Caishen

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Caishen
武財神.JPG
Altar of the martial form of Caishen (central statue) at the Temple of the Dragon and the Phoenix (龍鳳宮), in the Miaoli County of Taiwan.
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 財神
Simplified Chinese 财神
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese Thần Tài
Chữ Nôm

Caishen (simplified Chinese: 财神; traditional Chinese: 財神; literally: "God of Wealth") is the Chinese god of prosperity worshipped in the Chinese folk religion and Taoism. He has been identified with many historical figures, viewed as his embodied forms, among whom Zhao Gongming (赵公明, Wade–Giles: Chao Kung-ming, also known as Zhao Gong Yuanshuai 趙公元帥 "Lord Zhao the Marshal") or Bi Gan (比干, Wade–Giles: Pi-kan).[1] A large temple of Caishen has been built in the 2000s in Zhouzhi, Xi'an, Shaanxi.

Caishen's name is often invoked during the Chinese New Year celebrations.[1] He is often depicted riding a black tiger and holding a golden rod. He may also be depicted with an iron tool capable of turning stone and iron into gold.

Historical personages[edit]

Dehua Caishen, c. 1600-1644, Royal Ontario Museum

Several versions of Caishen's incarnations' political affiliation and way of deification are circulated.[1] It is unclear whether they are genuine historical figures, though most of the stories agree that Caishen's most popular incarnation lived during the early Qin dynasty. Most probably it represents the merging of several heterogeneous legends, the one of Bi Gan being the most ancient.

Legend has it that Bi Gan had a wife with the surname Chen. His son was Quan (). After Bi Gan was put to death by his nephew King Zhou of Shang, Bi Gan's wife and son escaped into the woods. His death eventually marked the collapse of the Shang dynasty. Later on, Quan was honoured as the ancestor of all Lins by King Wu of Zhou.

Notwithstanding the above, there is another legendary character of the Chinese God of Wealth which is generally known as Caibo Xingjun (財帛星君) amongst Chinese communities. Li Guizu (李詭祖) was born in the Zichuan District in Shandong Province and held position as a country magistrate. Li Guizu contributed significantly to the district, whilst people built a temple to worship Li Guizu after his death. The late Li Guizu was then conferred the title Caibo Xingjun by the Wude Emperor of Tang dynasty.

The Caishen of all directions[edit]

No. Direction Name Title
1 Centre (Chinese: 中路财神) Zhao Gong Ming (Chinese: 赵公明) Military God of Wealth (Chinese: 武财神)
2 East (Chinese: 东路财神) Xiao Sheng (Chinese: 萧升) God of Collecting Treasures (Chinese: 招宝天尊)
3 West (Chinese: 西路财神) Cao Bao (Chinese: 曹宝) God of Collecting Valuables (Chinese: 纳珍天尊)
4 North (Chinese: 北路财神) Yao Shao Si (Chinese: 姚少司) God of Profitability (Chinese: 利市仙官)
5 South (Chinese: 南路财神) Chen Jiu Gong (Chinese: 陈九公) God of Attracting Wealth (Chinese: 招财使者)
6 South-East (Chinese: 东南路财神) Han Xin Ye (Chinese: 韩信爷) God of Gambling (Chinese: 大赌神)
7 South-West (Chinese: 西南路财神) Liu Hai (Chinese: 刘海) God of Luck (Chinese: 偏财神)
8 North-East (Chinese: 东北路财神) Shen Wanshan (Chinese: 沈万山) God of Gold (Chinese: 金财神)
9 North-West (Chinese: 西北路财神) Tao Zhugong (Chinese: 陶朱公) Civil God of Wealth (Chinese: 文财神)

Equivalent figures in Buddhism[edit]

Though Caishen is a Chinese folk deity, many Pure Land Buddhists venerate him as a buddha. In esoteric Buddhist schools he is identified as Jambhala.

Notes[edit]

External links[edit]