Calcium hypochlorite

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Calcium hypochlorite or Calcium oxychloride
Calcium hypochlorite
Names
Other names
Hypochlorous acid, calcium salt
Bleaching powder, Calcium oxychloride
Identifiers
7778-54-3 YesY
ChemSpider 22912 YesY
EC number 231-908-7
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem 24504
RTECS number NH3485000
UN number 1748
Properties
Ca(ClO)2
Molar mass 142.98 g/mol
Appearance white/gray powder
Density 2.35 g/cm3 (20 °C)
Melting point 100 °C (212 °F; 373 K)
Boiling point 175 °C (347 °F; 448 K) decomposes
21 g/100 mL, reacts
Solubility reacts in alcohol
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 0638
EU classification Oxidizing Agent O (O)
Corrosive C (C)
Harmful Xn (Xn)
Dangerous for the Environment (Nature) N (N)
R-phrases R8, R22, R31, R34, R50
S-phrases (S1/2), S26, S36/37/39, S45, S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gas Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazard OX: Oxidizer. E.g., potassium perchlorateNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
850 mg/kg (oral, rat)
Related compounds
Other anions
Calcium chloride
Other cations
Sodium hypochlorite
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 YesY verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Calcium hypochlorite is an inorganic compound with formula Ca(ClO)2. As a mixture with lime and calcium chloride, it is marketed as chlorine powder or bleach powder for water treatment and as a bleaching agent.[1] This compound is relatively stable and has greater available chlorine than sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach).[2] It is a white solid, although commercial samples appear yellow. It strongly smells of chlorine, owing to its slow decomposition in moist air. It is not highly soluble in water and is more preferably used in soft to medium-hard water. It has two forms: dry and hydrated.

Uses[edit]

Sanitation[edit]

Calcium hypochlorite is commonly used to sanitize public swimming pools and disinfect drinking water. Generally the commercial substance is sold with a purity of a 68% (with other additives and contaminants varying based upon the product's intended purpose). For instance as a swimming pool chemical it is often mixed with cyanuric acid stabilizers and anti-scaling agents (in order to reduce the loss of chlorine from ultraviolet radiation and to prevent calcium hardening). Calcium hypochlorite is also used in kitchens to disinfect surfaces and equipment.[3] Other common uses include bathroom cleansers, household disinfectant sprays, algaecides, herbicides, and laundry detergents.

Organic chemistry[edit]

Calcium hypochlorite is a general oxidizing agent and therefore finds some use in organic chemistry.[4] For instance the compound is used to cleave glycols, α-hydroxy carboxylic acids and keto acids to yield fragmented aldehydes or carboxylic acids.[5] Calcium hypochlorite can also be used in the haloform reaction to manufacture chloroform.[6]

Production[edit]

Calcium hypochlorite is produced industrially by treating lime (Ca(OH)2) with chlorine gas. The reaction can be conducted in stages to give various compositions, each with different concentration of calcium hypochlorite, together with unconverted lime and calcium chloride. The full conversion is shown[1]

2 Cl
2
+ 2 Ca(OH)
2
Ca(OCl)
2
+ CaCl
2
+ 2 H
2
O

Bleaching powder is made with slightly moist slaked lime. It is not a simple mixture of calcium hypochlorite, calcium chloride, and calcium hydroxide. Instead, it is a mixture consisting principally of calcium hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2, dibasic calcium hypochlorite, Ca3(OCl)2(OH)4, and dibasic calcium chloride, Ca3Cl2(OH)4.[7]

Properties[edit]

Calcium hypochlorite reacts with carbon dioxide to form calcium carbonate and release dichlorine monoxide:

Ca(ClO)
2
+ CO
2
CaCO
3
+ Cl
2
O

A calcium hypochlorite solution is basic. This basicity is due to the hydrolysis performed by the hypochlorite ion, as hypochlorous acid is weak, but calcium hydroxide is a strong base. As a result, the hypochlorite ion is a strong conjugate base, and the calcium ion is a weak conjugate acid:

ClO
+ H2O → HClO + OH

Similarly, calcium hypochlorite reacts with hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride, water and chlorine:

Ca(OCl)2 + 4 HCl → CaCl2 + 2 H2O + 2 Cl2

Safety[edit]

Calcium hypochlorite is stored dry and cold, away from any organic material and metals. The hydrated form is safer to handle.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Vogt, H.; Balej, J; Bennett, J. E.; Wintzer, P.; Sheikh, S. A.; Gallone, P.; Vasudevan, S.; Pelin, K. (2010). "Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_483.pub2. 
  2. ^ Gerald F. Connell. "KEY OPERATING STRATEGIES FOR CHLORINE DISINFECTION OPERATING SYSTEMS" (PDF). Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  3. ^ Chemical Products Synopsis: Calcium Hypochlorite (Technical report). Asbuiy Park, NJ: Mannsvile Chemical Products. 1987. 
  4. ^ Nwaukwa, Stephen; Keehn, Philip (1982). "The oxidation of aldehydes to acids with calcium hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2]". Tetrahedron Letters 23 (31): 3131–3134. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)88577-9. 
  5. ^ Nwaukwa, Stephen; Keehn, Philip (1982). "Oxidative cleavage of α-diols, α-diones, α-hydroxy-ketones and α-hydroxy- and α-keto acids with calcium hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2]". Tetrahedron Letters 23 (31): 3135–3138. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)88578-0. 
  6. ^ Cohen, Julius (1900). Practical Organic Chemistry for Advanced Students. Newyork: Macmillan & Co. p. 63. 
  7. ^ W.L Smith, Inorganic bleaches, Production of Hypochlorite in Handbook of Detergents,Part F, (2009) Ed. U Zoller and Paul Sosis, CRCPress, ISBN 978-0-8247-0349-3

External links[edit]