CXCL9

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Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9
Identifiers
Symbols CXCL9 ; CMK; Humig; MIG; SCYB9; crg-10
External IDs OMIM601704 MGI1352449 HomoloGene1813 GeneCards: CXCL9 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CXCL9 203915 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 4283 17329
Ensembl ENSG00000138755 ENSMUSG00000029417
UniProt Q07325 P18340
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002416 NM_008599
RefSeq (protein) NP_002407 NP_032625
Location (UCSC) Chr 4:
76 – 76.01 Mb
Chr 5:
92.32 – 92.33 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as Monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG). CXCL9 is a T-cell chemoattractant, which is induced by IFN-γ. It is closely related to two other CXC chemokines called CXCL10 and CXCL11, whose genes are located near the gene for CXCL9 on human chromosome 4.[1][2] CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 all elicit their chemotactic functions by interacting with the chemokine receptor CXCR3.[3]

Neutrophil collagenase/matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) degrades CXCL9 and cleaves CXCL10 at two positions.

Gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) degrades CXCL10 and cleaves CXCL9 at three different sites in its extended carboxy-terminal region.

Interactions[edit]

CXCL9 has been shown to interact with CXCR3.[4][5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lee HH, Farber JM (1996). "Localization of the gene for the human MIG cytokine on chromosome 4q21 adjacent to INP10 reveals a chemokine "mini-cluster"". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 74 (4): 255–8. doi:10.1159/000134428. PMID 8976378. 
  2. ^ O'Donovan N, Galvin M, Morgan JG (1999). "Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 84 (1-2): 39–42. doi:10.1159/000015209. PMID 10343098. 
  3. ^ Tensen CP, Flier J, Van Der Raaij-Helmer EM, Sampat-Sardjoepersad S, Van Der Schors RC, Leurs R, Scheper RJ, Boorsma DM, Willemze R (May 1999). "Human IP-9: A keratinocyte-derived high affinity CXC-chemokine ligand for the IP-10/Mig receptor (CXCR3)". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology 112 (5): 716–22. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00581.x. PMID 10233762. 
  4. ^ Lasagni L, Francalanci M, Annunziato F, Lazzeri E, Giannini S, Cosmi L, Sagrinati C, Mazzinghi B, Orlando C, Maggi E, Marra F, Romagnani S, Serio M, Romagnani P (Jun 2003). "An alternatively spliced variant of CXCR3 mediates the inhibition of endothelial cell growth induced by IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, and acts as functional receptor for platelet factor 4". The Journal of Experimental Medicine 197 (11): 1537–49. doi:10.1084/jem.20021897. PMC 2193908. PMID 12782716. 
  5. ^ Weng Y, Siciliano SJ, Waldburger KE, Sirotina-Meisher A, Staruch MJ, Daugherty BL, Gould SL, Springer MS, DeMartino JA (Jul 1998). "Binding and functional properties of recombinant and endogenous CXCR3 chemokine receptors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 273 (29): 18288–91. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.29.18288. PMID 9660793. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Farber JM (Jul 1990). "A macrophage mRNA selectively induced by gamma-interferon encodes a member of the platelet factor 4 family of cytokines". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87 (14): 5238–42. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.14.5238. PMC 54298. PMID 2115167. 
  • Liao F, Rabin RL, Yannelli JR, Koniaris LG, Vanguri P, Farber JM (Nov 1995). "Human Mig chemokine: biochemical and functional characterization". The Journal of Experimental Medicine 182 (5): 1301–14. doi:10.1084/jem.182.5.1301. PMC 2192190. PMID 7595201. 
  • Farber JM (Apr 1993). "HuMig: a new human member of the chemokine family of cytokines". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 192 (1): 223–30. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1993.1403. PMID 8476424. 
  • Lee HH, Farber JM (1997). "Localization of the gene for the human MIG cytokine on chromosome 4q21 adjacent to INP10 reveals a chemokine "mini-cluster"". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 74 (4): 255–8. doi:10.1159/000134428. PMID 8976378. 
  • Weng Y, Siciliano SJ, Waldburger KE, Sirotina-Meisher A, Staruch MJ, Daugherty BL, Gould SL, Springer MS, DeMartino JA (Jul 1998). "Binding and functional properties of recombinant and endogenous CXCR3 chemokine receptors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 273 (29): 18288–91. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.29.18288. PMID 9660793. 
  • Erdel M, Laich A, Utermann G, Werner ER, Werner-Felmayer G (1998). "The human gene encoding SCYB9B, a putative novel CXC chemokine, maps to human chromosome 4q21 like the closely related genes for MIG (SCYB9) and INP10 (SCYB10)". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 81 (3-4): 271–2. doi:10.1159/000015043. PMID 9730616. 
