Cabaret (1972 film)
|Directed by||Bob Fosse|
|Screenplay by||Jay Allen|
|Based on||Cabaret |
by Joe Masteroff
I Am a Camera
by John Van Druten
Goodbye to Berlin
by Christopher Isherwood
|Produced by||Cy Feuer|
|Edited by||David Bretherton|
|Music by||Ralph Burns|
|Distributed by||Allied Artists|
|Box office||$42.8 million|
Set in Berlin during the Weimar Republic in 1931, under the presence of the growing Nazi Party, the film is loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret by Kander and Ebb, which was adapted from Christopher Isherwood's semi-autobiographical novel The Berlin Stories (1945) and the 1951 play I Am a Camera adapted from the same work.: 609 Multiple numbers from the stage score were used for the film, which also featured three other songs by Kander and Ebb, including two written for the adaptation. In the traditional manner of musical theater, most major characters in the stage version sing to express their emotions and advance the plot; in the film, however, the musical numbers are entirely diegetic.: 609 All of them take place inside the club,: 609 with one exception: "Tomorrow Belongs to Me", the only song sung neither by the characters of the Master of Ceremonies or Sally Bowles.
After the box-office failure of his 1969 film version of Sweet Charity, Fosse bounced back with Cabaret in 1972, a year that made him one of the most honored working directors in Hollywood. The film also brought Minnelli, daughter of Judy Garland and Vincente Minnelli, her own first chance to sing on screen, and she won the Academy Award for Best Actress. With Academy Awards for Best Supporting Actor (Grey), Best Director (Fosse), Best Cinematography, Best Art Direction, Best Sound, Best Original Song Score and Adaptation, and Best Film Editing, Cabaret holds the record for most Oscars earned by a film not honored for Best Picture. It is listed as number 367 on Empire's 500 greatest films of all time. Cabaret opened to glowing reviews and strong box office, eventually taking in more than $20 million. In addition to its eight Oscars, it won Best Picture citations from the National Board of Review and the Hollywood Foreign Press Association, and took Best Supporting Actor honors for Grey from the National Board of Review, the Hollywood Foreign Press, and the National Society of Film Critics. In 1995, Cabaret was the tenth live-action musical film selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
In 1931 Berlin, young American Sally Bowles performs at the Kit Kat Klub. A new British arrival in the city, Brian Roberts, moves into the boarding house where Sally lives. A reserved academic and writer, Brian wants to give English lessons to earn a living while completing his doctorate. Sally tries to seduce Brian, but he tells her that on three previous occasions he has tried to have sexual relationships with women, all of which failed. They become friends, and Brian witnesses Sally's bohemian life in the last days of the Weimar Republic. When Brian consoles Sally after her father cancels his meeting with her, they become lovers, concluding that his previous failures with women were because they were "the wrong three girls".
Maximilian von Heune, a rich playboy and baron, befriends Sally and takes her and Brian to his country estate where they are both spoiled and courted. After a somewhat enigmatic experience with Brian, Max drops his pursuit of the pair in haste. During an argument, Sally tells Brian that she has been having sex with Max, and Brian reveals that he has as well. Brian and Sally later reconcile, and Sally reveals that Max left them 300 marks and mockingly compares the sum with what a professional prostitute earns.
Sally learns that she is pregnant but is unsure of the father. Brian offers to marry her and take her back to his university life in Cambridge. At first, they celebrate their resolution to start this new life together, but after a picnic between Sally and Brian, in which Brian acts distant and uninterested, Sally becomes disheartened by the vision of herself as a bored faculty wife washing dirty diapers. Ultimately, she has an abortion, without informing Brian in advance. When he confronts her, she shares her fears, and the two reach an understanding. Brian departs for England, and Sally continues her life in Berlin, embedding herself in the Kit Kat Club.
A subplot concerns Fritz Wendel, a German Jew passing as a Protestant, who is in love with Natalia Landauer, a wealthy German Jewish heiress who holds him in contempt and suspects his motives. Through Brian, Sally advises him to be more aggressive, which eventually enables Fritz to win her love. However, to gain her parents' consent for their marriage, Fritz must reveal his religion, which he does and the two are married by a rabbi.
