Combined Task Force 151
Combined Task Force 151 (CTF-151) is a multinational naval task force, set up in 2009 as a response to piracy attacks in the Gulf of Aden and off the eastern coast of Somalia. Its mission is to disrupt piracy and armed robbery at sea and to engage with regional and other partners to build capacity and improve relevant capabilities in order to protect global maritime commerce and secure freedom of navigation. It operates in conjunction with the EU's Operation Atalanta and NATO's Operation Ocean Shield.
As of September 2013[update], the task force consists of six ships from Australia, Pakistan, South Korea, Turkey, the UK, and the USA under the command of Commodore Jeremy Blunden RN based on RFA Fort Victoria. Pirate attacks in the area have declined from "over 170" in 2010 to "a handful"[vague] in 2013.
The CTF 151 was established on 12 January 2009 as a response to piracy attacks in Somalia, "with a specific piracy mission-based mandate under the authority of UNSCRs 1816, 1838, 1846, 1851 and 1897". The CTF 150 mainly dealt with maritime security and counter terrorism. Piracy was considered more of a law enforcement mission. They were established as a mission-based Task Force. Upon their establishment in 2009, they operated under a UNSCR counter-piracy mandate. They are not geographically constrained. Their mandate has been "based upon the range of counter-piracy UNSCRs". In February 2011, a group of pirates hijacked a Panamanian-flagged ship. The Puntland government stated that they did not want captured ships and pirate bases near Bosaso. The pirates forced the ship's crew to the south, to a coastal area that was not as receptive. Admiral Mcknight had a conversation with Jatin Dua and the Navy SEALS rescued two hostages who were being held in an inland camp. The SEALS killed about nine pirates. In January 2012, six Somali pirates launched an attack on the bulk cargo ship the MV Sunshine about one hundred miles off the coast of Oman. This was referred to as a by-the-book approach. They used AK-47s, a rocket propelled grenade launcher, used a grappling hook and attempted to affix a ladder onto the boat. The pirates threw their weapons overboard so the boarding team could not arrest them. They gave the pirates food and water, finally turning them loose. The Somalis did not realize that a helicopter from the USS Mobile Bay was keeping track of their movements. They headed back to the Iranian dhow. The USS Kidd was able to track the Al Mulahi and noticed some Middle Easterners were aboard. The New York Times reported a standoff, afterwards the Somalis were still hidden and the Iranian captain spoke with the Americans.
Between 2002 and 2004, a first naval coalition in charge of fighting terrorism in the area was dubbed Task Force 151.
On 8 January 2009, at the United States Fifth Fleet headquarters in Manama, Bahrain, Vice Admiral William E. Gortney, USN, announced the formation of CTF-151 to combat the piracy threat off Somalia, with Rear Admiral Terence E. McKnight in command. The USS San Antonio (LPD-17) was designated as the first flagship of Combined Task Force 151, serving as an afloat forward staging base (AFSB) for the following force elements:
- Fourteen-member U.S. Navy visit, board, search and seizure (VBSS) team.
- One of the United States Coast Guard eight-member Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDETs): Law Enforcement Detachment 405.
- Scout Sniper Platoon, 2nd Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment, 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit cross-decked from the USS Iwo Jima (LHD-7).
- 3rd Platoon (Golf Company, 26th MEU), a military police detachment, and intelligence personnel.
- Fleet Surgical Team 8 with level-two surgical capability to deal with trauma, surgical, critical care and medical evacuation needs.
- Approximately 75 Marines with six AH-1 SuperCobra (AH-1Ws) and two UH-1N Huey helicopters from Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 264 (HMM-264) of the 26th MEU cross-decked from the USS Iwo Jima.
- Three HH-60H helicopters from Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron 3 (HS-3) cross-decked from the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71).
Initially, CTF-151 consisted of the San Antonio, USS Mahan (DDG-72), and HMS Portland (F79), with additional warships expected to join this force. Twenty countries were expected to contribute to the force, including Canada, Denmark, France, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Netherlands, Pakistan, Singapore, and the United Kingdom, all of which have already pledged participation.
