Chakravartin

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For people named Chakravarti, see Chakravarti. For the 2015 Indian historical drama TV series, see Chakravartin Ashoka Samrat.
A Chakravatin, possibly Ashoka, 1st century BCE/CE. Andhra Pradesh, Amaravati. Preserved at Guimet Museum

Chakravartin (Sanskrit cakravartin, Pali cakkavattin) is an ancient Indian term used to refer to an ideal universal ruler[1] who rules ethically and benevolently over the entire world. Such a ruler's reign is called sarvabhauma. It is a bahuvrīhi, figuratively meaning "whose wheels are moving", in the sense of "whose chariot is rolling everywhere without obstruction". It can also be analysed as an 'instrumental bahuvrīhi: "through whom the wheel is moving" in the meaning of "through whom the Dharmachakra ("Wheel of the Dharma) is turning" (most commonly used in Buddhism).

The first references to a cakravala cakravrtin appear in monuments from the time of the Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE), dedicated to Chandragupta Maurya and his grandson Ashoka. It has not been generally used for any other historic figure. In Buddhism, the chakravarti came to be considered the secular counterpart of a buddha. In general, the term applies to temporal as well as spiritual kingship and leadership, particularly in Buddhism and Jainism. In Hinduism, the term generally denotes a powerful ruler whose dominion extended to the entire earth.

Hindu tradition[edit]

According to the Ahirbudhanya-Samhita, "Vishnu, in the form of Chakra, was held as the ideal of worship for kings desirous of obtaining universal sovereignty",[2] a concept associated with the Bhagavata cult in the puranas, a religious condition traceable to the Gupta period,[3] which also led to the chakravartin concept.[4] The ideal of "Dharani-bandha" (Chakravartin) dates back to the Gupta period in which Samudragupta after the performance of Ashvamedha sought to become a Chakravartin.[5] There are relatively few examples of chakravartins in both northern and southern India.

In southern India, the Pallava period beginning with Simhavishnu (575 AD – 900 AD) was a transitional stage in southern Indian society with monument building, establishment of (bhakti) sects of Alvars and Nayanars, flowering of rural brahmanical institutions of Sanskrit learning, and the establishment of chakravartin model of kingship over a territory of diverse people; which ended the pre-Pallavan era of territorially segmented people, each with their culture, under a tribal chieftain.[6] The Pallava period extolled ranked relationships based on ritual purity as enjoined by the shastras.[7] Burton distinguishes between the chakravatin model and the kshatriya model, and likens kshatriyas to locally based warriors with ritual status sufficiently high enough to share with Brahmins; and states that in south India the kshatriya model did not emerge.[7] As per Burton, south India was aware of the Indo-Aryan varna organized society in which decisive secular authority was vested in the kshatriyas; but apart from the Pallava, Chola and Vijayanagar line of warriors which claimed chakravartin status, only few locality warrior families achieved the prestigious kin-linked organization of northern warrior groups.[7]

Jain tradition[edit]

Main article: Salakapurusa
14 Ratna of Chankravartin

During the each motion of the half-cycle of the wheel of time, 63 Salakapurusa or 63 illustrious men, consisting of the 12 Chakravartin regularly appear.[8][9] The Jain cosmology or legendary history is basically a compilation of the deeds of these illustrious men. As per Jain cosmology, Chakravartins are Universal Monarchs or World Conquerors. Golden in complexion, they all belonged to the Kasyapa gotra. The mother of a Chakravartin sees some dreams at the time of conception. A chakravartin is considered an ideal human being endowed with thirty-two major signs of excellence and many minor signs of excellence.

The list of 12 chakravartin of Avasarpini as per Jainism is as follows[10]

  1. Bharata, son of Tirthankara Rishabhanatha
  2. Sagara, ancestor of Bhagiratha as in the Puranas
  3. Maghava[11]
  4. Sanatkumara[11]
  5. Tirthankara Shantinatha
  6. Tirthankara Kunthunatha[12]
  7. Tirthankara Aranatha[12]
  8. Subhauma[12]
  9. Padmanabha
  10. Harishena
  11. Jayasena
  12. Brahmadatt

In Jainism, a chakravartin was characterised by possession of saptaratna, or "seven jewels":[citation needed]

  1. Sudarshana Chakra, a miraculous wheel that never misses its target
  2. Queen
  3. Huge army of chariots
  4. Jewellery
  5. Immense wealth
  6. Huge army of horses
  7. Huge army of elephants

Some lists cite navaratna or "nine jewels" instead, adding "prime minister" and "son".[citation needed]

The Cakravarti King in Buddhism[edit]

Tibetan mandala of the six chakravartis

The concept of the cakravarti existed in Buddhism as well as in Jainism. The Buddhist Mahāvastu (1.259f) and the Divyāvadāna, as well as the Theravadin Milindapañha, describe the marks of the cakravarti as ruler: uṣṇīṣa, chhatra "parasol", "horn jewel" or vajra, whisk and sandals. These were the marks of the kshatriya. Plastic art of early Mahayana Buddhism illustrates bodhisattvas in a form called uṣṇīṣin "wearing a turban/hair binding", wielding the mudras for "nonviolent cakravarti rule".[13]

A Cakravarti King is a king who rules all of the great continents (Pubbavideha, Jambudipa, Aparagoyana, Uttarakuru) of earth. The King wins all of the continents with peace. Since he's virtuous, seven miracle treasures appear including a large wheel spinning (Chakraratnaya) in the sky. King and his army can travel anywhere with that spinning wheel in the sky. He travels over the world and teaches all kings how to rule with peace Dasavidha-rājadhamma. He can travel to the lower heaven realms with the power of Chakraratnaya if he wants. Cakravarti king only appears when humans are virtuous and long lived. Jataka tales a part of the Pali Canon describe about Buddhist Cakravarti Kings.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 81. 
  2. ^ Wayne Edison Begley (1973). Viṣṇu's flaming wheel: the iconography of the Sudarśana-cakra, p.48. Volume 27 of Monographs on archeology and fine arts. New York University Press
  3. ^ Śrīrāma Goyala, (1967). A history of the Imperial Guptas, p.137. Central Book Depot.
  4. ^ Wayne Edison Begley (1973). Viṣṇu's flaming wheel: the iconography of the Sudarśana-cakra, p.65. Volume 27 of Monographs on archaeology and fine arts. New York University Press
  5. ^ Tej Ram Sharma, (1989). A Political History of the Imperial Guptas: From Gupta to Skandagupta, p. 75.[1] Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 8170222516
  6. ^ Burton Stein (1980). Peasant state and society in medieval South India. Oxford University Press. pp. 63–64. 
  7. ^ a b c Burton Stein (1980). Peasant state and society in medieval South India. Oxford University Press. p. 70. 
  8. ^ Jaini 1998.
  9. ^ Doniger 1999, p. 550.
  10. ^ Jaini, Jagmanderlal, F.W. Thomas, ed., Outlines of Jainism  appendix III.
  11. ^ a b von Glasanapp 1999, p. 306.
  12. ^ a b c von Glasanapp 1999, p. 308.
  13. ^ Falk, Harry, "Small-Scale Buddhism" in Voegeli, François; Eltschinger, Vincent; Candotti, Maria Piera; Diaconescu, Bogdan; Kulkarni, Malhar, eds. (2012). Devadattīyam : Johannes Bronkhorst felicitation volume. Bern: Peter Lang. ISBN 9783034306829. , p. 495

Sources[edit]

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