Cadillac Gage Ranger
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The Cadillac Gage Ranger is a four-wheeled armored personnel carrier produced by Cadillac Gage. It was built on a commercial truck chassis. The largest customer was the United States Air Force (where it was called the Peacekeeper, or P.K.), which at one time had over 700. It is also used by Luxembourg and Indonesia. The vehicle is no longer offered.
Rangers (Peacekeepers) were produced in the late 1970s through early 1980s on a shortened Dodge 200 or Dodge Ram pickup truck chassis, the same chassis as the CUCV. Many were subsequently sold to local police as SWAT vehicles. A newer version called the PeaceKeeper II was offered on a Ford F-350 chassis.
US Military service
The primary user was the US Air Force Security Forces where it was used as a fire team armored vehicle, until replaced by the M-1026 Humvee. It should be noted that US Air Force Civil Engineer Explosive Ordnance Disposal teams also used the type.
The military police units of the United States Marine Corps also used the Ranger as a convoy vehicle. It was used in support of United States Navy Submarine-launched ballistic missiles and their warheads while in transit between storage facilities and the subs.
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It had a crew of four: Fire team leader/driver, rifleman/assistant gunner/front passenger, M-60 gunner/left rear passenger, and grenadier/right rear passenger (the fire team leader and the rifleman could swap positions in the vehicle). The seating in the vehicle was two up front facing the front, one directly behind the driver and one in the rear of the vehicle; both of the members in the rear faced the opposite wall.
The vehicle had firing ports providing 270° coverage: one in the front center, one in each of the four doors (driver's, passenger's, and two rear), and one on each rear side. Each firing port except the one in front had an armored vision block above it. The driver and front passenger had large armored glass vision blocks for forward visibility and two smaller ones in the doors for views to the side. The two front (right door and left door) vision blocks (for driver and passenger) were larger than the rest.
The doors were extremely heavy, and when opening them great care had to be taken that the latch engaged the top of the door. The doors were spring-loaded and if the springs were strong the doors would close immediately. On the inside, the driver and passenger both had door release pads located above the door openings. All one had to do to close the door was hit the pad and the door would slam shut.
The rear doors were a different matter. The grenadier had to lean out of the vehicle to use his thumb to depress the door hold open latch while pulling the door closed. These two doors were much lighter than the side doors.
The vehicle was equipped with a turret capable of mounting an M60 machine gun. The turret had an armored gun shield (which prevented the mounting of the M-60E3) bolted onto the front of the machine gun cradle. The cradle itself had a coaxial spotlight attached to its right side, enabling the gunner to illuminate any area; the cable of the spotlight was a constant source of entanglement for the gunner.
The hatch opening was notoriously small. Any gunner of extra-large size or larger, while wearing his body armor, would have trouble fitting in the turret, and it would be nearly impossible if he was wearing his gas mask case across his chest. The hatch itself had three positions: full down, half up, and full up; when full up, it acted as a rear shield for the gunner. When opened, the spring-loaded hatch automatically went to the midpoint lock. This forced the gunner to pull down the handle in the rear so that the hatch opened fully. When closing the hatch, the gunner just pulled the rear handle down until he could latch the hatch. The gunner had a folding pedestal to stand on when behind the machine gun. Operationally, any time the gun was mounted, the gunner had to be behind it whether the vehicle was moving or not.
As initially produced, the vehicle was equipped with a 360 cubic inches (5,900 cm3) gasoline-powered Mopar engine. This proved to be too powerful, leading to speeding incidents and accidents. It also proved to be too prone to overheating. In practice the vehicle crew would spend many hours parked with the engine idling and the air conditioning on. This was especially true during the long hot days of the short northern plains summers (sundown at Minot AFB in North Dakota is between 10:00 pm and 11:00 pm during the summer) where most of Strategic Air Command's ICBM bases and several of its bomber bases were located. As the 360-cubic-inch Mopars failed, they were replaced with 318 cubic inches (5,210 cm3) gasoline-powered Mopars, though a few vehicles did receive diesel engines.
