Cake Boss

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Cake Boss
CakeBossTitleBanner.png
Genre Reality
Starring Buddy Valastro
Opening theme "Sugar, Sugar", sung by:
The Nerds (2009–11)
Jonathan Tyler and the Northern Lights (2011–2015)
Country of origin United States
Original language(s) English
No. of seasons 10
No. of episodes 236 (list of episodes)
Production
Executive producer(s)
  • Art Edwards
  • Jim Berger
  • Matt Walker
  • Pamela Healey
  • Scott Feeley
Producer(s) Laney McVicker
Casey Bauer
Editor(s)
  • David T McCurley
  • Patrick Bryant
  • Christopher Schultz
  • David Miers
  • Stacey Martins
Running time 22 minutes, special 42 minutes
Production company(s) High Noon Entertainment, Cakehouse Media
Release
Original network TLC
Picture format 480i (SDTV)
1080i (HDTV)
Original release April 19, 2009 (2009-04-19) – present (present)
Chronology
Related shows Next Great Baker
Kitchen Boss
External links
Website

Cake Boss is an American reality television series, airing on the cable television network TLC. The show follows the operations of Carlo's Bake Shop, a family-owned business in Hoboken, New Jersey owned and operated by siblings Buddy Valastro (to whom the series' title refers), Lisa Valastro, Maddalena Castano, Grace Faugno and Mary Sciarrone.[1] The show focuses on how they make their edible art cakes, and the interpersonal relationships among the various family members and other employees who work at the shop.

The show premiered on April 19, 2009, and four additional seasons followed, premiering October 26, 2009, May 31, 2010 (returning in October), January 31, 2011 (returning in September), and May 28, 2012, respectively.[2][3][4][5] The show's sixth season debuted on Monday May 27, 2013 at 9PM ET;[6] the second part of the sixth season began airing on December 30, 2013. The seventh season premiered live on September 8, 2015.

On January 26, 2015 Cake Boss was renewed for two additional seasons.[7] TLC has announced new episodes will begin airing September 8, 2015.[8]

Season ten premiered on September 30, 2017.

Cast[edit]

Present[edit]

  • Bartolo "Buddy" Valastro, Jr. (born March 3, 1977)[9][10] – The star of the show, who has worked at the bakery since age 17 in 1994.[11] He is the only son and the youngest child of Bartolo "Buddy" Sr. and Mary Valastro. He grew up in Little Ferry, New Jersey.[12] He is married to Elisabetta "Lisa" Valastro (née Belgiovine) with whom he has four children: Sofia, Bartolo "Buddy" III, Marco, and Carlo. In 2012, as a result of the attention that the series brought to Hoboken, New Jersey, the Hudson Reporter named him as an honorable mention in its list of Hudson County's 50 most influential people.[13]
  • Mauro Castano (born August 18, 1963)[14] – pastry chef and Buddy's right-hand man. He is married to Buddy's second-oldest sister, Maddalena. He was born in Milan, and left Italy when he was 12. He arrived in the USA on February 15, 1976. His father is from Bernalda, Basilicata and his mother from near Reggio Emilia, Emilia Romagna.[15] On September 16, 1989 he had his first date with Maddalena (her father orchestrated all), and in October 1991 they married.
  • Joseph "Joey" Faugno (born October 10, 1967)[16] – The shop's head baker. He is married to Buddy's oldest sister, Grace. They have two children: Robert and Bartolina.[17]
  • Frank "Frankie" Amato, Jr. (born August 29, 1978)[18] – cake decorator. He is Buddy's second cousin, the godfather to his son Marco, and has two children of his own.[19]
  • Danny Dragone – multipurpose employee, worked at the bakery since before Buddy was born. He is a close family friend, and his daughter, Tatiana, works at the bakery. He is nicknamed "the mule" for his versatility.[20]
  • Grace Faugno (née Valastro) – (born June 30, 1966)[21] Buddy's oldest sister. She works front counter. She is married to Joey Faugno, the shop's head baker. They have two children: Robert and Bartolina.
  • Maddalena Castano (née Valastro) (born August 15, 1967)[21] – manages the front counter.[22] She is married to Mauro. They have three children: Dominique, Bartolo "Buddy", and Mary.[23]
  • Mary Sciarrone (née Valastro)[24] (born September 30, 1969)[21] – Cake Consultant and Buddy's third-oldest sister. She is married with two children: Joseph and Lucia.[25] In the fifth-season episode "Stained Glass & A Surprised Danny", she was fired because of multiple incidents involving her making inappropriate statements.[26] Mary was rehired as a cake consultant a few weeks after being fired. She returned to full-time work at the bakery in the episode "Silly Seuss & Surprise!".[27]
  • Lisa Valastro (born December 31, 1974) – Buddy's youngest sister. Manages the store front and handles billing some times.
  • Elisabetta "Lisa" Valastro (née Belgiovine) (born March 9, 1979) [21] – Buddy's wife. They have four kids, Sofia Valastro, Carlo Valastro, Marco Valastro, Buddy Valastro, Jr.[28] Her parents, Gloria Tomacco and Mauro Belgiovine, who seen in the show, are from Molfetta, Puglia.
  • Maurizio Belgiovine – delivery boy and structure builder. He is Buddy's brother-in-law.[24]
  • Ralph "Ralphie Boy" Attanasia III (born September 6, 1984)[29] – bakery sculptor.[30]
  • Marissa Lopez – Buddy's intern (winner of Season 2 of Next Great Baker), later becoming manager of Carlo's Bakery's new location in Ridgewood, New Jersey.[31]