The rise of fascism is an ever-present undercurrent throughout the film. Their progress can be tracked through the characters' changing actions and attitudes. While in the beginning of the film, a Nazi is expelled from the Kit Kat Klub, the final shot of the film shows the cabaret's audience is dominated by uniformed Nazis. The rise of the Nazis is also demonstrated in a rural beer garden scene. A blonde boy sings to an audience of all ages ("Tomorrow Belongs to Me") about the beauties of nature and youth. It is revealed that the boy is wearing a Hitler Youth uniform. The ballad transforms into a militant Nazi anthem, and one by one nearly all the adults and young people watching rise and join in the singing. "Do you still think you can control them?" Brian asks Max. Later, Brian's confrontation with a Nazi on a Berlin street leads to him being beaten.
- Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles
- Michael York as Brian Roberts
- Helmut Griem as Baron Maximilian von Heune
- Joel Grey as Master of Ceremonies
- Fritz Wepper as Fritz Wendel
- Marisa Berenson as Natalia Landauer
- Elisabeth Neumann-Viertel as Fräulein Schneider
- Helen Vita as Fräulein Kost
- Sigrid von Richthofen as Fräulein Mayr
- Gerd Vespermann as Bobby
- Ralf Wolter as Herr Ludwig
- Georg Hartmann as Willi
- Ricky Renée as Elke, transvestite in Kit Kat Club
- Estrongo Nachama as Cantor
- Kathryn Doby - Mausie
- Inge Jaeger
- Angelika Koch
- Helen Velkovorska
- Gitta Schmidt
- Louise Quick - Helga
The 1972 film was based upon Christopher Isherwood's semi-autobiographical stories. In 1929–1930, Isherwood moved to Weimar Berlin in order to pursue life as an openly gay man and to enjoy the city's gay nightlife. Members of Isherwood's Berlin social circle included authors W.H. Auden, Stephen Spender, Paul Bowles, and Jean Ross.: 125–130 While in Berlin, Isherwood shared lodgings with Ross, a British cabaret singer and aspiring film actress from a wealthy Anglo-Scottish family. While rooming with Isherwood at Nollendorfstrasse 17 in Schöneberg, Ross became pregnant with the child of jazz pianist (and later actor) Peter van Eyck. Following Eyck's unannounced departure from Germany, Ross underwent an abortion legally authorized by Isherwood who pretended to be her heterosexual impregnator.
As the political situation rapidly deteriorated in the poverty-stricken country, Ross, Isherwood, Spender, and other British nationals realized that they must leave Germany.: 129 "There was a sensation of doom to be felt in the Berlin streets," Spender recalled.: 129 By the time the Nazi Party were on the verge of seizing power in the July 1932 elections, Isherwood, Ross, Spender, and others had fled Berlin and returned to England. Many of the Berlin cabaret denizens befriended by Isherwood would later flee abroad: 164–166 or die in concentration camps.: 150, 297 : 74–81 These factual events served as the genesis for a 1937 short story by Isherwood entitled Sally Bowles which was later adapted into the 1955 film I Am a Camera and the 1966 Cabaret musical.
In July 1968, Cinerama made a verbal agreement to make a film version of the 1966 Broadway musical but pulled out in February 1969. In May 1969, Allied Artists paid a company record $1.5 million for the film rights and planned a company record budget. The cost of $4,570,000 was split evenly with ABC Pictures.
