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Caipira (Portuguese pronunciation: [kajˈpiɾɐ] (listen); (Old Tupi ka'apir or kaa - pira, which means "bush cutter") is a inhabitant of rural or remote areas in the interior of the south-central part of Brazil. Their racial origins and traditional culture is similar to those of the caiçaras, who inhabit the coastal regions of the south, and the ribeirinhos, who are riverbank dwellers in the Amazon region.
By extension, the term caipira can also be applied to the different cultural manifestations of the caipiras, such as their folk music. It is also the name of a group of dialects of Portuguese spoken in the interior part of the State of São Paulo and adjacent areas of neighbouring states.
The term can be considered pejorative when used to describe others (akin to "yokel"), however, it can also be used as a self-identifier without negative connotations (akin to "melungeon"). In the traditional festas juninas people who are not otherwise considered as such dress up as stereotypical caipiras.
- "Casa e Jardim - NOTÍCIAS - A história da caipirinha" (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2011-11-17. Retrieved 2012-12-02.
Até que um dia alguém resolveu tirar o alho e o mel. Depois, acrescentaram umas colheres de açúcar para reduzir a acidez do limão. O gelo veio em seguida, para espantar o calor
- Cândido, Antônio. Os parceiros do Rio Bonito Sp, José Olympio, 1957.
- Monteiro Lobato, José Bento de. Urupês, Editora Monteiro Lobato e Cia., 1923.
- Nepomuceno, Rosa., Música Caipira, da roça ao rodeio, Editora 34, 1999.
- Queiróz,Renato da Silva. Caipiras Negros no Vale do Ribeira, Editora da USP, 1983
- Pires, Cornélio . Conversas ao pé do fogo – IMESP, edição fac-similar, 1984.
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