Past[edit]

Carlo's Bake Shop in Hoboken, New Jersey, where the series is filmed.
  • Mary Valastro Pinto – (April 17, 1948 – June 22, 2017) Buddy's mother. A show regular until her 2010 retirement; still appeared on the show on occasion. Announced in 2012 that she was diagnosed with ALS. The family's struggle and reaction was documented in the Season 5 episode, "A Bittersweet Homecoming", on July 23, 2012.[32] Mary died on June 22, 2017, after a five-year battle with ALS.[33]
  • Remigio "Remy" Gonzalez – Buddy's former left-hand man and the ex-husband of Buddy's sister, Lisa. Remy's first and only child, daughter Isabella, was born on the Cake Boss episode "Mother's Day, Mama and Mom-to-be". He left the show after being arrested for alleged sexual assault.[34]
  • Salvatore "Sal" Picinich (1947[35] – January 30, 2011[36][37][38]) worked at the bakery from 1964 and was one of Buddy's most trusted employees. Picinich stopped appearing on the show at the end of 2009, when he began battling cancer, but returned in the summer of 2010 to accept the Employee of the Century Award on the occasion of the bakery's 100th anniversary. He died January 30, 2011.[37]
  • Kevin "Stretch" Krand – a delivery boy who left the shop to continue his education.[39]
  • Tony "Tone-Tone" Albanese – Buddy's second intern.[40]
  • Daniella Storzillo – a sculptor and decorator at Carlo's. She left to work as a real estate sales associate.[41]
  • Stephanie "Sunshine" Fernandez – top decorator at Carlo's. She was the first female employee who did not work with sales, as stated by Buddy Valastro. She left for an opportunity to finish nursing school nine months earlier.[42] Before leaving to become a nurse, she appeared on the show's spinoff, Next Great Baker, where she was chosen by the season 2 winner, Marissa Lopez, to help her build her American Dream cake.[43]
  • Dana Herbert – winner of Season 1 of Next Great Baker
  • Ashley Holt – winner of Season 3 of Next Great Baker
  • Paul Conti – bakery employee (former contestant of Season 3 of Next Great Baker); was only in a couple of episodes because he lost his house and his job due to Hurricane Sandy. He eventually got a job working for a baking supply company.
  • Anthony "Cousin Anthony" Bellifemine – baker and former delivery boy,[44] Bellifemine left unexpectedly at the end of season 6 (Ep. 28: Up, Up and Away).[45]
  • Chad Durkin – Bakery employee (former contestant of Season 3 of Next Great Baker, hired by Buddy for his pastry skills (seasons 7–8).