In 1971, Bob Fosse learned through Harold Prince, director of the original Broadway production, that Cy Feuer was producing a film adaptation of Cabaret through ABC Pictures and Allied Artists. This was the first film produced in the revival of Allied Artists. Determined to direct the film, Fosse begged Feuer to hire him. However, Fosse had previously directed the unsuccessful film adaptation of Sweet Charity, a box office failure which made chief executives Manny Wolf and Marty Baum reluctant to hire him. Wolf and Baum preferred a more renowned or established director such as Billy Wilder, Joseph L. Mankiewicz or Gene Kelly.: 134
Eager to hire Fosse, Feuer appealed to the studio heads, citing Fosse's talent for staging and shooting musical numbers, adding that if inordinate attention was given to filming the book scenes at the expense of the musical numbers, the whole film could fail. Fosse ultimately was hired. Over the next months, Fosse met with previously hired screenwriter Jay Presson Allen to discuss the screenplay.: 136–139
As production neared, Fosse became increasingly dissatisfied with Allen's script which was based on Joe Masteroff's original book of the stage version. Fosse hired Hugh Wheeler to rewrite and revise Allen's work.: 136–139 Wheeler was referred to as a "research consultant," and Allen retained screenwriting credit. Wheeler, a friend of Christopher Isherwood, knew that Isherwood had been critical of the stage musical due to its bowdlerizations of his material. Wheeler went back to Isherwood's original stories in order to ensure a more faithful adaptation of the source material. In particular, Wheeler restored the subplot about the gigolo and the Jewish heiress. Wheeler also drew on gay author Christopher Isherwood's openness about his homosexuality to make the leading male character a bisexual man "rather than the heterosexual as he had been in the stage musical.": 139
Fosse decided to increase the focus on the Kit Kat Klub, where Sally performs, as a metaphor for the decadence of Germany in the 1930s by eliminating all but one of the musical numbers performed outside the club. The only remaining outside number is "Tomorrow Belongs to Me", a folk song rendered spontaneously by patrons at an open-air café in one of the film's most effective scenes.: 609 In addition, the show's original songwriters Kander and Ebb wrote two new songs, "Mein Herr" and "Money", and incorporated "Maybe This Time", a song they had composed in 1964 and first sung by Kaye Ballard.
Feuer had cast Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles and Joel Grey (reprising his stage role) long before Fosse was attached to the project. Fosse was given the option of using Grey as Master of Ceremonies or walking away from the production.: 147-148 Fosse hired Michael York as Sally Bowles's bisexual love interest, a casting choice which Minnelli initially believed was incorrect until she performed with him.: 146 Several smaller roles, as well as the remaining four dancers in the film, eventually were cast in West Germany.
Minnelli had auditioned to play Sally in the original Broadway production but was deemed too inexperienced at the time, even though she had won Broadway's Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical. By the time Cabaret reached the screen, however, Minnelli was a film star having earned an Oscar nomination as the emotionally damaged college student in The Sterile Cuckoo (1969).
For her performance as Sally in the film, Minnelli reinterpreted the character and—at the explicit suggestion of her father stage director Vincente Minnelli—she deliberately imitated film actress Louise Brooks, a flapper icon and sex symbol of the Jazz Age.: 142 Brooks, much like the character of Sally Bowles in the film, was an aspiring actress and American expat who temporarily moved to Weimar Berlin in search of international stardom.: 139 Minnelli later recalled:
"I went to my father and asked him, 'What can you tell me about 1930s glamour? Should I be emulating Marlene Dietrich or something?' And he said 'No, study everything you can about Louise Brooks.'"
In particular, Minnelli drew upon Brooks' "Lulu makeup and helmet-like coiffure.": 142 For the meeting between Sally Bowles and Brian Roberts, Minnelli modeled her movements and demeanor upon Brooks; in particular, the scene in Pandora's Box (1929) where Brooks' carefree character of Lulu is first introduced. Ultimately, Minnelli would win the Academy Award for Best Actress for her portrayal of Sally Bowles.
Fosse and Feuer traveled to West Germany, where producers chose to shoot the film, in order to finish assembling the film crew. During this time, Fosse highly recommended Robert L. Surtees for cinematographer, but Feuer and the top executives saw Surtees's work on Sweet Charity as one of the film's many artistic problems. Producers eventually chose British cinematographer Geoffrey Unsworth.: 138, 149 Designers Rolf Zehetbauer, Hans Jürgen Kiebach and Herbert Strabel served as production designers. Charlotte Flemming designed costumes.: 205 Dancers Kathryn Doby, Louise Quick and John Sharpe were brought on as Fosse's dance aides.
Rehearsals and filming took place entirely in West Germany. For reasons of economy, indoor scenes were shot at the Bavaria Film Studios in Grünwald,: 143 outside Munich.: 146 Location shooting took place in and around Munich and West Berlin, and in Schleswig-Holstein and Saxony. Editing was done in Los Angeles before the eventual theatrical release in February 1972.
