Calcium chlorate

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Calcium chlorate
Calcium chlorate.png
Identifiers
10017-74-3 YesY
ChemSpider 23349 YesY
EC Number 233-378-2
Jmol interactive 3D Image
PubChem 24978
RTECS number FN9800000
Properties
Ca(ClO3)2
Molar mass 206.98 g/mol
Appearance white solid
deliquescent
Odor odorless
Density 2.71 g/cm3
Melting point 150°C (dihydrate, decomp)
325°C
209 g/100mL (20 °C)
197 g/100mL (25 °C)
Structure
monoclinic
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazard OX: Oxidizer. E.g., potassium perchlorateNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Related compounds
Other anions
calcium chloride
calcium bromate
calcium bromide
Other cations
potassium chlorate
sodium chlorate
barium chlorate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Calcium chlorate is the calcium salt of chloric acid, with the chemical formula Ca(ClO3)2. Like other chlorates, it is a strong oxidizer.

Production[edit]

Calcium chlorate is produced by passing chlorine gas through a hot suspension of calcium hydroxide in water, producing calcium hypochlorite, which disproportionates when heated with excess chlorine to give calcium chlorate and calcium chloride:[1]

6Ca(OH)2 + 6Cl2 → Ca(ClO3)2 + 5CaCl2 + 6H2O

This is also the first step of the Liebig process[2] for the manufacture of potassium chlorate.

In theory, electrolysis of hot calcium chloride solution will give chlorate,[2] analogous to the process used for the manufacture of sodium chlorate. In practice, electrolysis is complicated by calcium hydroxide depositing on the cathode, preventing the flow of current.

Reactions[edit]

When concentrated solutions of calcium chlorate and potassium chloride are combined, potassium chlorate precipitates:[1][3]

Ca(ClO3)2 + 2 KCl → 2 KClO3 + CaCl2

This is the second step of the Liebig process for the manufacture of potassium chlorate.[3]

Solutions of calcium chlorate react with solutions of alkali carbonates to give a precipitate of calcium carbonate and the alkali chlorate in solution:

Ca(ClO3)2 + Na2CO3 → 2 NaClO3 + CaCO3

On strong heating, calcium chlorate decomposes to give oxygen and calcium chloride:

2 Ca(ClO3)2 → 2 CaCl2 + 3 O2

Cold, dilute solutions of calcium chlorate and sulfuric acid react to give a precipitate of calcium sulfate and chloric acid in solution:[4]

Ca(ClO3)2 + H2SO4 → 2 HClO3 + CaSO4

Contact with strong sulfuric acid can result in explosions[5] due to the instability of concentrated chloric acid. Contact with ammonium compounds can also cause violent decomposition due to the formation of unstable ammonium chlorate.[5]

Uses[edit]

Calcium chlorate has been used as an herbicide,[2] like sodium chlorate.

Calcium chlorate is occasionally used in pyrotechnics,[2] as an oxidizer and pink flame colorant. Its hygroscopic nature and incompatibility with other common pyrotechnic materials (such as sulfur) limit its utility in these applications.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Samuel P. Sadtler, Virgil Coblentz and Jeannot Hostmann (1918). A textbook of chemistry, intended for the use of pharmaceutical and medical students. p. 329. 
  2. ^ a b c d Ropp, Richard C. (2012). Encyclopedia of the Alkaline Earth Compounds. p. 80. 
  3. ^ a b Mellor, Joseph William (1917). Modern Inorganic Chemistry. p. 287. 
  4. ^ Ira Remsen, Charles August Rouillu (1883). "American Chemical Journal" 4: 309. Solution of pure calcium chlorate, treated by sulphuric acid, would of course give a solution of chloric acid 
  5. ^ a b PubChem - Calcium Chlorate: Experimental Properties