Reception[edit]

The interior of Carlo's Bake Shop on a busy holiday.

The popularity of the show has resulted in increased business for Carlo's Bake Shop, and increased tourism to the Hoboken area.[46] Due to the series's popularity, Carlo's Bake Shop has become a tourist attraction, with lines to enter the bakery often extending down the block and around the corner.[47] In 2010, Hoboken renamed the corner of Washington Street and Newark Street to "Carlo's Bakery Way" in honor of the bakery's centennial.[48]

Season one averaged 2.3 million viewers[49] while season two averaged 1.8 million viewers.[50] In 2016, a New York Times study of the 50 TV shows with the most Facebook Likes found that Cake Boss's "audience is generally not urban; in fact, one hot spot is Appalachia".[51]

Tie-ins and spinoffs[edit]

On November 2, 2010, Buddy Valastro's book, Cake Boss: Stories and Recipes from Mia Famiglia, which is based on the series, was released. Published by Atria Books (a division of Simon & Schuster) in celebration of the 100th anniversary of Carlo's Bake Shop, the book features the history and stories of Valastro's family and the bake shop, along with recipes.[24]

Valastro's second book, Baking with the Cake Boss: 100 of Buddy's Best Recipes and Decorating Secrets, is a cookbook, also published by Atria Books, released November 1, 2011 and featuring Valastro's cake, pastry and decorating recipes.[52]

The success of Cake Boss has led to a spin-off competition series hosted by Valastro, Next Great Baker, in which people compete to win a top cash prize, other valuable prizes, and an apprenticeship at Carlo's Bakery. The program's first season was seen on TLC December 6, 2010[53] through January 24, 2011,[5] with a second season televised November 28, 2011 to January 30, 2012. The competition's third season premiered on Monday, November 26, 2012.[54]

Another spinoff series, Kitchen Boss, debuted January 25, 2011. This series, which is seen weekdays, features Valastro presenting his family's recipes, as well as special guests, including members of his own family.[5]

A backdoor pilot special, Bakery Boss, debuted on May 27, 2013.[55] The special features Valastro traveling to a struggling bakery, Friendly's Bake Shop in Frankfort, New York, and helping them reverse their fortunes, using a format similar to Kitchen Nightmares.[6] The program returned to TLC as a series on December 2, 2013,[56] and was later renamed Buddy's Bakery Rescue. Buddy's intern, Ashley Holt, served as Culinary Producer for the series. Cake Boss also has a product line that features baking pans and decorating accessories.

Episodes and DVD releases[edit]

Season Episodes Originally aired
First aired Last aired
1 13 April 18, 2009 (2009-04-18) August 17, 2009 (2009-08-17)
2 18 October 26, 2009 (2009-10-26) February 22, 2010 (2010-02-22)
3 24 May 31, 2010 (2010-05-31) November 29, 2010 (2010-11-29)
4 38 January 31, 2011 (2011-01-31) January 30, 2012 (2012-01-30)
5 30 May 28, 2012 (2012-05-28) February 18, 2013 (2013-02-18)
6 28 May 27, 2013 (2013-05-27) February 24, 2014 (2014-02-24)
7 19 September 8, 2015 (2015-09-08) November 17, 2015 (2015-11-17)
8 30 August 23, 2016 (2016-08-23) January 11, 2017 (2017-01-11)
9 20 March 17, 2017 (2017-03-17) September 20, 2017 (2017-09-20)
10 16 September 30, 2017 (2017-09-30) December 2, 2017 (2017-12-02)
11[57]

As of September 8, 2015, a total of 152 episodes with seven seasons and 5 stand-alone specials have been broadcast. The first five seasons have been released on DVD in Region 1. Up until halfway into the fifth season, each episode title employed alliteration.

As of April 3, 2015, seasons 5 and 6 are available for streaming on Hulu Plus, using a re-edited intro sequence from the early seasons (with a few episodes showing the updated family pic from the dancing intro of seasons 5 and 6). As of 2015, Cake Boss has been renewed for an eighth season which expected to be released sometime in 2016.