Narrative and news reading
Although the songs throughout the film allude to and advance the narrative, every song except "Tomorrow Belongs to Me" is executed in the context of a Kit Kat Klub performance. The voice heard on the radio reading the news throughout the film in German was that of associate producer Harold Nebenzal, whose father Seymour Nebenzahl produced such notable Weimar films as M (1931), Testament of Dr. Mabuse (1933), and Threepenny Opera (1931).
Differences between film and stage version
The film significantly differs from the Broadway musical. In the stage version, Sally is English (as she was in Isherwood's Goodbye to Berlin). In the film adaptation, she is American. Cliff Bradshaw was renamed Brian Roberts and made British (as was Isherwood, upon whom the character was based), rather than American as in the stage version.: 139 The characters and plotlines involving Fritz, Natalia and Max were pulled from I Am a Camera and did not appear in the stage production of Cabaret (or in Goodbye to Berlin).
The most significant change involves the excision of the two main characters: Fraulein Schneider, who runs a boarding house, and her love interest, Herr Schultz, a German grocer.: 34 Their doomed romance plot, and the consequences of a German falling in love with a Jew during the rise of antisemitism was cut. With the removals were "So What?" and "What Would You Do", sung by Schneider, the song "Meeskite", sung by Schultz,: 83 and their two duets "It Couldn't Please Me More (The Pineapple Song)" (cut) and "Married" (reset as a piano instrumental, and a phonograph record), as well as a short reprise of "Married", sung alone by Schultz.: 34, 83
Kander and Ebb wrote several new songs and removed others. "Don't Tell Mama" was replaced by "Mein Herr",: 143 and "The Money Song" (retained in an instrumental version as "Sitting Pretty") was replaced by "Money, Money.": 141–43 "Mein Herr" and "Money, Money", which were composed for the film, were integrated into the stage musical alongside the original numbers.: 141–43 The song "Maybe This Time", which Sally performs at the cabaret, was not written for the film,: 141–43 but was intended for actress Kaye Ballard. Although "Don't Tell Mama" and "Married" were removed as performed musical numbers, both still appear in the film: "Mama"'s bridge section appears as an instrumental played on Sally's gramophone; "Married" initially plays on the piano in Fraulein Schneider's parlor, and later heard on Sally's gramophone in a German translation ("Heiraten") sung by cabaret singer Greta Keller.: 155 Additionally, "If You Could See Her", performed by the MC, originally concluded with the line "She wouldn't be meeskite at all" onstage. The film changes this to "She wouldn't look Jewish at all," a return to Ebb's original lyrics.
All tracks are written by John Kander and Fred Ebb.
|2.||"Mein Herr"||Liza Minnelli||3:36|
|3.||"Maybe This Time"||Liza Minnelli||3:11|
|4.||"Money, Money"||Joel Grey, Liza Minnelli||3:04|
|5.||"Two Ladies"||Joel Grey||3:11|
|7.||"Tomorrow Belongs to Me"||Mark Lambert||3:06|
|8.||"Tiller Girls"||Joel Grey||1:41|
|9.||"Heiraten (Married)"||Greta Keller||3:45|
|10.||"If You Could See Her"||Joel Grey||3:54|
|Australia (Kent Music Report)||10|
|German Albums (Offizielle Top 100)||45|
|UK Albums (OCC)||13|
|US (Billboard Top 200 Albums)||25|
|United States (RIAA)||Gold||500,000^|
^ Shipments figures based on certification alone.
The film was immediately successful at the box office. By May 1973, the film had earned rentals of $4.5 million in North America and $3.5 million in other countries and reported a profit of $2,452,000.
Roger Ebert gave a positive review in January 1972, saying: "This is no ordinary musical. Part of its success comes because it doesn't fall for the old cliché that musicals have to make you happy. Instead of cheapening the movie version by lightening its load of despair, director Bob Fosse has gone right to the bleak heart of the material and stayed there well enough to win an Academy Award for Best Director."
