Calculus (disambiguation)

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Calculus (from Latin calculus meaning ‘pebble’, plural calculī) in its most general sense is any method or system of calculation.

Calculus may refer to:


  • Calculus, short for "differential calculus" and "integral calculus", which investigate motion and rates of change
  • Calculus of sums and differences (difference operator), also called the finite-difference calculus, a discrete analogue of "calculus"
  • Functional calculus, a way to apply various types of functions to operators
  • Non-standard calculus, an approach to infinitesimal calculus using Robinson's infinitesimals
  • Schubert calculus, a branch of algebraic geometry
  • Tensor calculus (also called tensor analysis), a generalization of vector calculus that encompasses tensor fields
    • Vector calculus (also called vector analysis), comprising specialized notations for multivariable analysis of vectors in an inner-product space
    • Matrix calculus, a specialized notation for multivariable calculus over spaces of matrices
  • Umbral calculus, the combinatorics of certain operations on polynomials
  • The calculus of variations, a field of study that deals with extremizing functionals


  • Logical calculus, a formal system that defines a language and rules to derive an expression from premises.
  • Epsilon calculus, a logical language which replaces quantifiers with the epsilon operator
  • Fitch-style calculus, a method for constructing formal proofs used in first-order logic
  • Modal μ-calculus, a common temporal logic used by formal verification methods such as model checking


Computer Science[edit]

  • Domain relational calculus, a calculus for the relational data model
  • Join calculus, a theoretical model for distributed programming
  • Lambda calculus, a formulation of the theory of reflexive functions that has deep connections to computational theory
  • Pi-calculus, a formulation of the theory of concurrent, communicating processes that was invented by Robin Milner
  • Refinement calculus, a way of refining models of programs into efficient programs
  • Rho calculus, introduced as a general means to uniformly integrate rewriting and lambda calculus
  • Tuple calculus, a calculus for the relational data model, inspired the SQL language

Other meanings[edit]