In quantum error correction, CSS codes, named after their inventors, Robert Calderbank, Peter Shor and Andrew Steane, are a special type of Stabilizer codes constructed from classical codes with some special properties.
Let and be two (classical) , codes such, that and both have minimal distance , where is the code dual to . Then define , the CSS code of over as an code, with as follows:
Define for , where is bitwise addition modulo 2. Then is defined as .
Nielsen, Michael A.; Chuang, Isaac L. (2010). Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-00217-3. OCLC 844974180.