Cadillac ELR

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Cadillac ELR
2014 Cadillac ELR trimmed.jpg
2014 Cadillac ELR
Overview
Manufacturer Cadillac (General Motors)
Production 2013–2016
Model years 2014 and 2016
Assembly United States: Detroit, Michigan (Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly)[1]
Designer
  • Exterior: Tim Kozub
  • Interior: Keith Fisher[2]
Body and chassis
Class Compact car[1]
Body style 2-door coupé
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive[1]
Platform GM Delta II / GM Voltec[3]
Related
Powertrain
Engine 1398 cc EcoFLEX LUU I4 (gasoline)[1]
Transmission CVT Voltec 4ET50 multi-mode electric transaxle[1]
Hybrid drivetrain Series hybrid[4]
Battery 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery[1]
Range 340 mi (550 km)(EPA)[5]
Electric range 37 mi (60 km) (EPA)[5]
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,695 mm (106.1 in)[1]
Length 4,724 mm (186.0 in)[1]
Width 1,847 mm (72.7 in)[1]
Height 1,420 mm (55.9 in)[1]
Curb weight 1,846 kg (4,070 lb)[1]

The Cadillac ELR is a luxury plug-in hybrid compact coupé developed and manufactured by Cadillac.[6] The car's powertrain is a re-tuned version of the Voltec EREV drivetrain used in the Chevrolet Volt.[3] The ELR's 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery pack delivers an all-electric range of 37 miles (60 km) and a top speed of 106 mph (171 km/h).[5][7]

General Motors debuted the concept car from which the ELR derived, the Cadillac Converj, at the 2009 North American International Auto Show, presenting the production car at the 2013 North American International Auto Show.[8][9] Deliveries to retail customers in the United States and Canada began in December 2013.[10] Production ended in February 2016.[11] Cumulative sales in North America totaled 2,958 units of which 2,874 units were delivered in the U.S.

Development[edit]

The Cadillac Converj concept debuted in January, 2009 at the North American International Auto Show.
The Cadillac Converj concept viewed from the rear

General Motors debuted the Cadillac Converj concept, the car that would eventually become the 2014 Cadillac ELR, in January 2009, at the North American International Auto Show.[12]

In April 2009, Motor Trend reported that General Motors approved the production version of Cadillac Converj in 2011 as a 2012 model year vehicle.[13] GM refuted the report, stating that the Converj was "a concept vehicle undergoing a review".[14] An August 2009 BusinessWeek report stated that GM Vice Chairman Robert Lutz wanted to see the Converj go into production, possibly as early as 2014,[15] and it was reported that while delivering the keynote speech at the 46th annual Northwood Auto Show Lutz "hinted that an announcement on production for the well-received Cadillac Converj concept car may be forthcoming."[16] At the 2010 North American International Auto Show, Lutz told the Society of Automotive Analysts, “The Cadillac Converj is cleared for production,” but that "It won’t be next year or the year after that.”[17] Despite these statements, in March 2010, Bloomberg BusinessWeek reported that GM decided to end work on the Converj, because the car "couldn’t have enough amenities and electric range to be compelling to buyers and produce a profit".[18]

In August 2011, General Motors reversed its decision to cancel the project and announced the Converj concept would go into production as the Cadillac ELR, at a price less than the US$57,400 Tesla Model S, but did not provide details on performance or timing. General Motors said the ELR would be about the same size as the Chevrolet Volt and would be produced in the same facility.[19][20] Within the framework of GM's vehicle electrification strategy,[21] the Cadillac ELR was—after the Chevrolet Volt EREV and Spark EV—the third plug-in electric passenger car sold by General Motors in the U.S. since the EV1 was discontinued. In contrast to pure battery EV proponents like Tesla Motors, GM has initially focused on extended-range EV technology that incorporates internal combustion engines.

General Motors began testing ELR prototypes in mid-2012.[22][23] The production version was unveiled at the 2013 North American International Auto Show.[9]

Specifications[edit]

U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu discusses the features of the 2014 Cadillac ELR exhibited at the 2013 Washington Auto Show.

The ELR is built upon the GM Delta II platform and incorporates a version of the Voltec[3] propulsion system used in the Chevrolet Volt. The Voltec propulsion system includes a 119–135-kilowatt electric motor, a four-cylinder engine-generator and a 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery pack. The ELR has an official all-electric range of 37 miles (60 km) and a total range of 340 mi (550 km), as rated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).[5] Charging times are 12.5–18 hours using the 120-volt travel charger, and about 5 hours using a 240-volt charging station. Top speed is 106 mph (171 km/h) and accelerates from 0-60 mph in 7.8 seconds in range extended mode.[7]

There was no 2015 model year Cadillac ELR. Instead, the 2016 model year Cadillac ELR was updated and improved to achieve a 25% performance boost in output from the hybrid powertrain, while the price is US$10,000 lower than the previous model. The engine management software was updated and the regenerative braking system reconfigured. The 2016 ELR delivered an all-electric range of 39 mi (63 km), up from 37 miles (60 km).[24] The 2016 model offered more than 25 percent more power and torque, a faster 0-60 time of 6.4 seconds, steering and suspension upgrades, and an optional performance package with unique wheels, Brembo brake calipers, unique calibrations, and a sport steering wheel.