A Variety staff critic appraised the film in December 1971: "The film version of the 1966 John Kander-Fred Ebb Broadway musical Cabaret is most unusual: it is literate, bawdy, sophisticated, sensual, cynical, heart-warming, and disturbingly thought-provoking. Liza Minnelli heads a strong cast. Bob Fosse's generally excellent direction recreates the milieu of Germany some 40 years ago."
Roger Greenspun of The New York Times wrote in February 1972 that "Cabaret is one of those immensely gratifying imperfect works in which from beginning to end you can literally feel a movie coming to life." Likewise, Pauline Kael of The New Yorker wrote a review that same month in which she applauded the film:
"A great movie musical. Taking its form from political cabaret, it's a satire of temptations. In a prodigious balancing act, Bob Fosse, the choreographer-director, keeps the period—Berlin, 1931—at a cool distance. We see the decadence as garish and sleazy; yet we also see the animal energy in it—everything seems to become sexualized. The movie does not exploit decadence; rather, it gives it its due. With Joel Grey as our devil-doll host—the master of ceremonies—and Liza Minnelli (in her first singing role on the screen) as exuberant, corruptible Sally Bowles, chasing after the life of a headliner no matter what; Minnelli has such gaiety and electricity that she becomes a star before our eyes."
Reaction of Isherwood and others
Although Cabaret (1972) was well received by film critics upon its release, author Christopher Isherwood and other persons upon whom the film's characters were based were less receptive towards the cinematic adaptation.: 63 Isherwood himself was critical of the 1972 film due to what he perceived as its negative portrayal of homosexuality:
"In the film of Cabaret, the male lead is called Brian Roberts. He is a bisexual Englishman; he has an affair with Sally and, later, with one of Sally's lovers, a German baron...Brian's homosexual tendency is treated as an indecent but comic weakness to be snickered at, like bed-wetting.": 63
Similarly, Isherwood's friend Jean Ross—upon whom the character of Sally Bowles was based: 26 —was ambivalent about the film.: 70 She felt the depiction of 1930s Berlin "was quite, quite different" from reality.: 33–34 Nevertheless, she conceded that the depiction of their social circle of British expatriates as pleasure-seeking libertines was accurate: "We were all utterly against the bourgeois standards of our parents' generation. That's what took us to [Weimar-era] Berlin. The climate was freer there.": 33–34 Such ambivalence towards Cabaret (1972) was not unique among Isherwood's circle.
The poet Stephen Spender lamented how Cabaret (1972) glossed over Weimar Berlin's crushing poverty:
"There is not a single meal, or club, in the movie Cabaret, that Christopher [Isherwood] and I could have afforded [in 1931]. What we mostly knew was the Berlin of poverty, unemployment, political demonstrations and street fighting between forces of the extreme left and the extreme right."
In 2002, Jamie Russell of the BBC wrote that the film was "the first musical ever to be given an X certificate, Bob Fosse's Cabaret launched Liza Minnelli into Hollywood superstardom and re-invented the musical for the Age of Aquarius." In 2013, film critic Peter Bradshaw listed Cabaret at number one on his list of "Top 10 musicals", describing it as "satanically catchy, terrifyingly seductive...directed and choreographed with electric style by Bob Fosse...Cabaret is drenched in the sexiest kind of cynicism and decadent despair."
Although less explicit compared with other films made in the 1970s, Cabaret dealt explicitly with topics like corruption, sexual ambiguity, false dreams, and Nazism. Tim Dirks at Filmsite.org notes: "The sexually-charged, semi-controversial, kinky musical was the first one ever to be given an X rating (although later re-rated) with its numerous sexual flings and hedonistic club life. There was considerable sexual innuendo, profanity, casual sex talk (homosexual and heterosexual), some evidence of anti-Semitism, and even an abortion in the film." It was also rated X in the UK and later re-rated as 15.
On the topic of Nazism, there was little consensus among critics about the possibly fascist implications of the film and play. However, critic Steven Belletto wrote a critique of Cabaret in the Criticism journal, published by Wayne State University Press, in which he highlighted the anti-fascist themes in the film present both within and outside of the musical acts. According to Belletto, "despite the ways that the film has been understood by a variety of critics, [Cabaret] rejects the logic of fascist certainty by staging various numbers committed to irony and ambiguity."
