Caldwell catalogue

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Caldwell catalogue
Caldwell Catalogue.jpg
Montage of Caldwell Catalogue objects.
Survey typeastronomical catalog Edit this on Wikidata
Targetstar cluster, nebula, galaxy Edit this on Wikidata
Named afterPatrick Moore Edit this on Wikidata
PublishedDecember 1995 Edit this on Wikidata
Commons page Related media on Wikimedia Commons

The Caldwell catalogue is an astronomical catalogue of 109 star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies for observation by amateur astronomers. The list was compiled by Patrick Moore as a complement to the Messier catalogue.[1]

While the Messier catalogue is used by amateur astronomers as a list of deep-sky objects for observation, Moore noted that Messier's list was not compiled for that purpose and excluded many of the sky's brightest deep-sky objects,[1] such as the Hyades, the Double Cluster (NGC 869 and NGC 884), and the Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253). The Messier catalogue was actually compiled as a list of known objects that might be confused with comets. Moore also observed that since Messier compiled his list from observations in Paris, it did not include bright deep-sky objects visible in the Southern Hemisphere, such as Omega Centauri, Centaurus A, the Jewel Box, and 47 Tucanae.[1][2] Moore compiled a list of 109 objects to match the commonly accepted number of Messier objects (he excluded M110[3]), and the list was published in Sky & Telescope in December 1995.[3]

Moore used his other surname – Caldwell – to name the list, since the initial of "Moore" is already used for the Messier catalogue.[1][4] Entries in the catalogue are designated with a "C" and the catalogue number (1 to 109).

Unlike objects in the Messier catalogue, which are listed roughly in the order of discovery by Messier and his colleagues,[5] the Caldwell catalogue is ordered by declination, with C1 being the most northerly and C109 being the most southerly,[1] although two objects (NGC 4244 and the Hyades) are listed out of sequence.[1] Other errors in the original list have since been corrected: it incorrectly identified the S Norma Cluster (NGC 6087) as NGC 6067 and incorrectly labelled the Lambda Centauri Cluster (IC 2944) as the Gamma Centauri Cluster.[1]

Caldwell star chart[edit]

Caldwell Star Chart

Number of objects by type in the Caldwell catalogue[edit]

Dark nebulae 1
Galaxies 35
Globular clusters 18
Nebulae 9
Star clusters 25
Star clusters and nebulae 6
Planetary nebulae 13
Supernova remnants 2
Total 109

Caldwell objects[edit]

  Open cluster ‹See Tfd›   Globular cluster ‹See Tfd›   Dark nebula ‹See Tfd›   Diffuse nebula ‹See Tfd›   Planetary nebula ‹See Tfd›   Supernova remnant ‹See Tfd›   Galaxy ‹See Tfd›

