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Cajun English, or Cajun Vernacular English, is the dialect of English spoken by Cajuns living in southern Louisiana and, to a lesser degree, in eastern Texas. Cajun English is significantly influenced by Cajun French, the historical language of the Cajun people, who descended from Acadian settlers and others. It is derived from Acadian French and is on the List of dialects of the English language for North America. This differed markedly from Metropolitan or Parisian French in terms of pronunciation and vocabulary, particularly because of the long isolation of Acadians, and even more so of Cajuns, from the Francophone world.
English is now spoken by the vast majority of the Cajun population, but French influence remains strong in terms of inflection and vocabulary. Their accent is considerably distinct from the General American. Cajun French is considered by many to be an endangered language, mostly used by elderly generations. However it is now frequently spoken by even the youngest Cajuns, and is seeing something of a cultural renaissance. In recent years, due to influence from tourism and a resurgence of pride in their cultural identity, has started a new era of linguistic innovation for Cajun English. Dramatic differences are developing along both gender and generational lines as for how Cajun English is used and what it means to be Cajun.
- 1 Phonology
- 2 French-influenced Cajun vocabulary
- 3 Most confusing phrases
- 4 In popular culture
- 5 Resources
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 See also
|English diaphoneme||Cajun phoneme||Example words|
|Pure vowels (Monophthongs)|
|//||[æ]||act, pal, trap, ham, pass|
|//||[ɑ]||blah, bother, father,
lot, top, wasp
|[a]||all, dog, bought,
loss, saw, taught
|//||[ɛ~æ]||dress, met, bread|
|//||[ə]||about, syrup, arena|
|[ɪ]||island, gamut, wasted|
|//||[ɪ]||hit, skim, tip|
|//||[iː]||beam, chic, fleet|
|//||[ʌ]||bus, flood, what|
|//||[ʊ]||book, put, should|
|//||[uː]||food, glue, new|
|//||[ɑɪ~aː]||ride, shine, try,
bright, dice, pike
|//||[aʊ~aː]||now, ouch, scout|
|//||[eː]||lake, paid, rein|
|//||[ɔɪ]||boy, choice, moist|
|//||[oː]||goat, oh, show|
|//||[ɑ~a]||barn, car, park|
|//||[ɛ~æ]||bare, bear, there|
|//||[ʌə~ʌɹ]||burn, doctor, first|
|//||[əɹ]||herd, learn, murder|
|//||[i~ɪ]||fear, peer, tier|
|//||[ɔə~ɔɹ]||hoarse, horse, war|
|//||[uə~ʊə]||poor, score, tour|
|//||cure, Europe, pure|
Cajun English is distinguished by some of the following phonological features:
- The deletion of any word's final consonant (or consonant cluster), and nasal vowels, are common, both features being found in French. Therefore, hand becomes [hæ̃], food becomes [fuː], rent becomes [ɹɪ̃], New York becomes [nuˈjɔə], and so on.
- The typical American gliding vowels [oʊ] (as in boat), [eɪ] (as in bait), [ʊu] (as in boot), [aʊ~æʊ] (as in bout), [äɪ] (as in bite), and [ɔɪ] (as in boy) have reduced glides or none at all: respectively, [oː], [eː], [uː], [aː~æː], [äː], and [ɔː]. 
- Many vowels which are distinct in General American English are pronounced the same way due to a merger; for example, the words hill and heel are homophones, both being pronounced /hɪɹl/.
- Stress is generally placed on the second or last syllable of a word, a feature inherited directly from French.
- The voiceless and voiced alveolar stops /t/ and /d/ often replace dental fricatives, a feature used by both Cajun English speakers and speakers of Louisiana Creole French (Standard French speakers generally produce alveolar fricatives in the place of dental fricatives). Examples include "bath" being pronounced as "bat" and "they" as "day."
- Cajun English speakers generally do not aspirate the consonants /p/, /t/, or /k/. As a result, the words "par" and "bar" can sound very similar to speakers of other English varieties.
- The inclusion of many loanwords, calques, and phrases from French, such as "nonc" (uncle, from the French oncle), "chèr" (dear, pronounced /ʃæ/, from the French chèr), and "making groceries" (to shop for groceries, a calque of the Cajun French faire des groceries (épicerie)).
These are a few other examples.
|English||Cajun English (pronounced)|
|Think||Fink or Tink|
French-influenced Cajun vocabulary
- Allons! : Let's go!
- Alors pas : Of course not
- Fais do-do : Refers to a dance party, a Cajun version of a square dance.
- Dis-moi la vérité ! : Tell me the truth!
- Quoi faire ? : Why?
