Cairo Declaration

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the Allied declaration of 1943. For the Muslim human rights declaration, see Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam. For the 1997 agreement on Somalia, see Attempts at reconciliation in Somalia (1991–2004). For the Chinese film marking the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Second Sino-Japanese War, see Cairo Declaration (film).
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at the Cairo Conference in Cairo, November 25, 1943.

The Cairo Declaration was the outcome of the Cairo Conference in Cairo, Egypt, on November 27, 1943. President Franklin Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China were present. The declaration developed ideas from the 1941 Atlantic Charter, which was issued by the Allies of World War II to set goals for the post-war order. The Cairo Communiqué was broadcast through radio on December 1, 1943.[1]

The Cairo Declaration is cited in Clause Eight (8) of the Potsdam Declaration, which is referred to by the Japanese Instrument of Surrender.


The several military missions have agreed upon future military operations against Japan. The Three Great Allies expressed their resolve to bring unrelenting pressure against their brutal enemies by sea, land, and air. This pressure is already rising.

The Three Great Allies are fighting this war to restrain and punish the aggression of Japan. They covet no gain for themselves and have no thought of territorial expansion. It is their purpose that Japan shall be stripped of all the islands in the Pacific which she has seized or occupied since the beginning of the first World War in 1914, and that all the territories Japan has stolen from the Chinese, such as Manchuria, Formosa, and The Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China. Japan will also be expelled from all other territories which she has taken by violence and greed. The aforesaid three great powers, mindful of the enslavement of the people of Korea, are determined that in due course Korea shall become free and independent.

With these objects in view the three Allies, in harmony with those of the United Nations at war with Japan, will continue to persevere in the serious and prolonged operations necessary to procure the unconditional surrender of Japan.[2]

Legal effect on the sovereignty of Taiwan[edit]

The Cairo Declaration was a statement of intention. The Allies, however, did not recognize that the Cairo Declaration itself affected any transfer of sovereignty of Taiwan (Formosa) to China.[3][4]

Although by signing the Instrument of Surrender, Japan specifically accepted the terms of the Potsdam Declaration,[5] which incorporated by reference the terms of the Cairo Declaration,[6] a Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs stated afterward in a reply to a councilor in the National Diet that the Instrument of Surrender has the attribute of armistice and does not have the attribute of territorial disposition.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Cairo Communiquè, December 1, 1943". Japan National Diet Library. December 1, 1943. 
  2. ^ Text of Cairo Declaration, Government of Japan website
  3. ^ United States Department of State (6 January 1951). Aandahl, Fredrick, ed. "Foreign relations of the United States, 1951. Korea and China (in two parts)". Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS). p. 1481. Retrieved 2013-12-02. The Cairo declaration manifested our intention. It did not itself constitute a cession of territory. 
  4. ^ "UK Parliament". Hansard. Feb 7, 1955. Retrieved 2012-06-07. The position in law is that an armistice or the cessation of fighting does not affect sovereignty. 
  5. ^ Japanese Instrument of Surrender: "We, acting by command of and on behalf of the Emperor of Japan, the Japanese Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, hereby accept the provisions in the declaration issued by the heads of the Governments of the United States, China, and Great Britain 26 July 1945 at Potsdam, and subsequently adhered to by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which four powers are hereafter referred to as the Allied Powers."
  6. ^ Potsdam Declaration: "(8) The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out and Japanese sovereignty shall be limited to the islands of Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine."
  7. ^ 参議院会議録情報 第038回国会 予算委員会 第15号. 昭和36年3月15日. p. 19. (Japanese). "ポツダム宣言には、カイロ宣言の条項は履行せらるべしということが書いてある。そうしてわれわれは降伏文書によって、ポツダム宣言の受諾を宣言したのであります。しかし、これは降伏文書というものは、休戦協定の性格を有するものでありまして、領土的処理を行ない得ない性質のものであるということを申し上げたのであります。"

External links[edit]