Fuel economy[edit]

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officially rated the 2014 model year ELR's combined city/highway fuel economy in all-electric mode at 82 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e) (2.9 L gasoline equivalent/100 km; 98 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent). This rating considers a conversion factor of 33.7 kWh of electricity being the energy equivalent of a gallon of gasoline, and the ELR has an energy consumption rate of 41 kWh/100 mi for combined city/highway driving.[5] The EPA rating in gasoline-only mode is 33 mpg‑US (7.1 L/100 km; 40 mpg‑imp) for combined driving. The 2014 Volt has a rating of 37 mpg‑US (6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg‑imp) for gasoline-only mode and a fuel economy in all-electric mode of 98 MPG-e (2.4 L gasoline equivalent/100 km; 118 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent).[25] The ELR has more power than the Volt but is 300 lb (140 kg) heavier.[26]

Operating modes[edit]

The ELR has a traditional shift lever (PRNDL) with a button on the console allowing selection of four driving modes: Tour, Hold, Mountain and Sport:

Tour mode, the default setting, lets the ELR operate in all-electric mode (EV mode) until its battery is fully discharged. This mode provides the maximum powertrain efficiency and a minimum level of vibration.
Hold mode allows the driver to save the energy currently stored in the battery for later use, such as traveling in urban areas.[26]
Mountain mode was designed to provide more available battery power in mountainous environments by increasing minimum battery state of charge (SOC) in the battery. The car uses the gasoline-engine sooner, or runs it longer to build up the battery's state of charge, thus allowing the car to maintain performance on steep and long grades. Range extended versions of the BMW i3 do not have this mode and have struggled in these situations, resulting in a class-action lawsuit.[27]
Sport mode improved throttle response, and improved feedback with more aggressive steering and suspension settings.[26] For 2016, the ELR could combine power from both the engine and electric motor when in Sport mode.

The EPA's 2014 edition of the "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends" report calculated utility factors for plug-in hybrids to estimate the percentage of miles that would be driven using electricity by the average driver, in electric only or blended modes. The ELR scored a utility factor of 65%, compared with 83% for the BMW i3 REx, 66% for the Chevrolet Volt, 45% for the Ford Energi models, and 29% for the Toyota Prius PHV.[28] Real world driving statistics (collected automatically by OnStar[29] and shared by ELR owners on the Volt Stats website) showed a fleet total of 98.46 MPG (141.87 MPG median) as of August 2016.[30]

Production and sales[edit]

Shipping to dealers of the 2014 Cadillac ELR began in late December 2013.

In October 2012, General Motors announced that the ELR would be assembled at the Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly Plant, where the similar Chevrolet Volt, Opel Ampera, and Holden Volt were also assembled. The addition of the ELR to the plant represented an additional US$35 million investment, bringing the total product investment at the plant to US$561 million since December 2009.

General Motors began assembly of pre-production vehicles to be used for testing in late May 2013. Production of vehicles destined for retail customers began in December 2013.[31][32] Shipping to dealerships from the Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly began on December 20, 2013[33] and, while retail deliveries were scheduled to begin in January 2014, the first 10 units were delivered early in December 2013—six in the U.S.[10] and four in Canada.[34]

In the United States, the 2014 ELR had a base price of US$75,000 before applicable government incentives.[32][35] Due to slow early sales, Cadillac skipped the 2015 model year for the ELR. The 2016 model was released with a $10,000 lower base price ($58,495 after U.S. federal tax credits[36]).

Calendar Year Total sales United States[37][38] Canada[34]
2013 10 6 4
2014 1,354 1,310 44
2015 1,049 1,024 25
2016 545 534 11
Total 2,958 2,874 84

ELR production ended on February 18, 2016.

