Cadmium nitrate

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Cadmium nitrate
Skeletal formula of cadmium chloride
Crystal of cadmium chloride
Names
IUPAC name
Cadmium(II) nitrate
Other names
Nitric acid, cadmium salt
Identifiers
10325-94-7 YesY
10022-68-1 (tetrahydrate) N
ChEBI CHEBI:77732 N
ChemSpider 23498 YesY
EC number 233-710-6
Jmol-3D images Image
UN number 3087
Properties
CdN2O6
Molar mass 236.42 g·mol−1
Appearance White crystals, hygroscopic
Odor Odorless
Density 3.6 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.45 g/cm3 (tetrahdyrate)[1]
Melting point 360 °C (680 °F; 633 K)
at 760 mmHg (anhydrous)
59.5 °C (139.1 °F; 332.6 K)
at 760 mmHg (tetrahydrate)[1]
Boiling point 132 °C (270 °F; 405 K)
at 760 mmHg (tetrahydrate)[2]
109.7 g/100 mL (0 °C)
126.6 g/100 mL (18 °C)
139.8 g/100 mL (30 °C)
320.9 g/100 mL (59.5 °C)[3]
Solubility Soluble in acids, ammonia, alcohols, ether, acetone
−5.51·10−5 cm3/mol (anhydrous)
−1.4·10−4 cm3/mol (tetrahydrate)[1]
Structure
Cubic (anhydrous)
Orthorhombic (tetrahydrate)[1]
Fdd2, No. 43 (tetrahydrate)[4]
mm2 (tetrahydrate)[4]
α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 90°
Hazards
GHS pictograms The skull-and-crossbones pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The health hazard pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The environment pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)[5]
GHS signal word Danger
H301, H330, H340, H350, H360, H372, H410[5]
P201, P260, P273, P284, P301+310, P310[5]
EU classification Very Toxic T+ Oxidizing Agent O Dangerous for the Environment (Nature) N
R-phrases R25, R26, R45, R46,R48/23/25, R50/53, R60, R61
S-phrases S28, S36/37, S45, S53, S60, S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gas Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazard OX: Oxidizer. E.g., potassium perchlorateNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
300 mg/kg (rats, oral)[2]
Related compounds
Other anions
Cadmium acetate
Cadmium chloride
Cadmium sulfate
Other cations
Zinc nitrate
Calcium nitrate
Magnesium nitrate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Cadmium nitrate describes any of the related members of a family of inorganic compound with the general formula Cd(NO3)2.xH2O. The anhydrous form is volatile but the others are salts. All are colourless crystalline solids that absorb moisture from air and becomes watery, that is deliquescent. Cadmium compounds are also known to be carcinogenic.

Uses[edit]

Cadmium nitrate is used for coloring glass and porcelain[6] and as a flash powder in photography.

Preparation[edit]

Cadmium nitrate is prepared by dissolving cadmium metal or its oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate, in nitric acid followed by crystallization:

CdO + 2HNO3 → Cd(NO3)2 + H2O
CdCO3 + 2 HNO3 → Cd(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O
Cd + 4 HNO3 → 2 NO2 + 2 H2O + Cd(NO3)2

Reactions[edit]

Thermal dissociation at elevated temperatures produces cadmium oxide and oxides of nitrogen. When hydrogen sulfide is passed through an acidified solution of cadmium nitrate, yellow cadmium sulfide is formed. A red modification of the sulfide is formed under boiling conditions.

When with caustic soda solution, cadmium oxide forms precipitate of cadmium hydroxide. Many insoluble cadmium salts are obtained by such precipitation reactions.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Lide, David R., ed. (2009). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (90th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0. 
  2. ^ a b c "MSDS of Cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate". https://www.fishersci.ca. Fisher Scientific. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  3. ^ Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1919). Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (2nd ed.). New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. p. 178. 
  4. ^ a b James, D. W.; Carrick, M. T.; Leong, W. H. (1978). "Raman spectrum of cadmium nitrate". Australian Journal of Chemistry 31 (6): 1189. doi:10.1071/CH9781189. 
  5. ^ a b c Sigma-Aldrich Co., Cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate. Retrieved on 2014-06-25.
  6. ^ Karl-Heinz Schulte-Schrepping, Magnus Piscator "Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2007 Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_499.

External links[edit]

Salts and covalent derivatives of the Nitrate ion
HNO3 He
LiNO3 Be(NO3)2 B(NO3)4 C N O FNO3 Ne
NaNO3 Mg(NO3)2 Al(NO3)3 Si P S ClONO2 Ar
KNO3 Ca(NO3)2 Sc(NO3)3 Ti(NO3)4 VO(NO3)3 Cr(NO3)3 Mn(NO3)2 Fe(NO3)3 Co(NO3)2,
Co(NO3)3
Ni(NO3)2 Cu(NO3)2 Zn(NO3)2 Ga(NO3)3 Ge As Se Br Kr
RbNO3 Sr(NO3)2 Y Zr(NO3)4 Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd(NO3)2 AgNO3 Cd(NO3)2 In Sn Sb Te I Xe
CsNO3 Ba(NO3)2   Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg2(NO3)2,
Hg(NO3)2
Tl(NO3)3 Pb(NO3)2 Bi(NO3)3 Po At Rn
Fr Ra   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Fl Uup Lv Uus Uuo
La Ce(NO3)3,
Ce(NO3)4
Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd(NO3)3 Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr