Caesalpinioideae

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Caesalpinioideae
RoyalPoinciana.jpg
Royal Poinciana, Delonix regia
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
DC. 1825
Type genus
Caesalpinia
L.
Clades

See text

Synonyms
  • Cassioideae Burmeist. 1837
  • GCM Clade Marazzi et al. 2012[1]
  • MCC Clade Doyle 2011[2][3]
  • Mimosoideae DC. 1825

Caesalpinioideae is a botanical name at the rank of subfamily, placed in the large family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. Its name is formed from the generic name Caesalpinia. It is known also as the peacock flower subfamily.[4] The Caesalpinioideae are mainly trees distributed in the moist tropics, but include such temperate species as the honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos) and Kentucky coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus). It has the following clade-based definition:

The most inclusive crown clade containing Arcoa gonavensis Urb. and Mimosa pudica L., but not Bobgunnia fistuloides (Harms) J. H. Kirkbr. & Wiersema, Duparquetia orchidacea Baill., or Poeppigia procera C.Presl[5]

In some classifications, for example the Cronquist system, the group is recognized at the rank of family, Caesalpiniaceae.

Distinguishing characters:

  • Specialised extrafloral nectaries often present on the petiole and / or on the primary and secondary rachises, usually between pinnae or leaflet pairs
  • Leaves commonly bipinnate
  • Inflorescences globose, spicate
  • Aestivation valvate
  • Anthers often with a stipitate or sessile apical gland
  • Pollen commonly in tetrads, bitetrads or polyads
  • Seeds usually with an open or closed pleurogram on both faces
  • Root nodules variably present and indeterminate

The subfamily Caesalpinioideae contains 148 genera in all over the world.

Taxonomy[edit]

  • Caesalpinieae Clade

Phylogenetics[edit]

Caesalpinioideae, as it was traditionally circumscribed, was paraphyletic. Several molecular phylogenies in the early 2000s showed that the other two subfamilies of Fabaceae (Faboideae and Mimosoideae) were both nested within Caesalpinioideae.[6][7][8][9] Consequently, the subfamilies of Fabaceae were reorganized to make them monophyletic.[5] Caesalpinioideae, as currently defined, contains the following subclades:[5]

Fabales

Faboideae (outgroup)


Caesalpinioideae

Umtiza clade





Caesalpinieae clade



Cassieae clade



Pterogyne






Dimorphandra group A




Tachigali clade



Peltophorum clade





Dimorphandra group B (including the mimosoid clade)






References[edit]

  1. ^ Marazzi B, Ané C, Simon MF, Delgado-Salinas A, Luckow M, Sanderson MJ (2012). "Locating evolutionary precursors on a phylogenetic tree". Evolution. 66 (12): 3918–3930. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01720.x. 
  2. ^ Doyle JJ (2011). "Phylogenetic perspectives on the origins of nodulation". Molecular Plant–Microbe Interactions. 24 (11): 1289–1295. PMID 21995796. doi:10.1094/MPMI-05-11-0114. 
  3. ^ Doyle JJ (2012). "Polyploidy in legumes". In Soltis PS, Soltis DE. Polyploidy and genome evolution. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 147–180. ISBN 978-3-642-31441-4. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-31442-1_9. 
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ a b c The Legume Phylogeny Working Group (LPWG). (2017). "A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny". Taxon. 66 (1): 44–77. doi:10.12705/661.3. 
  6. ^ Bruneau A, Forest F, Herendeen PS, Klitgaard BB, Lewis GP (2001). "Phylogenetic Relationships in the Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae) as Inferred from Chloroplast trnL Intron Sequences". Syst Bot. 26 (3): 487–514. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.487. 
  7. ^ Bruneau A, Mercure M, Lewis GP, Herendeen PS (2008). "Phylogenetic patterns and diversification in the caesalpinioid legumes". Botany. 86 (7): 697–718. doi:10.1139/B08-058. 
  8. ^ Manzanilla V, Bruneau A (2012). "Phylogeny reconstruction in the Caesalpinieae grade (Leguminosae) based on duplicated copies of the sucrose synthase gene and plastid markers". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 65 (1): 149–162. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.05.035. 
  9. ^ Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wykd B-E, Wojciechowskie MF, Lavin M (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S. Afr. J. Bot. 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001.