Butanedioic acid, 2-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)-3-hydroxy-, (R-(R*,R*-(E)))-
trans-Caffeoyl tartaric acid
cis-Caffeoyl tartaric acid
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||g·mol−1 312.230|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Caftaric acid is a non-flavanoid phenolic compound.
It is an esterified phenolic acid, composed of caffeic acid, a hydroxycinnamate produced by plants, and tartaric acid, the principal organic acid found in grape berries. As such, caftaric acid is found in all grape juices and wines. During alcoholic and malolactic fermentation, the ester can be enzymatically hydrolysed, releasing the two constituents. Caffeic acid is susceptible to chemical oxidation, and subsequent redox reactions involving caffeic acid can contribute to wine browning over time, and the straw-gold color that can develop in some white wines after bottling.
Winemakers measure caftaric acid levels as their primary method to estimate the oxidation levels that a wine has undergone. For example, press wines, which undergo a high degree of oxidation, will have little to no caftaric acid.
Grape reaction product (2-S glutathionyl caftaric acid) is an oxidation compound produced from caftaric acid and found in wine. Malvidin 3-glucoside alone is not oxidized in the presence of grape polyphenol oxidase (PPO), whereas it is degraded in the presence of a crude grape PPO extract and of caftaric acid, forming anthocyanidin-caftaric acid adducts.
- Cichoric acid (Dicaffeoyltartaric acid)
- C. Y. Lee; A. Jaworski (1987). "Phenolic Compounds in White Grapes Grown in New York". Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 38 (4): 277–281.
- Waterhouse, Andrew; Sacks, Gavin; Jeffery, David (June 17, 2016). "Chapter 13: Non‐flavonoid Phenolics". Understanding Wine Chemistry. Adelaide: Wiley Books. pp. 112–113. ISBN 978-1-118-73072-0.
- Vanzo, A; Cecotti, R; Vrhovsek, U; Torres, AM; Mattivi, F; Passamonti, S (2007). "The fate of trans-caftaric acid administered into the rat stomach". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55 (4): 1604–11. doi:10.1021/jf0626819. PMID 17300159.
- Sarni-Manchado, Pascale; Cheynier, Véronique; Moutounet, Michel (1997). "Reactions of polyphenoloxidase generated caftaric acid o-quinone with malvidin 3-O-glucoside". Phytochemistry. 45 (7): 1365–1369. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00190-8.