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Image Type Distance
(1000 ly)
Constellation Magnitude
C1 NGC 188   NGC 0188 DSS.jpg Open Cluster 4.8 Cepheus 8.1
C2 NGC 40 Bow-Tie Nebula Ngc40.jpg Planetary Nebula 3.5 Cepheus 11
C3 NGC 4236   NGC4236 JeffJohnson.jpg Barred Spiral Galaxy 7,000 Draco 9.7
C4 NGC 7023 Iris Nebula Iris1HunterWilson.jpg Open Cluster and Nebula 1.4 Cepheus 7
C5 IC 342 Hidden Galaxy [6] IC342.jpg Spiral Galaxy 10,000 Camelopardalis 9
C6 NGC 6543 Cat's Eye Nebula N6543s.jpg Planetary Nebula 3 Draco 9
C7 NGC 2403   NGC 2403 CDK Large 04.jpg Spiral Galaxy 14,000 Camelopardalis 8.4
C8 NGC 559   NGC 559.png Open Cluster 3.7 Cassiopeia 9.5
C9 Sh2-155 Cave Nebula Cave Nebula.jpg Nebula 2.8 Cepheus 7.7
C10 NGC 663   NGC663HunterWilson.jpg Open Cluster 7.2 Cassiopeia 7.1
C11 NGC 7635 Bubble Nebula The Bubble Nebula - NGC 7635 - Heic1608a.jpg Nebula 7.1 Cassiopeia -
C12 NGC 6946 Fireworks Galaxy SpiralGalaxy NGC6946.jpg Spiral Galaxy 18,000 Cepheus 8.9
C13 NGC 457 Owl Cluster, E.T. Cluster NGC457.jpg Open Cluster - Cassiopeia 6.4
C14 NGC 869 & NGC 884 Double Cluster, h & χ Persei NGC869NGC884.jpg Open Cluster 7.3 Perseus 4
C15 NGC 6826 Blinking Planetary NGC 6826HSTFull.jpg Planetary Nebula 2.2 Cygnus 10
C16 NGC 7243   NGC 7243 .jpg Open Cluster 2.5 Lacerta 6.4
C17 NGC 147   NGC 0147 2MASS.jpg Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy 2,300 Cassiopeia 9.3
C18 NGC 185   Ngc185 rgb combined.jpg Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy 2,300 Cassiopeia 9.2
C19 IC 5146 Cocoon Nebula Cocoon-Nebula.jpg Open Cluster and Nebula 3.3 Cygnus 7.2
C20 NGC 7000 North America Nebula Nord america.jpg Nebula 1.8 Cygnus 4
C21 NGC 4449   Starburst in NGC 4449 (captured by the Hubble Space Telescope).jpg Irregular galaxy 10,000 Canes Venatici 9.4
C22 NGC 7662 Blue Snowball Ngc7662hst.jpg Planetary Nebula 3.2 Andromeda 9
C23 NGC 891 Silver Sliver Galaxy NGC891HunterWilson.jpg Spiral Galaxy 31,000 Andromeda 10
C24 NGC 1275 Perseus A NGC 1275 Hubble.jpg Supergiant Elliptical Galaxy 230,000 Perseus 11.6
C25 NGC 2419   NGC 2419.jpg Globular Cluster 275 Lynx 10.4
C26 NGC 4244   NGC4244.jpg Spiral Galaxy 10,000 Canes Venatici 10.2
C27 NGC 6888 Crescent Nebula CrescentBicolorHunterWilson.jpg Nebula 4.7 Cygnus 7.4
C28 NGC 752   NGC 752.png Open Cluster 1.2 Andromeda 5.7
C29 NGC 5005   NGC 5005.jpg Spiral Galaxy 69,000 Canes Venatici 9.8
C30 NGC 7331   NGC 7331 zoomed.jpg Spiral Galaxy 47,000 Pegasus 9.5
C31 IC 405 Flaming Star Nebula FlamingStarHunterWilson.jpg Nebula 1.6 Auriga -
C32 NGC 4631 Whale Galaxy NGC4631-stargazer-obs.jpg Barred Spiral Galaxy 22,000 Canes Venatici 9.3
C33 NGC 6992 East Veil Nebula Eastern Veil.jpg Supernova Remnant 2.5 Cygnus -
C34 NGC 6960 West Veil Nebula WestVeilHunterWilson.jpg Supernova Remnant 2.5 Cygnus -
C35 NGC 4889 Coma B The sleeping giant NGC 4889.jpg Supergiant Elliptical Galaxy 300,000 Coma Berenices 11.4
C36 NGC 4559   NGC 4559 I FUV g2006.jpg Spiral Galaxy 32,000 Coma Berenices 9.9
C37 NGC 6885   NGC 6885.png Open Cluster 1.95 Vulpecula 6
C38 NGC 4565 Needle Galaxy Needle Galaxy 4565.jpeg Spiral Galaxy 32,000 Coma Berenices 9.6
C39 NGC 2392 Eskimo Nebula/Clown Face Nebula[7] Ngc2392.jpg Planetary Nebula 4 Gemini 10
C40 NGC 3626 NGC 362 - Potw1643a.tif Spiral Galaxy 86,000 Leo 10.9
C41 Mel 25 Hyades Hyades.jpg Open Cluster 0.151 Taurus 0.5
C42 NGC 7006   NGC 7006 HST.jpg Globular Cluster 135 Delphinus 10.6
C43 NGC 7814   NGC7814HunterWilson.jpg Spiral Galaxy 49,000 Pegasus 10.5
C44 NGC 7479   NGC7479 Goran Nilsson & The Liverpool Telescope.jpg Barred Spiral Galaxy 106,000 Pegasus 11
C45 NGC 5248   N5248s.jpg Spiral Galaxy 74,000 Boötes 10.2
C46 NGC 2261 Hubble's Variable Nebula Ngc2261.jpg Nebula 2.5 Monoceros -
C47 NGC 6934   NGC 6934 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Globular Cluster 57 Delphinus 8.9
C48 NGC 2775   NGC 2775.png Spiral Galaxy 55,000 Cancer 10.3
C49 NGC 2237 Rosette Nebula Rosette Nebula NGC 2237 - C49.png Nebula 4.9 Monoceros 9.0
C50 NGC 2244 Satellite Cluster [8] Rosette Nebula in Monoceros.jpg Open Cluster 4.9 Monoceros 4.8
C51 IC 1613   IC1613-3.jpg Irregular galaxy 2,300 Cetus 9.3
C52 NGC 4697  

