Calcutta Cup

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Calcutta Cup
Calcutta Cup, England vs Scotland.jpg
Given forWinning the annual England versus Scotland match.
Country England
 Scotland
Presented bySix Nations Rugby
History
First award1879
Most recent Scotland
Websitewww.sixnationsrugby.com

The Calcutta Cup is the trophy awarded to the winner of the rugby match between Scotland and England (the current winner of the cup is Scotland). It is the oldest of several individual competitions that take place under the umbrella of the Six Nations Championship, including: the Millennium Trophy, Centenary Quaich, Giuseppe Garibaldi Trophy, Auld Alliance Trophy, and the Doddie Weir Cup (the latter two were first contested in 2018).

The cup was first competed for in 1879. Scotland were the most recent winners, while England have won the cup the most times overall with 70 wins to Scotland's 40.

The cup itself is of Indian workmanship, decorated with cobras and an elephant.

Calcutta Club[edit]

On Christmas Day 1872, a game of rugby football, between 20 players representing England on one side and 20 representing Scotland on the other, was played in Calcutta.

The match was such a success that it was repeated a week later. These lovers of rugby wanted to form a club in the area and the aforementioned matches were the agents which led to the formation of the Calcutta Football Club in January 1873.

The Calcutta Club joined the Rugby Football Union in 1874. Despite the Indian climate not being entirely suitable for playing rugby, the club prospered during that first year. However, when the free bar had to be discontinued, the membership took an appreciable drop. Other sports, such as tennis and polo, which were considered to be more suited to the local climate, were making inroads into the numbers of gentlemen available. The members decided to disband but keen to perpetuate the name of the club, they withdrew the club's funds from the bank, which were in Silver Rupees, had them melted down and made into a cup which they presented to the Rugby Football Union in England in 1878, with the provision that it should be competed for annually.

The cup[edit]

The cup is of Indian workmanship, approximately 18 inches (45 cm) high, the body is finely engraved with three king cobras forming the handles. The domed lid is surmounted by an elephant which is, it is said, copied from the Viceroy's own stock. The inscription on the Cup's wooden base reads: THE CALCUTTA CUP.

The base has attached to it additional plates which record the date of each match played with the name of the winning country and the names of the two captains. There is an anomaly in the recording of the winning country on the base of the Cup. It was first played for in 1879, but the plinth shows records extending back to the first international in 1871.

The original trophy is in a very fragile state following many years of poor treatment and is not in a strong enough condition to attend functions or go on tours. When won by England the original Calcutta Cup is put on public display in the Museum of Rugby in Twickenham, where it slowly turns around in a purpose built showcase. Both nations have full size replicas of the Cup. Whilst the original was handmade by Indian craftsmen, the replicas were made using modern technology.

In 1988 the cup was damaged by the antics of some drunken players, including England number eight Dean Richards and Scotland flanker John Jeffrey who played football with the Calcutta Cup along Princes Street in Edinburgh. Jeffrey received a six-month ban from the SRU, whilst Richards was given a one-match sentence from England.[1]

Competition[edit]

Despite the initial request of the Calcutta Club that the trophy be used as rugby's answer to football's FA Cup, the RFU refused to turn the Calcutta Cup into a knock-out competition for English club sides. They believed that "competitiveness" ran against the amateur ethos and instead decided that a game should be played each year between Scotland and England and whoever wins should keep it for that year. The first Calcutta Cup match was played at Raeburn Place, Edinburgh, on 10 March 1879 and ended in a draw; Scotland scored a drop goal and England a goal. The following year on 28 February 1880 England became the first winners of the Calcutta Cup when they defeated Scotland by two goals & three tries to one goal in Manchester. Matches have continued on an annual basis except for two interruptions due to the World Wars between 1915–1919 and 1940–1946.

As of 2019, 126 Calcutta Cup matches have taken place. Currently, this game is the annual match between the two nations in the Six Nations Championship. The ground alternates between Murrayfield Stadium in Edinburgh (on even years) and Twickenham Stadium in London (on odd years).

