Calcium hydride

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Calcium hydride
Calcium hydride
Names
IUPAC name
Calcium hydride
Other names
Calcium(II) hydride
Calcium dihydride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.263
EC Number 232-189-2
Properties
CaH2
Molar mass 42.094 g/mol
Appearance gray powder (white when pure)
Density 1.70 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 816 °C (1,501 °F; 1,089 K)
reacts violently
Solubility reacts in alcohol
Structure
Orthorhombic, oP12
Pnma, No. 62
Thermochemistry
41.4 J·mol−1·K−1[1]
−181.5 kJ·mol−1
-142.5 kJ/mol
Hazards
GHS pictograms Water-react. 1
GHS signal word DANGER
H260
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g., gasolineHealth code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gasReactivity code 2: Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water. E.g., phosphorusSpecial hazard W: Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner. E.g., cesium, sodiumNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
3
3
2
Related compounds
Other cations
Sodium hydride,
Potassium hydride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (what is YesYNo ?)
Infobox references

Calcium hydride is the chemical compound with the formula CaH2, and is therefore an alkaline earth hydride. This grey powder (white if pure, which is rare) reacts vigorously with water liberating hydrogen gas. CaH2 is thus used as a drying agent, i.e. a desiccant.[2]

CaH2 is a saline hydride, meaning that its structure is salt-like. The alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals heavier than beryllium all form saline hydrides. A well-known example is sodium hydride, which crystallizes in the NaCl motif. These species are insoluble in all solvents with which they do not react. CaH2 crystallizes in the PbCl2 (cotunnite) structure.[3]

Preparation[edit]

Calcium hydride is prepared from its elements by direct combination of calcium and hydrogen at 300 to 400 °C.[4]

Uses[edit]

Reduction of metal oxides[edit]

CaH2 is a reducing agent for the production of metal powders from the oxides of Ti, V, Nb, Ta, and U. It is proposed to operate via its decomposition to Ca metal:[4]

TiO2 + 2 CaH2 → Ti + 2 CaO + 2 H2

Hydrogen source[edit]

CaH2 has been used for hydrogen production. In the 1940s, it was available under the trade name "Hydrolith"[5] as a source of hydrogen:

'The trade name for this compound is "hydrolith"; in cases of emergency, it can be used as a portable source of hydrogen, for filling airships. It is rather expensive for this use.'[6]

The reference to "emergency" probably refers to wartime use. The compound has, however, been widely used for decades as a safe and convenient means to inflate weather balloons. Likewise, it is regularly used in laboratories to produce small quantities of highly pure hydrogen for experiments. The moisture content of diesel fuel is estimated by the hydrogen evolved upon treatment with CaH2.[4]

Desiccant[edit]

The reaction of CaH2 with water can be represented as follows:

CaH2 + 2 H2O → Ca(OH)2 + 2 H2

The two hydrolysis products, H2, a gas and Ca(OH)2, are readily separated from the dried solvent.

Calcium hydride is a relatively mild desiccant and, compared to molecular sieves, probably inefficient.[7] Its use is safer than more reactive agents such as sodium metal or sodium-potassium alloy. Calcium hydride is widely used as a desiccant for basic solvents such as amines and pyridine. It is also used to dry alcohols.[2]

Despite its convenience, CaH2 has a few drawbacks:

  • it is insoluble in all solvents with which it does not react vigorously, in contrast to LiAlH4, thus the speed of its drying action can be slow.
  • Because CaH2 and Ca(OH)2 are almost indistinguishable in appearance, the quality of a sample of CaH2 is not obvious visually.

Sonar decoy[edit]

During the Battle of the Atlantic, German submarines used calcium hydride as a sonar decoy called bold.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A21. ISBN 0-618-94690-X. 
  2. ^ a b Gawley, R. E., Davis, A., "Calcium Hydride," in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rc005
  3. ^ Wells, A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-855370-6.
  4. ^ a b c Peter Rittmeyer, Ulrich Wietelmann “Hydrides” in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a13_199
  5. ^ Hydrolith in thefreedictionary.com
  6. ^ Adlam G.H.J. and Price L.S., A Higher School Certificate Inorganic Chemistry, John Murray, London, 1940
  7. ^ Williams, D. B. G., Lawton, M., "Drying of Organic Solvents: Quantitative Evaluation of the Efficiency of Several Desiccants", The Journal of Organic Chemistry 2010, vol. 75, 8351. doi:10.1021/jo101589h 10.1021/jo101589h