The "Tomorrow Belongs to Me" scene was controversial, with Kander and Ebb, both of whom were Jews, sometimes being wrongly accused of using a historical Nazi song. According to an article in 'Variety' in November 1976, the film was censored in West Berlin when it was first released there theatrically, with the sequence featuring the Hitler Youth singing "Tomorrow Belongs to Me" having been deleted. This elimination was made "because of the feeling that it might stir up resentments in the audience by showing the sympathizers for the Nazi movement during the '30s." The sequence was restored, however, when the film was shown on West German television on November 7, 1976.
Another topic of discussion was the song "If You Could See Her",: 610 which closed with the line: "If you could see her through my eyes, she wouldn't look Jewish at all." The point of the song was showing anti-Semitism as it begins to run rampant in Berlin, but there were a number of Jewish groups who interpreted the lyrics differently.: 625
Cabaret earned a total of 10 Academy Award nominations (winning 8 of them) and holds the record for most Academy Awards won by a film which did not win the Academy Award for Best Picture.
Shortly before the Academy Awards, Bob Fosse won 2 Tony Awards for directing and choreographing Pippin, his biggest stage hit to date. Months later, he won the Primetime Emmy Award for choreographing and directing Liza Minnelli's television special Liza with a Z, he became the first director to win all three awards in one year.
American Film Institute recognition
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs
- Cabaret – No. 18
- AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals – No. 5
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – No. 63[ISBN missing]
National Film Registry
Cabaret has been cited by TV Guide as among the great films made and in Movieline magazine as one of the "100 Best Movies Ever". It was included in Film4's "100 Greatest Films of All Time" at #78 and in The San Francisco Chronicle's "Hot 100 Films of the Past", being hailed as "the last great musical. Liza Minnelli plays Sally Bowles, an American adrift in pre-Nazi Berlin, in Bob Fosse's stylish, near-perfect film."
David Benedict has written in The Guardian about Cabaret's influence in musical films: "Back then, musicals were already low on film-goers' lists, so how come it was such a success? Simple: Cabaret is the musical for people who hate them. Given the vibrancy of its now iconic numbers – Liza Minnelli in bowler and black suspenders astride a bentwood chair belting out 'Mein Herr' or shimmying and shivering with pleasure over 'Money' with Joel Grey – it sounds strange to say it, but one of the chief reasons why Cabaret is so popular is that it's not shot like a musical."
The film has been listed as one of the most important for queer cinema for its depictions of bisexuality, arguably transgressive at the time of its 1972 post-Code release and has been credited with turning Liza Minnelli into a gay icon. Film blogs have selected it as "the gayest winner in the history of the Academy."
The film was first released to DVD in 1998. There have been releases in 2003, 2008, and 2012. The film's international ancillary distribution rights are owned by ABC (now part of The Walt Disney Company), and Warner Bros. (which acquired the film as part of its purchase of Lorimar Productions, which had acquired the film library of Allied Artists) has domestic distribution rights.
In April 2012, Warner unveiled a new restoration of the film at the TCM Classic Film Festival. A DigiBook edition was later released on Blu-ray on February 5, 2013. Before this restoration, Cabaret had been sold on a standard-definition DVD from Warner Bros., but the film was unavailable in high-definition or for digital projections in cinemas. The original camera negative is lost, and a surviving interpositive had a vertical scratch that ran through 1,000 feet, or 10 minutes, of one of its reels, as confirmed by Ned Price, vice president of mastering and restoration for Warner Bros. The damage ostensibly was inflicted by a grain of dirt that had rolled through the length of the reel, beginning with a scene in which Michael York's character confronts a pro-Nazi boarding house resident, and had cut into the emulsion. The marred frames were digitally restored, but "the difficult part was matching the grain structure so the fix was invisible." After automated digital repair attempts failed, the 1,000 feet of damaged film was hand painted using a computer stylus.
- Beaupre, Lee (May 31, 1973). "ABC's 5 Years of Film Production Profits & Losses". Variety. p. 3.