In 2004, the two countries' rugby governing bodies, the Rugby Football Union (England) and the Scottish Rugby Union, were considering a plan to add a second Calcutta Cup fixture each year, outside the Six Nations. The second fixture would be hosted by the away nation in the Six Nations fixture of the same year. Under that plan, one nation would have to win both matches to take the Cup off its current holder. Due to a largely unfavourable reaction, the proposal soon disappeared from view.

Results[edit]

Since 1879, the Calcutta Cup has been played 126 times.

Year Date Holder Result Stadium Place England wins Scotland wins Draws
1879 10 March 1–1 Raeburn Place Edinburgh 0 0 1
1880 28 February  England 2–1 Whalley Range Manchester 1 0 1
1881 19 March  England 1–1 Raeburn Place Edinburgh 1 0 2
1882 4 March  Scotland (0T)0–0(2T) Whalley Range Manchester 1 1 2
1883 3 March  England (1T)0–0(2T) Raeburn Place Edinburgh 2 1 2
1884 1 March  England 3–1 Rectory Field Blackheath 3 1 2
1885 Not played
1886 13 March  England 0–0 Raeburn Place Edinburgh 3 1 3
1887 5 March  England (1T)1–1(1T) Whalley Range Manchester 3 1 4
1888 Not played
1889 Not played
1890 1 March  England 0–6 Raeburn Place Edinburgh 4 1 4
1891 7 March  Scotland 3–9 Athletic Ground Richmond 4 2 4
1892 5 March  England 0–5 Raeburn Place Edinburgh 5 2 4
1893 4 March  Scotland 0–8 Headingley Leeds 5 3 4
1894 17 March  Scotland 6–0 Raeburn Place Edinburgh 5 4 4
1895 9 March  Scotland 3–6 Athletic Ground Richmond 5 5 4
1896 14 March  Scotland 11–0 Hampden Park Glasgow 5 6 4
1897 13 March  England 12–3 Fallowfield Manchester 6 6 4
1898 12 March  England 3–3 Powderhall Edinburgh 6 6 5
1899 11 March  Scotland 0–5 Rectory Field Blackheath 6 7 5
1900 10 March  Scotland 0–0 Inverleith Edinburgh 6 7 6
1901 9 March  Scotland 3–18 Rectory Field Blackheath 6 8 6
1902 15 March  England 3–6 Inverleith Edinburgh 7 8 6
1903 21 March  Scotland 6–10 Athletic Ground Richmond 7 9 6
1904 19 March  Scotland 6–3 Inverleith Edinburgh 7 10 6
1905 18 March  Scotland 0–8 Athletic Ground Richmond 7 11 6
1906 17 March  England 3–9 Inverleith Edinburgh 8 11 6
1907 16 March  Scotland 3–8 Rectory Field Blackheath 8 12 6
1908 21 March  Scotland 16–10 Inverleith Edinburgh 8 13 6
1909 20 March  Scotland 8–18 Athletic Ground Richmond 8 14 6
1910 19 March  England 5–14 Inverleith Edinburgh 9 14 6
1911 18 March  England 13–8 Twickenham London 10 14 6
1912 16 March  Scotland 8–3 Inverleith Edinburgh 10 15 6
1913 15 March  England 3–0 Twickenham London 11 15 6
1914 21 March  England 15–16 Inverleith Edinburgh 12 15 6
1915 Not held due to World War I
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920 20 March  England 13–4 Twickenham London 13 15 6
1921 19 March  England 0–18 Inverleith Edinburgh 14 15 6
1922 18 March  England 11–5 Twickenham London 15 15 6
1923 17 March  England 6–8 Inverleith Edinburgh 16 15 6
1924 15 March  England 19–0 Twickenham London 17 15 6
1925 21 March  Scotland 14–11 Murrayfield Edinburgh 17 16 6
1926 20 March  Scotland 9–17 Twickenham London 17 17 6
1927 19 March  Scotland 21–13 Murrayfield Edinburgh 17 18 6
1928 17 March  England 6–0 Twickenham London 18 18 6
1929 16 March  Scotland 12–6 Murrayfield Edinburgh 18 19 6
1930 15 March  Scotland 0–0 Twickenham London 18 19 7
1931 21 March  Scotland 28–19 Murrayfield Edinburgh 18 20 7
1932 19 March  England 16–3 Twickenham London 19 20 7
1933 18 March  Scotland 3–0 Murrayfield Edinburgh 19 21 7
1934 17 March  England 6–3 Twickenham London 20 21 7
1935 16 March  Scotland 10–7 Murrayfield Edinburgh 20 22 7
1936 21 March  England 9–8 Twickenham London 21 22 7
1937 20 March  England 3–6 Murrayfield Edinburgh 22 22 7
1938 19 March  Scotland 16–21 Twickenham London 22 23 7
1939 18 March  England 6–9 Murrayfield Edinburgh 23 23 7
1940 Not held due to World War II
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947 15 March  England 24–5 Twickenham London 24 23 7
1948 20 March  Scotland 6–3 Murrayfield Edinburgh 24 24 7
1949 19 March  England 19–3 Twickenham London 25 24 7