- Un magasin : A store
- Être en colère : To be angry
- Mo chagren : I’m sorry
- Une sucette : A pacifier
- Une piastre : A dollar
- Un caleçon : Boxers
- Sha/chèr (a is pronounced like a in apple) : Dear or darling - also used as "buddy" or "pal"
- Mais non, chèr ! : Of course not, dear!
Most confusing phrases
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There are several phrases used by Cajuns that are completely unknown to non-Cajun speakers. When outside of Acadiana, Cajuns tend to be made fun of for using these phrases. Young Cajuns are often jokingly discouraged from marrying non-Cajuns for this simple fact. Some common phrases are listed below:
"Come see" is the equivalent of saying "come here" regardless of whether or not there is something to "see." The French "viens voir," or "venez voir," meaning "come" or "please come," is often used in Cajun French to ask people to come.. This phrasing may have its roots in "viens voir ici" (IPA: [isi]), the French word for "here."
Save the dishes
To "save the dishes" means to "put away the dishes into cupboards where they belong after being washed". While dishes are the most common subject, it is not uncommon to save other things. For example: Save up the clothes, saving the tools, save your toys.
Get/Run down at the store
"Getting/Running down at the store" involves stepping out of a car to enter the store. Most commonly, the driver will ask the passenger, "Do you want to run/get down with me?" One can get down at any place, not just the store. The phrase "get down" may come from the act of "getting down from a horse" as many areas of Acadiana were only accessible by horse (or boat) well into the 20th century. It also may originate from the French language descendre meaning to get down, much as some English-Spanish bilingual speakers say "get down," from the Spanish bajar.
Makin' (the) groceries
"Makin' groceries" refers to the act of buying groceries, rather than that of manufacturing them. The confusion originates from the direct translation of the American French phrase "faire l'épicerie" which is understood by speakers to mean "to do the grocery shopping." "Faire" as used in the French language can mean either "to do" or "to make." This is a term frequently used in New Orleans, but it's not used very much elsewhere in the Acadiana area. 
"Makin water" is using the bathroom. One would say, "I need to go make water." It's mostly used in New Orleans.
"for" instead of "at"
Cajun English speakers can exhibit a tendency to use "for" instead of "at" when referring to time. For example, "I'll be there for 2 o'clock." means "I'll be there at 2 o'clock." Given the connection between Cajun English and Acadia, this phenomenon can also be seen among Canadian English speakers.
In popular culture
- In the television series Treme, Cajun English is often used by most of the characters.
- In the television series True Blood, the character René Lernier was introduced with a Cajun accent.
- In X-Men : The Animated Series, the character Gambit was introduced as from Louisiana and is known to speak in a thick "Cajun" accent. However, his accent sounds more like the African American vernacular instead of a Cajun accent.
- In the television miniseries Band of Brothers, the company's medic Eugene Roe is half-Cajun and speaks with a distinct accent.
- Likewise, Merriell "Snafu" Shelton from a companion miniseries The Pacific.
- In the television series Swamp_People, Troy Landry speaks with a strong accent.
- Spoken by chef and humorist Justin Wilson on his cooking shows for PBS and his comedy albums.
- In the Heat of the Night: Season 2, Episode 12; "A.K.A. Kelly Kay"; Jude Thibodeaux ( Kevin Conway ) comes to Sparta in search of a former prostitute he controlled in New Orleans. Cajun accent is prominent.
- Adam Ruins Everything features a recurring bit-character who speaks in a Cajun dialect, with subtitles.
- In the movie The Big Easy, Cajun English is often used by most of the characters.
Several characters of Gabriel Knight: Sins of the Fathers, particularly the narrator, have Cajun accents. Some characters even use Cajun French phrases.
- Do You Speak American . Sea to Shining Sea. American Varieties: Cajun | PBS
- Ramos, Raúl Pérez (2012). "Cajun Vernacular English A Study Over A Reborn Dialect" (PDF). Fòrum de Recerca. 17: 623–632 – via JSTOR.
- Dubois, Sylvie (2000). "When the music change, you change too: Gender and language change in Cajun English". Language Variation and Change. 11: 287–313 – via JSTOR.
- Dubois & Horvath 2004, pp. 409–410.
- Valdman 2009, p. 655.
- Dubois, Sylvia; Horvath, Barbara (2004). Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W., eds. "Cajun Vernacular English: phonology". A Handbook of Varieties of English: A Multimedia Reference Tool. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
- Valdman, Albert (2009). Dictionary of Louisiana French. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 9781604734034.
- Acadia, former home of the Cajuns, located in what is now eastern Canada
- Acadiana, A 22-parish region in southern Louisiana
- Acadian French, the dialect of French from which Cajun French derives
- American English
- Cajun French
- Dialects of the English Language
- Franglais, a term sometimes used to describe a mixed vernacular of French and English
- Louisiana Creole French, a French-based creole which has had some influence on Cajun French and English
- Yat, another Louisiana dialect of English