- "Cabaret, Worldwide Box Office". Worldwide Box Office. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
- "Cabaret". Variety. December 31, 1971. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Russell, Jamie (June 6, 2002). "BBC – Films – Review – Cabaret". BBC. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Belletto, Steven (2008). "'Cabaret' and Antifascist Aesthetics". Criticism. 50 (4): 609–630. doi:10.1353/crt.0.0081. JSTOR 23130878.
- Greenspun, Roger (February 14, 1972). "Liza Minnelli Stirs a Lively 'Cabaret'". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- "Cabaret (1972) – Notes – TCM.com". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on October 21, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
- Benedict, David (June 15, 2002). "Win When You're Singing". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
- Green, Willow (October 3, 2008). "Empire's 500 Greatest films of all time". Empire. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
- Ebert, Roger (January 1, 1972). "Cabaret Movie Review & Film Summary (1972)". RogerEbert.com. Archived from the original on June 12, 2019. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
- Kael, Pauline (February 12, 1972). "Grinning (Review of Cabaret)". The New Yorker. pp. 84, 86–88. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- "Complete National Film Registry Listing | Film Registry | National Film Preservation Board | Programs at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
- Liebenson, Donald. "Cinematic Legends Take Their Place in National Film Registry". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- Frost, Peter (December 31, 2013). "Jean Ross: The Real Sally Bowles". Morning Star. Retrieved February 28, 2020. Frost's article is more or less a summary of the Oxford National Biography article by Peter Parker.CS1 maint: postscript (link)
- Moss, Howard (June 3, 1979). "Christopher Isherwood: Man and Work". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- Spender, Stephen (October 30, 1977). "Life Wasn't a Cabaret". The New York Times. p. 198. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
- Spender, Stephen (1966) . World Within World: The Autobiography of Stephen Spender. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-679-64045-5.
- Parker, Peter (September 2004). "Ross, Jean Iris (1911–1973)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/74425. Retrieved June 18, 2017. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Thomson, David (March 21, 2005). "The Observer as Hero". The New Republic. New York City. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- Lehmann, John (1987). Christopher Isherwood: A Personal Memoir. New York: Henry Holt and Company. pp. 28–9. ISBN 0-8050-1029-7.
- Isherwood, Christopher (1976). Christopher and His Kind: A Memoir, 1929-1939. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0374-53522-3.
- Farina, William (2013). "Christopher Isherwood, Reporting from Berlin". The German Cabaret Legacy in American Popular Music. London: McFarland & Company. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7864-6863-8.
- Izzo, David Garrett (2005). Christopher Isherwood Encyclopedia. London: McFarland & Company. pp. 97, 144. ISBN 0-7864-1519-3.
- "'Cabaret' Film Rights At AA's Peak $1.5-Mil". Variety. May 28, 1969. p. 1.
- Cabaret at the American Film Institute Catalog
- Garebian, Keith (2011). The Making of Cabaret. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199732500.
- Day, James; Isherwood, Christopher (April 25, 1974). "Christopher Isherwood on Day at Night, with James Day". Day at Night. Season 2. Episode 32. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). CUNY TV. Episode Information. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
- Schudel, Matt (January 23, 2019). "Kaye Ballard, comic actress and singer from vaudeville to TV, dies at 93". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- "Liza Minnelli". Inside the Actors Studio. Season 12. Episode 6. February 5, 2006. Bravo.
- Buck, Jerry (March 28, 1973). "Lizi Minnelli Is Named Best Actress — Brando Won't Accept Oscar". Youngstown Vindicator. Associated Press. pp. 1–2. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- "Cabaret – Broadway Musical – Original". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
- "Actress-comedian sings her song - 36 years after losing it to Streisand". Deseret News. June 27, 1997. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- Kander, John; Ebb, Fred; Lawrence, Greg (September 9, 2004). Colored Lights: Forty Years of Words and Music, Show Biz, Collaboration, and All That Jazz. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0571211692.
- Belletto, Steven (2008). ""cabaret" and Antifascist Aesthetics". Criticism. 50 (4): 609–630. doi:10.1353/crt.0.0081. ISSN 0011-1589. JSTOR 23130878.