Cadillac announced that it will launch a new plug-in hybrid version of its new CT6 sedan in late 2016.[11]

Awards and recognition[edit]

2014 Cadillac ELR

In 2009, the Converj concept was awarded "Best Concept Vehicle" in the Eyes on Design Awards, "Most Significant Concept Vehicle of 2009" in the North American Concept Vehicle of the Year Awards and "Specialty Concept Vehicle of the Year" by the Southeast Automotive Media Organization.[39][40][41]

In 2012, Green Car Journal selected the ELR as one of the five finalists in the Green Car Vision Awards.[42]

In 2013, the ELR was awarded "Best Production Vehicle" in the Eyes on Design Awards.[43]

In 2014, the ELR won the "Green Car Technology Award" for its Regen On Demand system, which allows the driver "to use paddle shifters on the steering wheel to temporarily regenerate energy and store it…in the battery pack for later use."[44] The second generation Chevrolet Volt adopted a refined version of this system in the 2016 model year.[45]

The updated 2016 ELR earned the "Vincentric Best Value in America" award for the lowest maintenance and repair costs in the "Luxury Electric/Plug-In Hybrid" class.[46]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "2014 Cadillac ELR Specifications". Cadillac News. General Motors Company. 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2013-09-17. EPA vehicle class: Compact car 
  2. ^ "Design Powers 2014 Cadillac ELR" (Press release). Detroit, Michigan: General Motors Company. 2013-01-15. Archived from the original on 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2013-09-18. “When we introduced the Converj in 2009, we knew any production model would need to advance the concept yet retain the distinctive design language and styling that were so well received,” said Tim Kozub, ELR exterior design manager. 
  3. ^ a b c Matthe, Roland; Eberle, Ulrich (2014-01-01). "The Voltec System - Energy Storage and Electric Propulsion". Retrieved 2014-05-04. 
  4. ^ Miller, Michael A.; Holmes, Alan G.; Conlon, Brendan M.; Savagian, Peter J. (2011-04-12). "The GM "Voltec" 4ET50 Multi-Mode Electric Transaxle". SAE International - Technical Papers. SAE International. doi:10.4271/2011-01-0887. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  5. ^ a b c d e U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-06-06). "2014 Cadillac ELR". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2014-06-08. 
  6. ^ "Cadillac Converj To Include GM's Volt Plug-In Technology". Autoweek. Crain Communications. 2010-01-10. ISSN 0192-9674. Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-11. General Motors Co. will produce the Cadillac Converj plug-in concept car introduced at last year's Detroit auto show, Vice Chairman Bob Lutz said. 
  7. ^ a b Mike Szostech. "Cadillac ELR Specs". My Electric Car Forums. Retrieved 2013-11-21. 
  8. ^ "Cadillac Converj Extended-Range Electric Vehicle". GM-Volt.com. GM-Volt.com. Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  9. ^ a b Miersma, Seyth (2013-01-15). "2014 Cadillac ELR Is Making Green Sexy in Detroit". Autoblog. AOL. Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  10. ^ a b Jay Cole (2014-01-03). "Cadillac ELR Arrives Early, Manages To Sell 6 Copies In December". InsideEvs.com. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  11. ^ a b Cobb, Jeff (2016-05-13). "2016 Cadillac ELR Production Was Permanently Cancelled In February". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-05-13. 
  12. ^ Johnson, Eric (January 2009). "Cadillac Converj Concept". Car and Driver. Hearst Communications. Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-11. ...GM rolled out this gorgeous 2+2 coupe concept at the Detroit auto show. Essentially a Chevrolet Volt sedan underneath, the Cadillac Converj makes that car, no uggo itself, look like a toaster oven in comparison. 
  13. ^ Mick, Jason (2009-04-15). "Report: Production of Cadillac Converj Approved". DailyTech. DailyTech. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  14. ^ Abuelsamid, Sam (2009-04-15). "Cadillac Converj Reportedly Approved for Production". Autoblog Green. AOL. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  15. ^ Welch, David (2009-08-21). "At GM, Dreams of an Electric Cadillac". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  16. ^ Doerr, Erich T. (2009-10-03). "Lutz Sings Praises, Quality of 'New' GM's New Auto Line". Midland Daily News. Midland Daily News. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  17. ^ "GM to Produce Cadillac Converj Electric Vehicle, Lutz Says". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. 2010-01-10. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  18. ^ Welch, David (2010-03-01). "GM Said to Drop Volt-Based Cadillac to Focus on Plug-In Hybrids". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 2010-03-04. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  19. ^ "Cadillac Converj Extended Range EV Concept Officially Headed for Production". Green Car Congress. BioAge Group. 2011-08-17. Retrieved 2011-08-17. 