Controversies[edit]

In July 2010, Masters Software, Inc., of Cedar Park, Texas, obtained a preliminary injunction forbidding TLC from calling its show "Cake Boss".[58] Since 2006, the company has operated the domain name cakeboss.com, and since 2007, it has sold a bakery management program called CakeBoss. The suit claims that Discovery Communications infringes on its trademark by causing confusion among customers and vendors.[59] In October 2010, Masters Software and Discovery Communications reached a settlement, the details of which are not public.[60][61]

On June 11, 2012, transgender celebrity Carmen Carrera appeared in a Cake Boss episode, "Bar Mitzvah, Beads & Oh Baby!", in which she unknowingly participated in a prank involving Cousin Anthony, who was set up with a date with Carrera. The punchline of the prank had Buddy tell Anthony that Carrera is transgender. Carrera agreed to participate in the prank on the program in part to promote equality for the transgender community saying, "I'm totally cool with a prank like this, I, you know as long as it's in good fun." Following the airing of the program, Carrera was upset by an interview portion of the program where Buddy said, "And I tell him...that's a man, baby!" Carrera made a statement saying, "I made it VERY clear to the producers on how to use the correct wording before agreeing to filming this but instead they chose to poke fun and be disrespectful. That's not what I'm about! ... I may not have been born a woman, but I'm NOT a man... After taking this journey it's not fair at all to be lied to by the producers." Buddy Valastro apologized for the incident, saying, "I owe an apology to the entire LGBT community. It was absolutely not my intention to upset or offend her, or anyone within the community, and I was wrong to use the words I did. I am a supporter of gay rights and equality, and while I regret this situation and my choice of words, I am thankful to have received this feedback and the opportunity to learn from this mistake. I hope that Carmen accepts my sincere regrets."[62] The following day, on June 12, 2012, TLC announced that "Bar Mitzvah, Beads & Oh Baby!" had been pulled from rotation indefinitely, with plans to re-edit the episode.[63] The episode has since re-aired on July 23, 2012, but with the offending scene re-edited.

In popular culture[edit]

