CX3CL1

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Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1
Protein CX3CL1 PDB 1b2t.png
PDB rendering based on 1b2t.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols CX3CL1 ; ABCD-3; C3Xkine; CXC3; CXC3C; NTN; NTT; SCYD1; fractalkine; neurotactin
External IDs OMIM601880 MGI1097153 HomoloGene2251 GeneCards: CX3CL1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CX3CL1 823 at tn.png
PBB GE CX3CL1 203687 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 6376 20312
Ensembl ENSG00000006210 ENSMUSG00000031778
UniProt P78423 O35188
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001304392 NM_009142
RefSeq (protein) NP_001291321 NP_033168
Location (UCSC) Chr 16:
57.37 – 57.39 Mb
Chr 8:
94.77 – 94.78 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Fractalkine also known as chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CX3CL1 gene.

Function[edit]

Fractalkine is a large cytokine protein of 373 amino acids, it contains multiple domains and is the only known member of the CX3C chemokine family. It is also commonly known under the names fractalkine (in humans) and neurotactin (in mice).[1][2] The polypeptide structure of CXC3L1 differs from the typical structure of other chemokines. For example, the spacing of the characteristic N-terminal cysteines differs; there are three amino acids separating the initial pair of cysteines in CX3CL1, with none in CC chemokines and only one intervening amino acid in CXC chemokines. CX3CL1 is produced as a long protein (with 373-amino acid in humans) with an extended mucin-like stalk and a chemokine domain on top. The mucin-like stalk permits it to bind to the surface of certain cells. However a soluble (90 kD) version of this chemokine has also been observed. Soluble CX3CL1 potently chemoattracts T cells and monocytes, while the cell-bound chemokine promotes strong adhesion of leukocytes to activated endothelial cells, where it is primarily expressed.[2] CX3CL1 elicits its adhesive and migratory functions by interacting with the chemokine receptor CX3CR1.[3] Its gene is located on human chromosome 16 along with some CC chemokines known as CCL17 and CCL22.[2][4]