  • Jenh CH, Cox MA, Kaminski H, Zhang M, Byrnes H, Fine J, Lundell D, Chou CC, Narula SK, Zavodny PJ (Apr 1999). "Cutting edge: species specificity of the CC chemokine 6Ckine signaling through the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR3: human 6Ckine is not a ligand for the human or mouse CXCR3 receptors". Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 162 (7): 3765–9. PMID 10201891. 
  • Rabin RL, Park MK, Liao F, Swofford R, Stephany D, Farber JM (Apr 1999). "Chemokine receptor responses on T cells are achieved through regulation of both receptor expression and signaling". Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 162 (7): 3840–50. PMID 10201901. 
  • Tensen CP, Flier J, Van Der Raaij-Helmer EM, Sampat-Sardjoepersad S, Van Der Schors RC, Leurs R, Scheper RJ, Boorsma DM, Willemze R (May 1999). "Human IP-9: A keratinocyte-derived high affinity CXC-chemokine ligand for the IP-10/Mig receptor (CXCR3)". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology 112 (5): 716–22. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00581.x. PMID 10233762. 
  • Shields PL, Morland CM, Salmon M, Qin S, Hubscher SG, Adams DH (Dec 1999). "Chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions provide a mechanism for selective T cell recruitment to specific liver compartments within hepatitis C-infected liver". Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 163 (11): 6236–43. PMID 10570316. 
  • Jinquan T, Jing C, Jacobi HH, Reimert CM, Millner A, Quan S, Hansen JB, Dissing S, Malling HJ, Skov PS, Poulsen LK (Aug 2000). "CXCR3 expression and activation of eosinophils: role of IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 and monokine induced by IFN-gamma". Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 165 (3): 1548–56. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.165.3.1548. PMID 10903763. 
  • Loetscher P, Pellegrino A, Gong JH, Mattioli I, Loetscher M, Bardi G, Baggiolini M, Clark-Lewis I (Feb 2001). "The ligands of CXC chemokine receptor 3, I-TAC, Mig, and IP10, are natural antagonists for CCR3". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 276 (5): 2986–91. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005652200. PMID 11110785. 
  • Romagnani P, Annunziato F, Lazzeri E, Cosmi L, Beltrame C, Lasagni L, Galli G, Francalanci M, Manetti R, Marra F, Vanini V, Maggi E, Romagnani S (Feb 2001). "Interferon-inducible protein 10, monokine induced by interferon gamma, and interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant are produced by thymic epithelial cells and attract T-cell receptor (TCR) alphabeta+ CD8+ single-positive T cells, TCRgammadelta+ T cells, and natural killer-type cells in human thymus". Blood 97 (3): 601–7. doi:10.1182/blood.V97.3.601. PMID 11157474. 
  • Dwinell MB, Lügering N, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF (Jan 2001). "Regulated production of interferon-inducible T-cell chemoattractants by human intestinal epithelial cells". Gastroenterology 120 (1): 49–59. doi:10.1053/gast.2001.20914. PMID 11208713. 
  • Lambeir AM, Proost P, Durinx C, Bal G, Senten K, Augustyns K, Scharpé S, Van Damme J, De Meester I (Aug 2001). "Kinetic investigation of chemokine truncation by CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV reveals a striking selectivity within the chemokine family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 276 (32): 29839–45. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103106200. PMID 11390394. 
  • Stoof TJ, Flier J, Sampat S, Nieboer C, Tensen CP, Boorsma DM (Jun 2001). "The antipsoriatic drug dimethylfumarate strongly suppresses chemokine production in human keratinocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells". The British Journal of Dermatology 144 (6): 1114–20. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2001.04220.x. PMID 11422029. 
  • Campbell JD, Stinson MJ, Simons FE, Rector ES, HayGlass KT (Jul 2001). "In vivo stability of human chemokine and chemokine receptor expression". Human Immunology 62 (7): 668–78. doi:10.1016/S0198-8859(01)00260-9. PMID 11423172. 
  • Scapini P, Laudanna C, Pinardi C, Allavena P, Mantovani A, Sozzani S, Cassatella MA (Jul 2001). "Neutrophils produce biologically active macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha)/CCL20 and MIP-3beta/CCL19". European Journal of Immunology 31 (7): 1981–8. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200107)31:7<1981::AID-IMMU1981>3.0.CO;2-X. PMID 11449350. 
  • Gillitzer R (Aug 2001). "Inflammation in human skin: a model to study chemokine-mediated leukocyte migration in vivo". The Journal of Pathology 194 (4): 393–4. doi:10.1002/1096-9896(200108)194:4<393::AID-PATH907>3.0.CO;2-7. PMID 11523044. 
  • Romagnani P, Rotondi M, Lazzeri E, Lasagni L, Francalanci M, Buonamano A, Milani S, Vitti P, Chiovato L, Tonacchera M, Bellastella A, Serio M (Jul 2002). "Expression of IP-10/CXCL10 and MIG/CXCL9 in the thyroid and increased levels of IP-10/CXCL10 in the serum of patients with recent-onset Graves' disease". The American Journal of Pathology 161 (1): 195–206. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64171-5. PMC 1850693. PMID 12107104.