Comedian Paul F. Tompkins plays a parody of Cake Boss host Buddy Valastro on the Comedy Bang Bang podcast and IFC TV show.[64]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Diaz, Lana Rose (Winter 2012). "Brothers & Sisters, Inc.: Hoboken businesses keep it in the family". 07030 Hoboken. 2 (2): 16–20. 
  2. ^ "Cake Boss Returns October 11; Production Started on Next Great Baker". (press release). September 14, 2010. Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  3. ^ "TV Schedule — Cake Boss". Archived from the original on August 18, 2010. Retrieved October 5, 2010. 
  4. ^ "'Cake Boss' Returns With New Episodes". TVbytheNumbers.zap2it.com. (press release). Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c Ross, Robyn. "TLC Orders New Buddy Valastro Series Kitchen Boss". TVGuide.com. Retrieved September 16, 2015.  Note: This article mentioned that the show would be previewed following Next Great Baker; however, 19 Kids and Counting was seen instead.
  6. ^ a b "'Cake Boss' Returns, 'Bakery Boss' Premieres Memorial Day". TLC (TV channel). Archived from the original on January 4, 2014. 
  7. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (January 26, 2015). "'Cake Boss' Renewed For 2 Seasons Under TLC/Discovery Networks Intl Pact". Deadline. Retrieved February 14, 2015. 
  8. ^ Strohm, Emily. "Cake Boss Is Back! Watch Buddy Valastro Remodel His Bakery". People. Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  9. ^ "The Life Of Bartolo (Buddy) Valastro Jr". Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. 
  10. ^ Pascrell, Bill, Jr. "Tribute to Mary Tubito Valastro Pinto l'Italico's Italian Community 1997 Woman of the Year". GPO.gov. Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  11. ^ "Buddy Valastro". TLC. Retrieved December 4, 2011. 
  12. ^ "The Cake Boss returns to Little Ferry". Little Ferry Local. May 7, 2010. Archived from the original on August 1, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2012. Cake Boss Buddy Valastro returned to Little Ferry on April 27 to accept the "keys to the city" during ceremonies at Borough Hall. Valastro, who grew up in town, is best known for his starring role on the TLC television program The Cake Boss. 
  13. ^ Fernández, Adriana Rambay; LaMarca, Stephen; Pope, Gennarose; Smith, Ray; Sullivan, Al; and Wright, E. Assata. "They've Got the Power". The Union City Reporter. January 8, 2012. Pages 1, 4–7 and 10–11.
  14. ^ Jensen, Tim (August 4, 2011). "A Few Minutes With Mauro Castano From "Cake Boss"". Retrieved June 25, 2014. 
  15. ^ "Intervista a MAURO CASTANO the CAKEBOSS". YouTube. April 18, 2014. Retrieved July 25, 2017. 
  16. ^ "Twitter / CakeBossGrace". Twitter. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Joe Faugno". TLC. Retrieved December 4, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Frankie Amato Jr". IMDb. Retrieved June 27, 2014. 
  19. ^ "Frank Amato, Jr". TLC. Retrieved December 4, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Danny Dragone". TLC. Retrieved December 4, 2011. 
  21. ^ a b c d "Congressional Record, Volume 143 Issue 53 (Tuesday, April 29, 1997)". Gpo.gov. Retrieved February 14, 2015. 
  22. ^ "The Ladies of Carlo's: Maddalena". Cake Boss : TLC. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Mauro Castano". TLC. Retrieved December 4, 2011. 
  24. ^ a b c Valastro, Buddy (2010). Cake Boss: Stories and Recipes from Mia Famiglia. Atria Books / Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-8351-9. Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  25. ^ "Mary Sciarrone". TLC. Archived from the original on October 16, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011. 
  26. ^ "Stained Glass & A Surprised Danny". Cake Boss. Season 5. Episode 3. June 4, 2012. TLC. 
  27. ^ "Silly Seuss & Surprise!". Cake Boss. Season 5. Episode 10. July 2, 2012. TLC. 
  28. ^ "Former 'Cake Boss' assistant Remy Gonzalez to be arraigned on sex charges June 24". NJ.com. June 15, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2013. 
  29. ^ "Ralph A Attanasia III — Profile". LiveJournal.com. Retrieved June 27, 2014. 
  30. ^ "A Golden Opportunity". Cake Boss. Season 5. Episode 17. November 26, 2012. 09:52 minutes in. TLC. 
  31. ^ "Seeing Double". Cake Boss. Season 6. Episode 6. June 10, 2013. TLC. 
  32. ^ "A Bittersweet Homecoming". Cake Boss. Season 5. Episode 16. July 23, 2012. TLC. 
  33. ^ "Buddy Valastro's Mom Dies After Battle With ALS: 'She Is No Longer Suffering'". Us Weekly. Retrieved June 22, 2017. 