CX3CL1 is up-regulated in the hippocampus during a brief temporal window following spatial learning, the purpose of which may be to regulate glutamate-mediated neurotransmission tone. This indicates a possible role for the chemokine in the protective plasticity process of synaptic scaling.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pan Y, Lloyd C, Zhou H, Dolich S, Deeds J, Gonzalo JA, Vath J, Gosselin M, Ma J, Dussault B, Woolf E, Alperin G, Culpepper J, Gutierrez-Ramos JC, Gearing D (1997). "Neurotactin, a membrane-anchored chemokine upregulated in brain inflammation". Nature 387 (6633): 611–617. doi:10.1038/42491. PMID 9177350. 
  2. ^ a b c Bazan JF, Bacon KB, Hardiman G, Wang W, Soo K, Rossi D, Greaves DR, Zlotnik A, Schall TJ (1997). "A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif". Nature 385 (6617): 640–644. doi:10.1038/385640a0. PMID 9024663. 
  3. ^ Imai T, Hieshima K, Haskell C, Baba M, Nagira M, Nishimura M, Kakizaki M, Takagi S, Nomiyama H, Schall TJ, Yoshie O (1997). "Identification and molecular characterization of fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, which mediates both leukocyte migration and adhesion". Cell 91 (4): 521–530. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80438-9. PMID 9390561. 
  4. ^ Nomiyama H, Imai T, Kusuda J, Miura R, Callen DF, Yoshie O (1998). "Human chemokines fractalkine (SCYD1), MDC (SCYA22) and TARC (SCYA17) are clustered on chromosome 16q13". Cytogenet. Cell Genet 81 (1): 10–11. doi:10.1159/000015000. PMID 9691168. 
  5. ^ Sheridan GK, Wdowicz A, Pickering M, Watters O, Halley P, O'Sullivan NC, Mooney C, O'Connell DJ, O'Connor JJ, Murphy KJ (2014). "CX3CL1 is up-regulated in the rat hippocampus during memory-associated synaptic plasticity". Front Cell Neurosci 8: 233. doi:10.3389/fncel.2014.00233. PMC 4130185. PMID 25161610. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Umehara H, Bloom ET, Okazaki T, Nagano Y, Yoshie O, Imai T (2004). "Fractalkine in vascular biology: from basic research to clinical disease". Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 24 (1): 34–40. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000095360.62479.1F. PMID 12969992. 
  • Umehara H, Tanaka M, Sawaki T, Jin ZX, Huang CR, Dong L, Kawanami T, Karasawa H, Masaki Y, Fukushima T, Hirose Y, Okazaki T (2006). "Fractalkine in rheumatoid arthritis and allied conditions". Mod Rheumatol 16 (3): 124–30. doi:10.1007/s10165-006-0471-9. PMID 16767549. 
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene 138 (1–2): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. 
  • Bazan JF, Bacon KB, Hardiman G, Wang W, Soo K, Rossi D, Greaves DR, Zlotnik A, Schall TJ (1997). "A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif". Nature 385 (6617): 640–4. doi:10.1038/385640a0. PMID 9024663. 
  • Pan Y, Lloyd C, Zhou H, Dolich S, Deeds J, Gonzalo JA, Vath J, Gosselin M, Ma J, Dussault B, Woolf E, Alperin G, Culpepper J, Gutierrez-Ramos JC, Gearing D (1997). "Neurotactin, a membrane-anchored chemokine upregulated in brain inflammation". Nature 387 (6633): 611–7. doi:10.1038/42491. PMID 9177350. 
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano S (1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene 200 (1–2): 149–56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. 
  • Imai T, Hieshima K, Haskell C, Baba M, Nagira M, Nishimura M, Kakizaki M, Takagi S, Nomiyama H, Schall TJ, Yoshie O (1997). "Identification and molecular characterization of fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, which mediates both leukocyte migration and adhesion". Cell 91 (4): 521–30. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80438-9. PMID 9390561. 
  • Nomiyama H, Imai T, Kusuda J, Miura R, Callen DF, Yoshie O (1998). "Human chemokines fractalkine (SCYD1), MDC (SCYA22) and TARC (SCYA17) are clustered on chromosome 16q13". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 81 (1): 10–1. doi:10.1159/000015000. PMID 9691168. 
  • Combadiere C, Salzwedel K, Smith ED, Tiffany HL, Berger EA, Murphy PM (1998). "Identification of CX3CR1. A chemotactic receptor for the human CX3C chemokine fractalkine and a fusion coreceptor for HIV-1". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (37): 23799–804. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.37.23799. PMID 9726990. 
  • Meucci O, Fatatis A, Simen AA, Bushell TJ, Gray PW, Miller RJ (1998). "Chemokines regulate hippocampal neuronal signaling and gp120 neurotoxicity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (24): 14500–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.24.14500. PMC 24402. PMID 9826729. 
  • Mizoue LS, Bazan JF, Johnson EC, Handel TM (1999). "Solution structure and dynamics of the CX3C chemokine domain of fractalkine and its interaction with an N-terminal fragment of CX3CR1". Biochemistry 38 (5): 1402–14. doi:10.1021/bi9820614. PMID 9931005. 
  • Papadopoulos EJ, Sassetti C, Saeki H, Yamada N, Kawamura T, Fitzhugh DJ, Saraf MA, Schall T, Blauvelt A, Rosen SD, Hwang ST (1999). "Fractalkine, a CX3C chemokine, is expressed by dendritic cells and is up-regulated upon dendritic cell maturation". Eur. J. Immunol. 29 (8): 2551–9. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199908)29:08<2551::AID-IMMU2551>3.0.CO;2-T. PMID 10458770. 
  • Loftus BJ, Kim UJ, Sneddon VP, Kalush F, Brandon R, Fuhrmann J, Mason T, Crosby ML, Barnstead M, Cronin L, Deslattes Mays A, Cao Y, Xu RX, Kang HL, Mitchell S, Eichler EE, Harris PC, Venter JC, Adams MD (1999). "Genome duplications and other features in 12 Mb of DNA sequence from human chromosome 16p and 16q". Genomics 60 (3): 295–308. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5927. PMID 10493829. 
  • Tong N, Perry SW, Zhang Q, James HJ, Guo H, Brooks A, Bal H, Kinnear SA, Fine S, Epstein LG, Dairaghi D, Schall TJ, Gendelman HE, Dewhurst S, Sharer LR, Gelbard HA (2000). "Neuronal fractalkine expression in HIV-1 encephalitis: roles for macrophage recruitment and neuroprotection in the central nervous system". J. Immunol. 164 (3): 1333–9. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.164.3.1333. PMID 10640747. 
  • Faure S, Meyer L, Costagliola D, Vaneensberghe C, Genin E, Autran B, Delfraissy JF, McDermott DH, Murphy PM, Debré P, Théodorou I, Combadière C (2000). "Rapid progression to AIDS in HIV+ individuals with a structural variant of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1". Science 287 (5461): 2274–7. doi:10.1126/science.287.5461.2274. PMID 10731151. 
  • Hoover DM, Mizoue LS, Handel TM, Lubkowski J (2000). "The crystal structure of the chemokine domain of fractalkine shows a novel quaternary arrangement". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (30): 23187–93. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002584200. PMID 10770945. 
  • Meucci O, Fatatis A, Simen AA, Miller RJ (2000). "Expression of CX3CR1 chemokine receptors on neurons and their role in neuronal survival". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (14): 8075–80. doi:10.1073/pnas.090017497. PMC 16672. PMID 10869418. 
  • Papadopoulos EJ, Fitzhugh DJ, Tkaczyk C, Gilfillan AM, Sassetti C, Metcalfe DD, Hwang ST (2000). "Mast cells migrate, but do not degranulate, in response to fractalkine, a membrane-bound chemokine expressed constitutively in diverse cells of the skin". Eur. J. Immunol. 30 (8): 2355–61. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(2000)30:8<2355::AID-IMMU2355>3.0.CO;2-#. PMID 10940926. 
  • Lucas AD, Chadwick N, Warren BF, Jewell DP, Gordon S, Powrie F, Greaves DR (2001). "The transmembrane form of the CX3CL1 chemokine fractalkine is expressed predominantly by epithelial cells in vivo". Am. J. Pathol. 158 (3): 855–66. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64034-5. PMC 1850344. PMID 11238035. 
  • Garton KJ, Gough PJ, Blobel CP, Murphy G, Greaves DR, Dempsey PJ, Raines EW (2001). "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (ADAM17) mediates the cleavage and shedding of fractalkine (CX3CL1)". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (41): 37993–8001. doi:10.1074/jbc.M106434200. PMID 11495925.