NGC 4697 HST 10003 R850 B475.png

Elliptical galaxy 76,000 Virgo 9.3
C53 NGC 3115 Spindle Galaxy NGC 3115 2MASS.jpg Lenticular Galaxy 22,000 Sextans 9.2
C54 NGC 2506   NGC 2506.png Open Cluster 10 Monoceros 7.6
C55 NGC 7009 Saturn Nebula Ngc7009 hst big.jpg Planetary Nebula 1.4 Aquarius 8
C56 NGC 246 Skull Nebula [9] NGC 246.jpg Planetary Nebula 1.6 Cetus 8
C57 NGC 6822 Barnard's Galaxy NGC6822.jpg Barred irregular galaxy 2,300 Sagittarius 9
C58 NGC 2360 Caroline's Cluster NGC2360 - SDSS DR14 (panorama).jpg Open Cluster 3.7 Canis Major 7.2
C59 NGC 3242 Ghost of Jupiter NGC 3242 "Ghost of Jupiter".png Planetary Nebula 1.4 Hydra 9
C60 NGC 4038 Antennae Galaxies NGC4038 Large 01.jpg Interacting galaxy 83,000 Corvus 10.7
C61 NGC 4039 Antennae Galaxies NGC4038 Large 01.jpg Interacting galaxy 83,000 Corvus 13
C62 NGC 247   Spiral Galaxy 6,800 Cetus 8.9
C63 NGC 7293 Helix Nebula NGC 7293.jpg Planetary Nebula 0.522 Aquarius 7.3
C64 NGC 2362 Tau Canis Majoris Cluster Starshine in Canis Major NGC 2362.tif Open Cluster and Nebula 5.1 Canis Major 4.1
C65 NGC 253 Sculptor Galaxy Ngc253 2mass barred spiral.jpg Spiral Galaxy 9,800 Sculptor 7.1
C66 NGC 5694   NGC 5694.jpg Globular Cluster 113 Hydra 10.2
C67 NGC 1097   NGC1097 - ESO - eso0438d.jpg Barred Spiral Galaxy 47,000 Fornax 9.3
C68 NGC 6729 R CrA Nebula NGC 6729.jpg Nebula 0.424 Corona Australis -
C69 NGC 6302 Bug Nebula NGC 6302 Hubble 2009.full.jpg Planetary Nebula 5.2 Scorpius 13
C70 NGC 300   View of the southern spiral NGC 300.jpg Spiral Galaxy 3,900 Sculptor 9
C71 NGC 2477   NGC2477.jpg Open Cluster 3.7 Puppis 5.8
C72 NGC 55   Irregular Galaxy NGC 55 (ESO 0914a).jpg Barred Spiral Galaxy 4,200 Sculptor 8
C73 NGC 1851   PIA07908.jpg Globular Cluster 39.4 Columba 7.3
C74 NGC 3132 Eight Burst Nebula NGC 3132.jpg Planetary Nebula 2 Vela 8
C75 NGC 6124   NGC 6124 large.png Open Cluster 1.5 Scorpius 5.8
C76 NGC 6231   NGC6231 Chandra.jpg Open Cluster and Nebula 6 Scorpius 2.6
C77 NGC 5128 Centaurus A NGC 5128 galaxy.jpg Elliptical or Lenticular Galaxy 16,000 Centaurus 7
C78 NGC 6541   NGC 6541 hst 12516 R814G555B390.png Globular Cluster 22.3 Corona Australis 6.6
C79 NGC 3201   NGC 3201.jpg Globular Cluster 17 Vela 6.8
C80 NGC 5139 Omega Centauri Omega Centauri by ESO.jpg Globular Cluster 17.3 Centaurus 3.7
C81 NGC 6352   NGC 6352.jpg Globular Cluster 18.6 Ara 8.2
C82 NGC 6193   Rgb-ngc6193.jpg Open Cluster 4.3 Ara 5.2
C83 NGC 4945   Spiral Galaxy NGC 4945.jpg Barred Spiral Galaxy 17,000 Centaurus 9
C84 NGC 5286   NGC 5286 hlsp acsggct hst acs-wfc R606 hst 13297 B336.png Globular Cluster 36 Centaurus 7.6
C85 IC 2391 Omicron Velorum Cluster IC 2391 in Vele.jpg Open Cluster 0.5 Vela 2.5
C86 NGC 6397   NGC 6397 (ESO).jpg Globular Cluster 7.5 Ara 5.7
C87 NGC 1261   Ngc 1261.jpg Globular Cluster 55.5 Horologium 8.4
C88 NGC 5823   NGC 5823.png Open Cluster 3.4 Circinus 7.9
C89 NGC 6087[note 1] S Normae Cluster NGC 6087 full.png Open Cluster 3.3 Norma 5.4
C90 NGC 2867   NGC 2867HST.jpg Planetary Nebula 5.5 Carina 10