  34. ^ Musat, Stephanie (June 24, 2011). "Former "Cake Boss" assistant Remy Gonzalez pleads guilty to aggravated sexual assault". Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  35. ^ "'Cake Boss' and family mourn loss of 'Employee-of-the-Century' Salvatore Picinich". The Jersey Journal. February 1, 2011. Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  36. ^ Buddy Valastro on Facebook, January 31, 2011. Archived December 5, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  37. ^ a b Levin, Jay (January 31, 2011). "Sal Picinich, 'Cake Boss' celebrity, dies at 63". The Bergen Record. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  38. ^ "Salvatore Picinich". The Bergen Record. February 3, 2011. Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  39. ^ "Strawberries, Sinatra and Sick Ovens". Cake Boss. Season 3. Episode 15. August 23, 2010. 18:47 minutes in. TLC. Ever since Stretch left for school, we've been a little light on the delivery staff. 
  40. ^ "Tony Albanese is The Pastryarch". Retrieved May 3, 2013. 
  41. ^ "Daniella Storzillo". Hudson Place Realty. Retrieved June 27, 2014. 
  42. ^ "Space Shuttle, Stepping Up & Surprise!". Cake Boss. Season 4. Episode 14. May 30, 2011. 21:14 minutes in. TLC. I got an opportunity to be in a program at school that's going to allow [me] to finish nine months earlier... But the thing is that I have to stop working here this May. 
  43. ^ "...And the Winner Is?". Next Great Baker. Season 2. Episode 10. January 30, 2012. 36:05 minutes in. TLC. 
  44. ^ "'Cousin Anthony' of 'Cake Boss' fame balances careers as DJ, Carlo's Bakery baker". NJ.com. December 30, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2013. 
  45. ^ "CAKE BOSS Finale Shocker: Family Member Quits on Buddy". TVRuckus.com. February 25, 2014. Retrieved September 16, 2015. This is not kidding around. Anthony decided to leave. Ok? It's official. It's 100%. He decided to move to Florida with his family. On a personal level I'll admit, that hurts a little bit. I treated him like a son and he just basically says, 'I'm leaving'. No explanation, we didn’t talk about it. He's just up and left. 
  46. ^ Staab, Amanda (July 11, 2010). "The 'Cake Boss' effect — Has popular Hoboken reality show boosted business, tourism?". The Union City Reporter. pp. 6, 8. Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  47. ^ Sachs, Andrea (March 14, 2010). "Reality TV's 'Cake Boss' shows off his bakery and his home town, Hoboken, N.J." The Washington Post. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  48. ^ Hyman, Vicki (August 6, 2010). "'Cake Boss' kicking off Carlo's Bakery centennial with Hoboken block party". The Star Ledger. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  49. ^ Gorman, Bill (July 29, 2009). "'Cake Boss' renewed by TLC". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved May 31, 2010. 
  50. ^ Levine, Stuart (January 31, 2010). "'Cake Boss' earns third season". Variety. Retrieved May 31, 2010. 
  51. ^ Katz, Josh (December 27, 2016). "'Duck Dynasty' vs. 'Modern Family': 50 Maps of the U.S. Cultural Divide". The New York Times. 
  52. ^ Valastro, Buddy (2011). Baking with the Cake Boss: 100 of Buddy's Best Recipes and Decorating Secrets. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-8352-6. Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  53. ^ Stanhope, Kate (June 24, 2010). "Cake Boss Gets Competitive with New Spinoff Series". TVGuide.com. Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  54. ^ "Season Three of TLC's 'Next Great Baker' to Premiere Monday, November 26". TV By the Numbers. Retrieved November 1, 2012. 
  55. ^ "TLC Serves Up a Double Dose of Buddy Valastro". TheFutonCritic.com. May 13, 2013. Retrieved May 27, 2013. 
  56. ^ Kondolojy, Amanda (November 21, 2013). "TLC's New Series 'Bakery Boss' Premieres December 2". TVbytheNumbers.zap2it.com (Press release). 
  57. ^ "Cake Boss | Watch Full Episodes & More! - TLC". www.tlc.com. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  58. ^ "TLC's 'Cake Boss' Could Crumble Under Litigation". NBC Universal. July 27, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010. 
  59. ^ Jones, Richard A. (July 16, 2010). "Masters Software, Inc. v. Discovery Communications, Inc., et al." (PDF). United States Department of Justice. Retrieved August 28, 2010. 
  60. ^ Colaneri, Katie (October 22, 2010). "'Cake Boss' will keep his name, settles 'amicably' with software company". The Jersey Journal. Retrieved July 7, 2011. 
  61. ^ Mitchell, Tierryicah (January 23, 2011). "Who's the Boss?: Settlement Allows Buddy Valastro To Continue To Use 'Cake Boss'". Law.JournalFeeds.com. Retrieved July 7, 2011. 
  62. ^ Burra, Kevin (June 12, 2012). "'Cake Boss' Features Carmen Carrera, Transgender Star Claims She Was Butt Of Transphobic Joke". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  63. ^ Kane, Matt (June 13, 2012). "TLC Pulls Cake Boss Episode After Carmen Carrera and Her Supporters Speak Out". GLAAD.org. Retrieved September 16, 2015. 
  64. ^ Zeitlinger, Ron (August 12, 2013). "Cake Boss 'Fake Boss' doesn't like people who like pie more than cake: video". NJ.com. The Jersey Journal. Retrieved July 25, 2017. 

External links[edit]