Caffeine citrate

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Caffeine citrate
Caffeine citrate.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Cafcit, other
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
by mouth, i.v.
ATC code
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.125.472
Chemical and physical data
Formula C14H18N4O9
Molar mass 386.314 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
  (verify)

Caffeine citrate, sold under the trade name Cafcit among others, is a medication used to treat a lack of breathing in premature babies.[1] Specifically it is given to babies who are born at less than 35 weeks or weight less than 2 kilograms (4.4 lb) once other causes are ruled out.[2] It is given by mouth or slow injection into a vein.[1]

Side effects can include problems feeding, increased heart rate, low blood sugar, necrotizing enterocolitis, and kidney problems.[2][1] Testing blood caffeine levels is occasionally recommended.[1] It is a citrate salt of caffeine.[3] Caffeine citrate is in the xanthine family of medication.[2] It works by stimulating the respiratory centers in the brain.[1]

Caffeine was discovered in 1819.[4] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[5] In the United Kingdom a 10 mg vial costs £4.90.[6] The intravenous form may also be taken by mouth.[6]

Medical uses[edit]

Caffeine citrate is generally the preferred treatment for apnea of prematurity.[2] It has less side effects as compared to theophylline.[2]

Caffeine citrate functions in much the same capacity as does caffeine, but takes effect more quickly; its speed of dissociation is faster than that of caffeine. Like its sister compound, it can be used to dispel pain from a headache. However, caffeine sodium benzoate is typically only used to treat severe migraines, not the citrate form.

Mechanism[edit]

In method of action, the preparation is exactly identical to that of caffeine base as the citrate counter ion dissociates in water. Doses of caffeine citrate, due to the added weight of the citrate moiety, are understandably higher than with caffeine base, i.e., it takes a larger dose to get the same amount of caffeine.[6] The ratio of therapeutic doses of caffeine base to its citrate salt is typically 1:2.[6] Dosing should therefore be clearly distinguished.[6]

Manufacture[edit]

The drug is prepared simply by combining anhydrous caffeine with citric acid monohydrate and sodium citrate dihydrate.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Caffeine; Caffeine and Sodium Benzoate Injection; Caffeine Citrate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d e WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. p. X. ISBN 9789241547659. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  3. ^ Donn, Steven M.; Sinha, Sunil K. (2012). Manual of Neonatal Respiratory Care. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 457. ISBN 9781461421559. Archived from the original on 2016-12-30. 
  4. ^ Brown, Nathan (2015). In Silico Medicinal Chemistry: Computational Methods to Support Drug Design. Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 20. ISBN 9781782621638. Archived from the original on 2016-12-29. 
  5. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Ainsworth, Sean B. (2014). Neonatal Formulary: Drug Use in Pregnancy and the First Year of Life (7 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 120. ISBN 9781118819517. Archived from the original on 2016-12-30. 

External links[edit]