
1967–1970 35 1301–1335
1970–1976 87 1336–1390, 1420–1451
1977–1978 30 1452–1481

Between 1991 and 1994, a CSMG car damaged in the 1980s was rebuilt and modernized by Ganz and got the designation KCSV-5 (Korszerűsített Csuklós Villamos, 5-ös típus, "Modernized Articulated Tram, type 5"). Based on the experiences with this car, 30 CSMG cars were refurbished between 1996 and 1999, these were designated as KCSV-7 (Korszerűsített Csuklós Villamos, 7-es típus, "Modernized Articulated Tram, type 7"). These shouldn't be confused with Ganz's last articulated tram type, the similarly designated KCSV-6.

CSMG-related prototypes, refurbishments and other related vehicles are shown in the following table.

Vehicle Type Prod.
CSMG prototype
artic. motor coach,
1964–1965 2 3730,
(Csuklós Motorkocsi, Ganz – Egységesített,
"Articulated Motor Coach, Ganz – Unified")
artic. motor coach n.a. n.a. n.a. refurbished CSMG cars
(Korszerűsített Csuklós Villamos, 5-ös típus,
"Modernized Articulated Tram, type 5")
artic. motor coach,
1991–1994 1 1303 rebuilt from a damaged
CSMG car
(Korszerűsített Csuklós Villamos, 7-es típus,
"Modernized Articulated Tram, type 7")
artic. motor coach 1996–1999 30 n.a. refurbished CSMG cars
CSMG oktatókocsi
("CSMG trainer car")
artic. motor coach n.a. n.a. n.a. used as training cars for tram
drivers, have slanted red
striping on top of the livery

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ MC stands for motor coach
  2. ^ assuming 5 passengers/m²
  3. ^ the UIC axle arrangement classification appendix "tr" officially denotes a tram vehicle
  4. ^ GCSM: [ˈɡeːt͡ʃeːɛm]
  5. ^ ICS: [ˈiːt͡ʃeː]
  6. ^ KCSV: [ˈkaːt͡ʃeːveː]
  7. ^ UV: [ˈuːveː]
  8. ^ FVV CSM: [ˈɛfveːveː ˈt͡ʃeːɛm]