C91 NGC 3532 Wishing Well Cluster Eso1439a.jpg Open Cluster 1.6 Carina 3
C92 NGC 3372 Eta Carinae Nebula Carina Nebula.jpg Nebula 7.5 Carina 3
C93 NGC 6752 Great Peacock Globular [10] Star cluster NGC 6752.jpg Globular Cluster 13 Pavo 5.4
C94 NGC 4755 Jewel Box A Snapshot of the Jewel Box cluster with the ESO VLT.jpg Open Cluster 4.9 Crux 4.2
C95 NGC 6025   NGC 6025.jpg Open Cluster 2.5 Triangulum Australe 5.1
C96 NGC 2516 Southern Beehive Cluster NGC 2516.jpg Open Cluster 1.3 Carina 3.8
C97 NGC 3766 Pearl Cluster Star cluster NGC 3766.jpg Open Cluster 5.8 Centaurus 5.3
C98 NGC 4609   NGC 4609 large.png Open Cluster 4.2 Crux 6.9
C99 - Coalsack Nebula Coalsack-ESO-B06.jpg Dark Nebula 0.61 Crux -
C100 IC 2944 Lambda Centauri Nebula The Very Large Telescope Snaps a Stellar Nursery and Celebrates Fifteen Years of Operations.jpg Open Cluster and Nebula 6 Centaurus 4.5
C101 NGC 6744   Wide Field Imager view of a Milky Way look-alike NGC 6744.jpg Spiral Galaxy 34,000 Pavo 9
C102 IC 2602 Theta Car Cluster The Southern Pleiades (IC 2602).jpg Open Cluster 0.492 Carina 1.9
C103 NGC 2070 Tarantula Nebula Tarantula Nebula TRAPPIST.jpg Open Cluster and Nebula 170 Dorado 8.2
C104 NGC 362   GALEX image of NGC 362.jpg Globular Cluster 27.7 Tucana 6.6
C105 NGC 4833   NGC 4833 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Globular Cluster 19.6 Musca 7.4
C106 NGC 104 47 Tucanae New VISTA snap of star cluster 47 Tucanae.jpg Globular Cluster 14.7 Tucana 4
C107 NGC 6101   NGC 6101.jpg Globular Cluster 49.9 Apus 9.3
C108 NGC 4372   NGC 4372 in Musca.jpg Globular Cluster 18.9 Musca 7.8
C109 NGC 3195   Ngc3195.jpg Planetary Nebula 5.4 Chamaeleon 11.6
Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
  1. ^ C89 was mistakenly written as NGC 6067 in the original, but its description is that of NGC 6087.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g O'Meara, Stephen James (2002). The Caldwell Objects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82796-6.
  2. ^ "Caldwell Club Introduction". Retrieved 2006-09-08.
  3. ^ a b Moore, Patrick (December 1995). "Beyond Messier: The Caldwell Catalogue". Sky & Telescope: 38. Archived from the original (subscription required) on 2009-01-16. Retrieved 2006-08-29.
  4. ^ Mobberley, Martin (2009). The Caldwell Objects and How to Observe Them. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4419-0325-9.
  5. ^ Jones, Kenneth Glyn (1991). "Introduction". Messier's Nebulae & Star Clusters. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–8. ISBN 0-521-37079-5.
  6. ^ "Hubble's Hidden Galaxy". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  7. ^ Deep-Sky Companions: The Caldwell Objects, 2nd Edition, Stephen James O'Meara, 2016, p.181
  8. ^ "The Rosette Nebula In Hubble Palette". Sky & Telescope. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  9. ^ "The Night Sky", Astronomy Now, Oct 2008.
  10. ^ Chadwick, S; Cooper, I. Imaging the Southern Sky. New York: Springer. p. 242. ISBN 1461447496.

External links[edit]