In cycling, cadence (or pedalling rate) is the number of revolutions of the crank per minute; this is the rate at which a cyclist is pedalling/turning the pedals. Cadence is directly proportional to wheel speed, but is a distinct measurement and changes with gearing—which determines the ratio of crank rpm to wheel rpm.
Cyclists typically have a cadence at which they feel most comfortable, and on bicycles with many gears it is possible to maintain a preferred cadence at a wide range of speeds. Recreational and utility cyclists typically cycle around 60–80 rpm. According to cadence measurement of 7 professional cyclists during 3 week races they cycle about 90 rpm during flat and long (~190 km) group stages and individual time trials of ∼50 km. During ∼15 km uphill cycling on high mountain passes they cycle about 70 rpm. Cyclists choose cadence to minimise muscular fatigue, and not metabolic demand, since oxygen consumption is lower at cadences 60-70 rpm. When cycling at 260 W, a pedal force was the lowest at 90 rpm, lower than at 60, 75, 105 or 120 rpm. It is primarily due to increase of inertia of the crank with increasing cadence.
Any particular cyclist has only a narrow range of preferred cadences, often smaller than the general ranges listed above. This in turn influences the number and range of gears which are appropriate for any particular cycling conditions.
Certain cyclocomputers are able to measure cadence, and relay the reading to the cyclist via a display, typically mounted on the bicycle's handlebars.
- Cycling power meter
- Bicycle gearing
- Tachometer — a motor vehicle's tachometer is analogous to a bicycle's cadence; they are both measurements of the drive-train's rotational speed prior to the "transmission" (derailleur)
- LUCÍA, A.; J. HOYOS & J. L. CHICHARRO (August 2001). "Preferred pedaling cadence in professional cycling". Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 33 (8): 1361–1366. doi:10.1097/00005768-200108000-00018. PMID 11474339.
- Abbiss C.R., Peiffer J.J. & Laursen P.B (2009). "Optimal cadence selection during cycling" (PDF). International SportMed Journal.
- Kifer, Ken. "Cycling Cadence and Bicycle Gearing". Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2009-05-03.
- Abbiss, C.R., Peiffer, J.J. & Laursen, P.B., 2009 . International SportMed Journal Retrieved 5 May 2015
- Marsh, Anthony P. (Summer 1996). What Determines The Optimal Cadence?. Cycling Science. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- Martin, J.C. & Spirduso, W.W., 2001 Determinants of maximal cycling power: crank length, pedaling rate and pedal speed. Eur J Appl Physiol, 84: 413-418.
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