Caftaric acid

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Caftaric acid
Caftaric acid.svg
Names
IUPAC name
(2R,3R)-2-[(E)-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy-3-hydroxybutanedioic acid
Other names
Monocaffeyltartaric acid
Butanedioic acid, 2-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)-3-hydroxy-, (R-(R*,R*-(E)))-
trans-Caftaric acid
cis-Caftaric acid
trans-Caffeoyl tartaric acid
cis-Caffeoyl tartaric acid
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.107.739
MeSH caftaric+acid
Properties
C13H12O9
Molar mass 312.230 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Caftaric acid is a non-flavanoid phenolic compound.

It is found in the juice of grapes[1][2] (Vitis vinifera) and impacts the color of white wine.

It is an esterified phenolic acid, composed of caffeic acid, a hydroxycinnamate produced by plants, and tartaric acid, the principal organic acid found in grape berries. As such, caftaric acid is found in all grape juices and wines.[2] During alcoholic and malolactic fermentation, the ester can be enzymatically hydrolysed, releasing the two constituents. Caffeic acid is susceptible to chemical oxidation, and subsequent redox reactions involving caffeic acid can contribute to wine browning over time, and the straw-gold color that can develop in some white wines after bottling.[2]

Aside from wine, it is abundantly present in raisins. It also occurs in Cichorium intybus (common chicory) and is one of the bioactive components of Echinacea purpurea (Eastern purple coneflower).[3]

Caftaric acid has a good bioavailability when fed in rats. Intact trans-caftaric acid was detected in rat plasma along with its O-methylated derivative trans-fertaric acid.[3]

In wine[edit]

Winemakers measure caftaric acid levels as their primary method to estimate the oxidation levels that a wine has undergone. For example, press wines, which undergo a high degree of oxidation[citation needed], will have little to no caftaric acid.

Grape reaction product (2-S glutathionyl caftaric acid) is an oxidation compound produced from caftaric acid and found in wine. Malvidin 3-glucoside alone is not oxidized in the presence of grape polyphenol oxidase (PPO), whereas it is degraded in the presence of a crude grape PPO extract and of caftaric acid, forming anthocyanidin-caftaric acid adducts.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ C. Y. Lee; A. Jaworski (1987). "Phenolic Compounds in White Grapes Grown in New York". Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 38 (4): 277–281.
  2. ^ a b c Waterhouse, Andrew; Sacks, Gavin; Jeffery, David (June 17, 2016). "Chapter 13: Non‐flavonoid Phenolics". Understanding Wine Chemistry. Adelaide: Wiley Books. pp. 112–113. ISBN 978-1-118-73072-0.
  3. ^ a b Vanzo, A; Cecotti, R; Vrhovsek, U; Torres, AM; Mattivi, F; Passamonti, S (2007). "The fate of trans-caftaric acid administered into the rat stomach". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55 (4): 1604–11. doi:10.1021/jf0626819. PMID 17300159.
  4. ^ Sarni-Manchado, Pascale; Cheynier, Véronique; Moutounet, Michel (1997). "Reactions of polyphenoloxidase generated caftaric acid o-quinone with malvidin 3-O-glucoside". Phytochemistry. 45 (7): 1365–1369. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00190-8.