The original grill made up of a series of interlocking inverted "V"s designed to catch incoming bullets and direct them down away from the radiator. It was found that this restricted air flow enough to also contribute to the overheating problems, so a new "Summer" grill with unrestricted air flow was installed on some vehicles. The "Summer" grill offered no protection for the radiator but by the time they were installed it was realized that the vehicles were expendable. The Ranger or Peacekeeper really did not need the protection, because they only had to survive long enough to get the fire team to the fight, or the convoy being protected out of one.
The vehicle was originally equipped with foam-filled "run flat" tires. These, however, caused control problems when operated for extended periods of time at highway speeds (45–55 miles per hour (72–89 km/h)). The foam in the tires would heat up and liquefy, throwing the wheels out of balance; if this happened to all four at the same time the driver could lose control and roll over. By 1990 all of the foam-filled tires had been replaced with tubeless pneumatic types.
While the vehicle was mechanically four wheel drive, its off-road capability was nil (the four wheel drive provided for extra traction in the excessive snow of the northern plains winters). In fact, United States Air Force Space Command ordered that any P.K. operated on a gravel road not exceed 25 mph (40 km/h); on some of the worst roads, drivers would slow down further to 15 mph (24 km/h) or slower.
Tactically the vehicle would pull up to a hostile area, with one of the two front corners pointed at the area of incoming fire. The machine gunner would lay down suppressive fire and the grenadier would deploy from the rear of the vehicle to an area of cover. Once under cover the grenadier would also lay down suppressive fire for the rest of the crew. The next person to dismount from the vehicle would be either the driver or passenger (who ever was on the side of the vehicle not taking fire). If that member was the fire team leader, he would follow the grenadier's example and seek a position of cover and lay down suppressive fire; if it was the assistant gunner he would take cover behind the engine compartment and wait for the gunner, in order to assist him with his ammunition. The last person out would be the machine gunner; once out he and the assistant gunner would move together to a tactical position.
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The vehicle was universally hated by its crews because of its inherent design flaws.[according to whom?]
- The rear bumper was the rounded kind Dodge put on all of its trucks not the square diamond plate kind that Ford and GM used. The crews used the bumper as a step to enter the vehicle. If it was icy, slip and fall injuries were possible.
- The driver and front passenger had steps provided, but they were just a simple piece of angled steel welded to the bottom of the truck. It too was prone to icing as it was directly behind the front tires, and it also contributed to fall injuries.
- The armor was thin, and the crews believed that it wouldn't stop the thirty-calibre rounds that leadership told them that it would. The floor itself was only sheet steel and vulnerable to grenades and other explosives.
- If the vehicle was involved in a roll-over accident all of the crew could possibly be injured. The poor construction and design of the vehicle could cause the vehicle to lose doors and warp the body.
The Peacekeeper II, a heavily modified version of the Peacekeeper, was being marketed to law enforcement agencies across the United States to fight increasingly well-armed criminals in high-crime areas. The Peacekeeper II, using a General Motors or Ford pickup truck chassis and auto parts, has automatic transmission, power steering and brakes, air conditioning and heat and four-wheel drive, as well as tires that can operate for up to 30 miles if punctured. Peacekeeper II armor is a half-inch thick. Cadillac Gage wanted to build 200 of the $170,000 Peacekeeper II vehicles a year. It takes 15 to 50 workers to build each one, according to Clay Moise, Textron's vice president of marine and combat vehicles. No Peacekeeper IIs were sold and it is no longer being offered.
In popular culture
The Cadillac-Gage Commando Ranger appears in the following films:
- X-Men Origins: Wolverine, 2009
- Get Smart, 2008
- End Game, 2006
- Hostage, 2005
- The Alternate, 2000
- Desperate Measures, 1998
- Seven Days, 1998–2001
- The Siege, 1998
- Cambli International Thunder 1
- Terradyne Armored Vehicles Gurkha
- Lenco BearCat
- Saxon (vehicle)
- Mercedes-Benz Unimog U5000