The Cadarache facility is a French scientific research centre which specialises in nuclear power research. It is located in the commune of Saint-Paul-lès-Durance, Bouches-du-Rhône, in the southern region of Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur. Located approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) north-east of the city of Marseille, Cadarache has been a nuclear research centre since President Charles de Gaulle launched France's atomic energy program in 1959. The centre is operated by the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (CEA, en: Atomic Energy Commission).
In 2005, Cadarache was selected to be the site of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the world's largest nuclear fusion reactor. Construction of the ITER complex began in 2007, and it is projected to begin plasma-generating operations in the 2020s. Cadarache also plays host to a number of research reactors, such as the Jules Horowitz Reactor, which is expected to enter operation around 2016.
The Cadarache facility is one of the largest nuclear research sites in Europe, hosting 21 fixed nuclear installations, including reactors, waste stockpiling and recycling facilities, and research centers. It employs over 4,500 people, and approximately 350 students and foreign collaborators carry out research in the facility’s laboratories.
One of the most notable nuclear installations at Cadarache is the ITER experimental nuclear fusion tokamak, which is expected to be completed by 2020. When it becomes operational in the mid-to-late 2020s, ITER is hoped to be the first large-scale fusion reactor to produce more energy than is used to initiate its fusion reactions. Other nuclear installations at Cadarache include the Tore Supra tokamak – a predecessor to ITER – and the Jules Horowitz Reactor, a 100-megawatt research reactor which is planned to begin operation in 2016.
Numerous nuclear research activities are conducted at Cadarache, including mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) production, nuclear propulsion and fission reactor prototyping, nuclear fusion research and research into new forms of fission fuel. Nuclear waste is also treated and recycled at the site.
A number of accidents, of varying severity, have occurred at Cadarache since its inception. Some of these incidents are listed below.
- 31 March 1994: A sodium explosion took place while the Rapsodie experimental reactor was being dismantled. The explosion was classified as a Class 2 incident by the ASN.
- 25 September 1998: A sodium fire occurred in a non-nuclear test facility, but caused no significant damage.
- 2 November 2004: A fire broke out, but caused no radioactive contamination.
- 6 November 2006: A fault in the equipment used to weigh MOX led to a grinder being loaded with more than the authorized amount 8 kg (18 lb) of fissile material, presenting the possible threat of a spontaneous nuclear reaction. Initially classified as a low-priority Class-1 level incident, it was subsequently revised to Class 2 by the ASN.
- 1 October 2008 : A fire broke out in a non-nuclear installation.
- 6 October 2009: A higher quantity of plutonium than authorized was uncovered in the Plutonium Technology Workshop. The ASN classified the incident as Class 2, and suspended dismantling work on the workshop. After investigation, it was revealed that the cause of the incident was the accumulation between 1966 and 2004 of fine plutonium dust in the 450 glove boxes in the workshop. Following the incident, further inspections revealed that another installation, STAR, also showed quantities of plutonium in excess of the authorized amounts. The incident was classified level 1 by the ASN.
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Cadarache is situated on the Aix-en-Provence-Durance seismological fault, and lies close to another fault, Trévaresse. The Aix-Durance fault caused France's worst recorded earthquake in 1909. In a 2000 report, the ASN mandated the closure of six installations at Cadarache that did not meet aseismic construction standards; a similar report was issued by a French nuclear safety organisation in 1994. By 2010, three of these had been shut down, with the remaining three to be shut down by 2015.
- "One giant leap for mankind: £13bn Iter project makes breakthrough in the quest for nuclear fusion, a solution to climate change and an age of clean, cheap energy". The Independent. 27 April 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "Russia, China fulfil obligations within ITER project in due time — Rosatom". TASS. 22 December 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- "Halden technology to be adapted and implemented in new research reactor." IFE.no. 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- "Materials test reactor gets its dome". World Nuclear News. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- The site. Cadarache.cea.fr. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- "Key component contract for Iter fusion reactor". BBC. 14 October 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- "Cadarache, le procès du Commissariat à l'énergie atomique renvoyé à décembre" (in French). Actualités-News-Environnement.com. 15 March 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- "'Controlled' Sodium Fire at Cadarache". WISE Paris. 1 October 1998. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Incident à Cadarache" (in French). France3.fr. 2 November 2004. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- "French Nuclear Facility Must Close or Risk Earthquake". ENS. 21 July 2000. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- Cadarache ITER website (in French)