On 5 April 2009, United States Rear Admiral Michelle J. Howard, assumed command of CTF-151 and Expeditionary Strike Group 2. On 29 May, the Australian Government pledged its support, re-tasking the frigate HMAS Warramunga (FFH 152) from duties in the Persian Gulf to the task force, as well as Lockheed P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft.
The measures carried out by the task force include: Upholding an active 24-hour lookout, the removal of access ladders, reporting apprehensive actions to proper authorities, the use of deck lighting, razor wire, netting, fire hoses, electrical fencing, and surveillance and detection equipment, defending the lowest points of access, engaging in evasive maneuvering and speed through pirate attacks, and joining group transits.
The CMF established the Maritime Security Patrol Area (MSPA) in the Gulf of Aden in August 2008 to provision international efforts to battle piracy. The coalition efforts involved CTF-150 assets patrolling the area with aircraft and ships. However, the charter for CTF-150, which was established at the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom, was for the conduct of Maritime Security Operations in the Gulf of Oman, Gulf of Aden, the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. Such operations included the deterrence of threatening activities, such as weapons trafficking and drug smuggling.
The Rescue of Captain Richard Phillips
In 2009, there was a pirate attack on the Maersk Alabama. The rescue personnel included Seal Team Six. On 7 April 2009 there was an advisory issued by the U.S. Maritime Administration stating that ships stay six hundred miles off the coast of Somalia due to increase piracy raids. The Somali pirates mainly targeted the Gulf of Aden because most vessels traveling towards the Suez Canal were there. However, with CTF 151, the Chinese, Russians, and Operation Atalanta all concentrated in that area, the pirates were to look elsewhere. On 1 April 2009 the Maersk Alabama headed toward the Gulf of Aden. Captain Phillips was unaware of the pirates on the way . Captain Phillips and his crew were eventually surrounded by three pirate skiffs with their mother ship in pursuit, eight miles behind. Phillips eventually hit the silent alarm button that signaled a search and rescue team to come. At one point it was reported that there was a standoff between the ship's crew and the pirates. They eventually called for a prisoner exchange and Phillips was among the first to be released onto a lifeboat.
Vice Admiral Bill Gortney stated that because of proactive measures taken by certain merchant mariners, the piracy events in the region have been reduced. He also cautioned that the "efforts of coalition and international navies won't solve the problem of piracy."
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- Commodore Ali Abbas SI(M), PN
- Commodore Aage Buur Jensen, Danish Navy
- Commodore Jeremy Blunden LVO, RN
- Commodore Mohammad Ihsan Qadir, PN
- Rear Admiral Giam Hock Koon, RSN
- Commodore Muhammad Hisham, PN
- Rear Admiral Kaleem Shaukat, PN
- Rear Admiral Harris Chan, RSN
- Commodore Abdul Aleem, PN
- Rear Admiral Sinan ERTUĞRUL, TN
- Rear Admiral Lee Beom-rim, ROKN
- Rear Admiral Bernard Miranda, RSN
- Rear Admiral Terence E. McKnight, USN
- Rear Admiral Michelle J. Howard, USN
- Rear Admiral Caner Bener, TN
- Rear Admiral Scott E. Sanders, USN
- Captain Jim Gilmour, RNZN
- Commodore Daryl W. Bates, AM, RAN
- Commodore Tony Millar, MNZM, RNZN
- Operation Atalanta—EU operation in the area
- Operation Ocean Shield—NATO operation in the area
- Combined Task Force 150—similar patrol in the Indian Ocean that deals with counter-terrorism
- Maritime Security Patrol Area
- Maersk Alabama hijacking in April 2009
- "New Counter-Piracy Task Force Established". Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "Royal Navy takes charge of pirate-hunting force". Royal Navy. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- "CTF-151: Counter-piracy". Combined Maritime Forces. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- Combined Maritime Forces (CMF) Operations Counter Piracy Operations, Challenges, Shortfalls and Lessons Learned (PDF). NATO. 2009. p. 3.