  20. ^ Trudell, Craig; Welch, David (2011-08-17). "GM Plans to Build Plug-In Cadillac ELR That’s Similar to Chevrolet Volt". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2011-08-17. 
  21. ^ Brinkman, Norman; Eberle, Ulrich; Formanski, Volker; Grebe, Uwe-Dieter; Matthe, Roland (2012-04-15). "Vehicle Electrification - Quo Vadis". VDI. Retrieved 2013-04-27. 
  22. ^ Vijayenthiran, Viknesh (2012-06-28). "New Details on Cadillac ELR Extended-Range Electric Car". Motor Authority. Motor Authority. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  23. ^ Ernst, Kurt (2012-09-06). "2014 Cadillac ELR Spy Shots". Motor Authority. Motor Authority. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  24. ^ Noah Joseph (2015-04-15). "2016 Cadillac ELR gets more power, $9,000 price drop". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2015-04-17. 
  25. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-06-06). "2014 Cadillac ELR and 2014 Chevrolet Volt". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2014-06-08. 
  26. ^ a b c Michael Harley (2013-11-25). "First Drive - 2014 Cadillac ELR: When Looks Are Everything". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2014-06-08. 
  27. ^ "BMW i3 REx electric-car lawsuit: range-extender power loss alleged". Retrieved 2016-08-25. 
  28. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (October 2014). "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2014" (PDF). EPA. Retrieved 2014-10-14.  See Table 7.2 - MY 2014 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Powertrain and Range.
  29. ^ "Volt Stats: Frequently Asked Questions". www.voltstats.net. Retrieved 2016-08-25. 
  30. ^ "ELR Stats! Tracking real world usage of Cadillac ELRs in the wild...". www.voltstats.net. Retrieved 2016-08-25. 
  31. ^ Ross, Jeffrey N. (2013-05-30). "First Cadillac ELR Rolls Off the Line". Autoblog. AOL. Archived from the original on 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  32. ^ a b Burden, Melissa (2013-10-11). "GM Prices Cadillac ELR Plug-In Coupe at $75,995". The Detroit News. The Detroit News. ISSN 1055-2715. Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-11. Production on the luxury coupe at GM’s Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly Plant is expected to begin in December and it should hit dealer lots nationally in early January, said Cadillac spokesman David Caldwell. 
  33. ^ GM Press Release (2013-12-20). "Cadillac Begins Delivery of ELR Luxury Sport Coupe Electric Hybrid". EV World. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  34. ^ a b Klippenstein, Matthew (January 2015). "Plug-in electric car sales in Canada, December 2014". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2015-02-18.  A total of 4 ELRs were sold in 2013 and 44 in 2014.
  35. ^ "Cadillac ELR Sales to Begin in January" (Press release). Detroit, Michigan: General Motors Company. 2013-10-11. Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-11. ...the 2014 ELR has a starting price of $75,995, including a $995 destination charge but excluding tax, title, license and dealer fees. Upon IRS certification of an anticipated federal tax credit, purchasers may be eligible for a tax credit from $0 to $7,500 depending on individual tax liability. 
  36. ^ "2016 ELR Advances with More Power, Technology". Retrieved 2016-08-25. 
  37. ^ Jeff Cobb (2015-01-06). "December 2014 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2015-02-18.  U.S. deliveries totaled 6 units in 2013 and 1,310 in 2014.
  38. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-06). "December 2015 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2016-05-13.  U.S. deliveries totaled 1,024 units in 2015.
  39. ^ Maynard, Shawn (2010). "Cadillac Converj Named Best Concept Vehicle of 2009 Detroit Show". Automobile.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  40. ^ Blanco, Sebastian (2009-06-24). "Fisker Karma Sunset, Converj, BlueSport Roadster win Concept Vehicle of the Year Awards". Autoblog Green. AOL. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  41. ^ Biel, John (2009-07-01). "Converj "Emerjes" as Top Concept Vehicle". How Stuff Works ConsumerGuide Automotive. Publications International. Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  42. ^ King, Danny (2012-01-13). "Tesla Model S, BMW i3 Among 2012 Green Car Vision Finalists". Autoblog Green. AOL. Retrieved 2012-01-13. 
  43. ^ Patton, Phil (2013-01-16). "Cadillac, Ford, Nissan and Lutz Win Design Awards". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Wheels. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-11. For best production vehicle, Cadillac’s Volt-based extended range electric ELR beat out the Corvette Stingray. 
  44. ^ "Regen on Demand Wins 2014 Green Car Technology Award". Retrieved 2016-08-25. 
  45. ^ "2016 Chevrolet Volt To Add On-Demand Regenerative Braking". Retrieved 2016-08-25. 
  46. ^ "2016 Consumer Winner Luxury Electric/Plug-In Hybrid". vincentric.com. Retrieved 2016-08-25. 
  • Leno, Jay (Host); Saucedo, Frank (Guest) (2013-06-17). 2014 Cadillac ELR. Jay Leno's Garage (Web video). Burbank, California: NBC Studio. Retrieved 2013-11-08. 

External links[edit]

Official website