- "Cabaret (1972) soundtrack details". Retrieved March 25, 2013.
- "Cabaret: Original Soundtrack Recording (1972 Film)". Retrieved March 25, 2013.
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (illustrated ed.). St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. p. 281. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- "Offiziellecharts.de – Soundtrack – Cabaret" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
- "Official Albums Chart Top 50". Official Charts Company. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
- "American album certifications – Liza Minnelli – Cabaret (soundtrack)". Recording Industry Association of America.
- Bletchly, Rachel (April 2, 2013). "Their True Characters". Daily Mirror. London. p. 26.
- Isherwood, Christopher (2012). Liberation: Diaries, Vol. 3: 1970–1983. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-208474-3.
- Johnstone, Iain (Autumn 1975). "The Real Sally Bowles". Folio. Washington, D.C.: American University. pp. 33–34.
- Bradshaw, Peter (December 3, 2013). "Top 10 Musicals". The Guardian. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
- Dirks, Tim (2013). "Cabaret (1972)". Filmsite.org. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
- "Cabaret". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved May 11, 2019.
- Steyn, Mark (November 29, 1997). "Hammerstein, Bernstein, Blitzstein, Jule Styne – The great names of American musical theatre are Jewish". The Independent. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
The best Nazi song is by Jewish songwriters. As with "Ol' Man River", when Cabaret called for an ostensibly innocent pastoral hymn to German nationalism, John Kander and Fred Ebb turned in such a plausible doppelganger that it was immediately denounced as a grossly offensive Nazi anthem. "The accusations against Tomorrow Belongs To Me' made me very angry", says Fred Ebb. "'I knew that song as a child', one man had the audacity to tell me. A rabbinical person wrote to me saying he had absolute proof it was a Nazi song." It wasn't: it was written in the mid-Sixties for a Broadway musical. But today, it's the only Nazi song we all know: On election night 1987, when Spitting Image decided to draw some crass parallels between Mrs Thatcher and another strong leader, they opted to show the Tories singing not the Horst Wessel song, but "Tomorrow Belongs To Me" – secure in the knowledge that we'd all get the joke.
- McLaughlin, Katie (February 13, 2013). "Life is (Still) a 'Cabaret'". CNN (Cable News Network). Retrieved February 7, 2016.
- "Films Winning 4 or More Awards Without Winning Best Picture". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. March 2011. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
- Dirks, Tim. "50 Greatest Movies from TV Guide". Filmsite.org. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- Dirks, Tim. "The 100 Best Movies Ever Made by Movieline Magazine". Filmsite.org. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- Dirks, Tim. "100 Greatest Films of All Time". Filmsite.org. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- Dirks, Tim. "Hot 100 Films from the Past". Filmsite.org. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- Baines, Christian (July 24, 2012). "10 Classic Movies Every Gay Man Must See". samesame. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- St. James, James (June 8, 2017). "The Gay Essentials: The 50 Movies Every Gay Man Needs to See". The WOW Report. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- "50 Essential Gay Films". Out.com. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- McNary, Dave (January 31, 2012). "Restored 'Cabaret' to Open TCM Festival". Variety.
- "Cabaret (1972)". TCM Classic Film Festival. 2012. Archived from the original on April 24, 2012.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Elber, Lynn (April 12, 2012). "'Cabaret': Bob Fosse Classic Gets Restoration For 40th Anniversary". HuffPost. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013.
- Reuben, Michael (January 25, 2013). "Cabaret Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- "Cabaret Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
Francesco Mismirigo, Cabaret, un film allemand, Université de Genève, 1984
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Cabaret (film)|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cabaret (film).|
- Cabaret essay by Stephen Tropiano on the National Film Registry website. 
- Cabaret essay by Daniel Eagan in America's Film Legacy: The Authoritative Guide to the Landmark Movies in the National Film Registry, A&C Black, 2010 ISBN 0826429777, pages 682-684 
- Cabaret at IMDb
- Cabaret at the TCM Movie Database
- Cabaret at Rotten Tomatoes
- Cabaret at Metacritic
- Cabaret at the American Film Institute Catalog