- Mcknight, Terry; Michael Hirsh (2012). Pirate Alley: Commanding Task Force 151 Off Somalia. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 37.
- Mcknight, Terry; Michael Hirsh (2012). Pirate Alley: Commanding Task Force 151 Off Somalia. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. pp. 37–38.
- Mcknight, Terry; Michael Hirsh (2012). Pirate Alley: Commanding Task Force 151 Off Somalia. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 39.
- Mcknight, Terry; Michael Hirsh (2012). Pirate Alley: Commanding Task Force 151 Off Somalia. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 88.
- Mcknight, Terry; Michael Hirsh (2012). Pirate Alley: Commanding Task Force 151 Off Somalia. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. pp. 88–89.
- "New Counter-Piracy Task Force Established". Navy NewsStand. GlobalSecurity.org. 2009-01-08. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
- Goodwin, Brian (2009-01-19). "San Antonio Key to Counterpiracy Mission". Defence Professional. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- Mills, Cpl Jason D. (2009-01-09). "Skids Fly to San Antonio". Marine Corps News. Military Advantage. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- Gibbons, Timothy J. (2009-01-28). "San Navy helicopter squadron helps fight pirates". The Florida Times-Union. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
- Viscusi, Gregory (2009-01-27). "Pirate Attacks Cut Dramatically by Navies, U.S. Admiral Says". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
- "US to lead new anti-pirate force". BBC News. 2009-01-08. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
- Lt. John Fage (April 5, 2009). "Admiral Howard Takes Command of ESG-2 and CTF 151 (Release #057-09)" (Press release). U.S. Fifth Fleet. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
- McPhedran, Ian (2009-05-29). "Navy warship and RAAF spy planes join fight against Somali pirates". The Daily Telegraph. Sydney. Archived from the original on 13 September 2009.
- "Combined Maritime Forces". Combined Maritime Forces.
- Mcknight, Terry; Michael Hirsh (2012). Pirate Alley: Commanding Task Force 151 Off Somalia. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. pp. 118–119.
- Mcknight, Terry; Michael Hirsh (2012). Pirate Alley: Commanding Task Force 151 Off Somalia. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. pp. 122–123.
- Mcknight, Terry; Michael Hirsh (2012). Pirate Alley: Commanding Task Force 151 Off Somalia. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 123.
- Mcknight, Terry; Michael Hirsh (2012). Pirate Alley: Commanding Task Force 151 Off Somalia. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 126.
- Mcknight, Terry; Michael Hirsh (2012). Pirate Alley: Commanding Task Force 151 Off Somalia. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 130.
- Mcknight, Terry; Michael Hirsh (2012). Pirate Alley: Commanding Task Force 151 Off Somalia. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 135.
- Mcknight, Terry; Michael Hirsh (2012). Pirate Alley: Commanding Task Force 151 Off Somalia. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 136.
- McKnight, Terry and Michael Hirsh. Pirate Alley: Commanding Task Force 151 off Somalia. Annapolis, MD : Naval Institute Press, 2012. ISBN 1-61251-134-1 OCLC 785079505
- Newsome, Timothy E. Somali Piracy: Are We Making a Mountain Out of a Molehill? Ft. Belvoir: Defense Technical Information Center, 2009. OCLC 574551215
- Phillips, Richard, and Stephan Talty. A Captain's Duty: Somali Pirates, Navy Seals, and Dangerous Days at Sea. New York: Hyperion, 2010. ISBN 1-4013-2380-4 OCLC 430843212
- Zogg, Dennis M. Why the U.S. Navy Should Not Be Fighting Piracy Off Somalia. Ft. Belvoir: Defense Technical Information Center, 2009. OCLC 465323456
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