1950 18 March  Scotland 13–11 Murrayfield Edinburgh 25 25 7
1951 17 March  England 5–3 Twickenham London 26 25 7
1952 15 March  England 3–19 Murrayfield Edinburgh 27 25 7
1953 21 March  England 26–8 Twickenham London 28 25 7
1954 20 March  England 3–13 Murrayfield Edinburgh 29 25 7
1955 19 March  England 9–6 Twickenham London 30 25 7
1956 17 March  England 6–11 Murrayfield Edinburgh 31 25 7
1957 16 March  England 16–3 Twickenham London 32 25 7
1958 15 March  England 3–3 Murrayfield Edinburgh 32 25 8
1959 21 March  England 3–3 Twickenham London 32 25 9
1960 19 March  England 12–21 Murrayfield Edinburgh 33 25 9
1961 18 March  England 6–0 Twickenham London 34 25 9
1962 17 March  England 3–3 Murrayfield Edinburgh 34 25 10
1963 16 March  England 10–8 Twickenham London 35 25 10
1964 21 March  Scotland 15–6 Murrayfield Edinburgh 35 26 10
1965 20 March  Scotland 3–3 Twickenham London 35 26 11
1966 19 March  Scotland 6–3 Murrayfield Edinburgh 35 27 11
1967 18 March  England 27–14 Twickenham London 36 27 11
1968 16 March  England 6–8 Murrayfield Edinburgh 37 27 11
1969 15 March  England 8–3 Twickenham London 38 27 11
1970 21 February  Scotland 14–5 Murrayfield Edinburgh 38 28 11
1971 20 March  Scotland 16–15 Twickenham London 38 29 11
1972 18 March  Scotland 23–9 Murrayfield Edinburgh 38 30 11
1973 17 March  England 20–13 Twickenham London 39 30 11
1974 2 February  Scotland 16–14 Murrayfield Edinburgh 39 31 11
1975 15 March  England 7–6 Twickenham London 40 31 11
1976 21 February  Scotland 22–12 Murrayfield Edinburgh 40 32 11
1977 15 January  England 26–6 Twickenham London 41 32 11
1978 4 March  England 0–15 Murrayfield Edinburgh 42 32 11
1979 3 February  England 7–7 Twickenham London 42 32 12
1980 15 March  England 18–30 Murrayfield Edinburgh 43 32 12
1981 21 February  England 23–17 Twickenham London 44 32 12
1982 16 January  England 9–9 Murrayfield Edinburgh 44 32 13
1983 5 March  Scotland 12–22 Twickenham London 44 33 13
1984 4 February  Scotland 18–6 Murrayfield Edinburgh 44 34 13
1985 16 March  England 10–7 Twickenham London 45 34 13
1986 15 February  Scotland 33–6 Murrayfield Edinburgh 45 35 13
1987 4 April  England 21–12 Twickenham London 46 35 13
1988 5 March  England 6–9 Murrayfield Edinburgh 47 35 13
1989 4 February  England 12–12 Twickenham London 47 35 14
1990 17 March  Scotland 13–7 Murrayfield Edinburgh 47 36 14
1991 16 February  England 21–12 Twickenham London 48 36 14
1992 18 January  England 7–25 Murrayfield Edinburgh 49 36 14
1993 6 March  England 26–12 Twickenham London 50 36 14
1994 5 February  England 14–15 Murrayfield Edinburgh 51 36 14
1995 18 March  England 24–12 Twickenham London 52 36 14
1996 2 March  England 9–18 Murrayfield Edinburgh 53 36 14
1997 1 February  England 41–13 Twickenham London 54 36 14
1998 22 March  England 20–34 Murrayfield Edinburgh 55 36 14
1999 20 February  England 24–21 Twickenham London 56 36 14
2000 2 April  Scotland 19–13 Murrayfield Edinburgh 56 37 14
2001 3 March  England 43–3 Twickenham London 57 37 14
2002 2 February  England 3–29 Murrayfield Edinburgh 58 37 14
2003 22 March  England 40–9 Twickenham London 59 37 14
2004 21 February  England 13–35 Murrayfield Edinburgh 60 37 14
2005 19 March  England 43–22 Twickenham London 61 37 14
2006 25 February  Scotland 18–12 Murrayfield Edinburgh 61 38 14
2007 3 February  England 42–20 Twickenham London 62 38 14
2008 8 March  Scotland 15–9 Murrayfield Edinburgh 62 39 14
2009 21 March  England 26–12 Twickenham London 63 39 14
2010 13 March  England 15–15 Murrayfield Edinburgh 63 39 15
2011 13 March  England 22–17 Twickenham London 64 39 15
2012 4 February  England 6–13 Murrayfield Edinburgh 65 39 15
2013 2 February  England 38–18 Twickenham London 66 39 15
2014 8 February  England 0–20 Murrayfield Edinburgh 67 39 15
2015 14 March  England 25–13 Twickenham London 68 39 15
2016 6 February  England 9–15[2] Murrayfield Edinburgh 69 39 15
2017 11 March  England 61–21[3] Twickenham London 70 39 15
2018 24 February  Scotland 25–13[4] Murrayfield Edinburgh 70 40 15
2019 16 March  Scotland 38–38 Twickenham London 70 40 16

Records[edit]

Team Wins
 England 70
 Scotland 40

The cup has been tied 16 times.

The current record number of points scored by a player in a Calcutta Cup game was set by Jonny Wilkinson in 2007 when he scored 27 points (1 try, 2 conversions, 5 penalties, 1 drop goal). The previous record of 24 points was held by Rob Andrew.

Other Calcutta Cups[edit]

The Other Calcutta Cup Trophy

In 1884 Calcutta Cricket and Football Club again set up a rugby section and in 1890 set up an inter club trophy, the Calcutta Rugby Union Challenge Cup, promptly christened the Calcutta Cup.[5]

The Cup is currently held by Jungle Crows who beat CC&FC. The second division trophy was won by Calcutta Cricket and Football Club Panthers.[6]

The original and oldest Calcutta Cup is a silver trophy played for annually by the members of Royal Blackheath Golf Club. It was a gift from the Royal Calcutta Golf Club in response to the presentation of a medal given by Blackheath. It is made from melted down silver rupees, reputedly from the same batch of melted down silver rupees as the Rugby Union Cup played for between England and Scotland. The cup arrived in London in 1875. It was first played for in December 1875 three years before the first Calcutta Cup match between England and Scotland. The Cup held by Royal Blackheath Golf Club has only 2 handles unlike the well known Calcutta Cup. It is only in recent years that the history of the original Calcutta Cup has been appreciated by sporting historians.

Royal Blackheath Golf Club members had close links with Blackheath Football Club (Rugby) which was one of the most prominent Clubs in the early years of the Rugby Football Union. Members of both clubs served in India in the 1870s. This link is the most likely explanation for the creation of a similar cup being created by the Calcutta rugby Club a few years later and becoming the world-famous Calcutta Cup.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Calcutta Cup goes kickabout". ESPN Scrum. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  2. ^ BBC. "Scotland lose 15-9 to Jones' England". Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  3. ^ "Auld Enemy put to the sword as Jonathan Joseph spearheads Calcutta Cup rout". The Telegraph, UK. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  4. ^ "Rampant Scots bring auld rivals crashing down to earth to claim Calcutta Cup". The Telegraph, UK. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  5. ^ "Calcutta Cricket and Football Club history". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-08-06.
  6. ^ Scrum.com report

External links[edit]