Caleb Carr

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Caleb Carr
Born (1955-08-02) August 2, 1955 (age 61)
Manhattan, New York, US
Occupation Historian and Author
Nationality American
Education BA, Military and Diplomatic History
Alma mater New York University
Genre Historical Thrillers, Military and Diplomatic History, Terrorism
Notable works The Alienist, The Angel of Darkness, The Lessons of Terror: A History of Warfare Against Civilians
Notable awards The Anthony Award for The Alienist

Caleb Carr is a military historian and author born August 2, 1955 in New York, New York.[1][2] Carr is the second of three sons born to Lucien Carr and Francesca Von Hartz.[3] He is the critically acclaimed author of The Alienist, The Angel of Darkness, The Lessons of Terror, Killing Time, The Devil Soldier, The Italian Secretary, and The Legend of Broken. He has taught military history at Bard College, and worked extensively in film, television, and the theater. His military and political writings have appeared in numerous magazines and periodicals, among them The Washington Post, The New York Times, and The Wall Street Journal. He lives in upstate New York.[4]

"I wanted nothing less than to be a fiction writer when I was a kid"—Caleb Carr [5]

Early years and education[edit]

Born August 2, 1955 in Manhattan, Carr grew up between Greenwich Village and the Lower East Side.[6] He is the second of three sons born to Lucien Carr and Francesca Von Hartz. Lucien's close circle of friends included William Burroughs, Jack Kerouac, and Allen Ginsberg, whom Lucien had known since his college days. Their frequent presence in the Carr household affected Carr’s future career, but not in the way one might expect: "They were noisy drunks that were a disruption", he said in a 2005 interview. "They made me determined never to be a fiction writer."[7]

Carr received his primary education from St. Luke’s School in Greenwich Village and his secondary education from Friends Seminary, also in downtown New York City.[8] Carr’s interests in military history didn’t help him fit in at Friends Seminary, a Quaker school. He was an excellent student, but was guilty of pranks like setting off cherry bombs in the school lavatories. When he discovered that his school transcript was marked "Socially Undesirable", he was "stunned. We had guys in our school who dealt opium and cocaine out of their lockers, and the teacher would take them aside and have conversations…" The designation was enough to keep him out of Harvard.[3] He attended Kenyon College, in Gambier, Ohio, from 1973-1975 and returned to New York City in 1975 to complete his education at New York University, where in 1977, he was awarded a Bachelor of Arts in Military and Diplomatic History.[8][9][10][11]

Much of Carr’s fiction deals with violence perpetrated by people whose behavior has its origins in childhood abuse.[12][13] These stories are rooted Carr's family history. The author's father, Lucien Carr, was born in 1925 in New York City. Lucien's parents separated when he was five, and the balance of his childhood was spent in St. Louis, where both the elder Carrs, Russell and Marion, had been born to socially prominent families.[14] When he was 12 or 13, Lucien met 28-year-old Scout Leader David Kammerer, who developed a romantic passion for him and who sexually abused Carr from the time they met.[15] Kammerer followed Lucien wherever the younger man went—including moves to out-of-state schools. Eventually, the two landed in New York City.[5] Lucien had left Chicago University after a failed suicide attempt, which he tried to pass off as a piece of performance art, and enrolled at Columbia University.[16] Kammerer followed him and took up residence in the West Village, not far from where his friend William Burroughs was by then living. While at Columbia, Carr met Allen Ginsberg and, through another friend, Jack Kerouac. Lucien in turn introduced the two men to one another and to Burroughs. This circle of friends, with Lucien Carr at its hub, became the nucleus of the Beat Generation. On the outside looking in was David Kammerer.[15][17]

Accounts of the Lucien Carr/David Kammerer story have varied widely. Whatever the truths behind their relationship were, it ended on August 13, 1944 in New York's Riverside Park. Carr stabbed Kammerer to death with a Boy Scout knife and dumped his body into the Hudson River.[18] Afterwards he went to Burroughs, who told him to turn himself in to the police. Carr instead sought out Kerouac, who helped him dispose of the murder weapon. Then the two went to a movie.[16] Finally, Carr went to the New York District Attorney's office. He was charged with second degree murder, pleaded guilty to first degree manslaughter, and was sentenced to one-to-twenty years in prison, with a recommendation from the judge for psychiatric treatment.[14] He served almost two years of his sentence before being released on parole. Kerouac and Burroughs were arrested as material witnesses but soon were released.[19] The trial received a great deal of media attention in its day and thrust several of the principals—Burroughs, Kerouac, and Ginsberg—into the spotlight.[15]

After his release from prison Lucien went to work for United Press (later United Press International). While there he met and married reporter Francesca von Hartz, and the couple had three sons: Simon, Caleb, and Ethan. From 1946 until his retirement in 1993, Carr rose steadily through the ranks from copy boy to manager of the world news desk.[3]

Lucien inflicted physical and emotional abuse upon his wife and children. Caleb remembers being singled out for his father's beatings: "He was enormously threatened by me, from the time I was a child—threatened by my tendency to speak what I perceived. Alcoholics don't tend to like children like that." The physical and verbal abuse fueled by alcohol and rage didn't stop even after Caleb's parents divorced when he was eight.[20]

Carr didn't learn about his father's crime until he was 18. He recalls being shocked, "but not exactly surprised".[20]

The frequent presence of Kerouac, Ginsberg, and Burroughs in the Carr home was a "little unnerving". "They could be perfectly nice people one-to-one", Carr told Salon in a 1997 interview. "Kerouac was a very nice man. Allen could be a very nice guy. Burroughs was a little strange for a child. But they weren't children people. You needed to be grown up to be around them if you wanted to not be terrified. What they were up to was not gonna make any child reassured."[5]

After the Carrs' divorce Kerouac proposed marriage to Caleb's mother, but she turned him down and afterwards married writer John Speicher. Carr's new stepfather was another heavy drinker, and Carr made weekly visits to Lucien. "There was a lot of craziness in the family," Carr remembers, "and a lot of alcoholism among the adults." Speicher had three daughters from a previous marriage, and they and the three Carr brothers bonded, a group that Caleb would label "the dark Brady Bunch". They spent most summers at a house in upstate New York, originally bought by Carr’s maternal grandparents, then owned by his mother.[21] "When the adults weren't around it was a place of great solace. When they were, it was a place of great exploration because being in the house too much wasn't an option."[3]

Likewise, when the family was back in New York, Caleb spent as much time as possible away from their apartment.[22] Among his favorite havens, other than the streets of Manhattan themselves, were the city's movie theaters. He at first preferred classic and then war movies, and became increasingly interested in military history. "Part of it was a desire to find violence that was, in the first place, directed toward some sort of purposeful end, and second, governed by a definable ethical code. And I think it's fairly obvious why I would want to do that," he told New York Magazine in 1994.[3]

Career - chronological detail[edit]

Carr first went to work for The Council of Foreign Relations after high school as a library assistant, and rose during his college year summers (and a semester off) to research assistant.[23] He also wrote freelance articles on global issues.[8] During this period, he published his first nationally noticed broadside: a long indictment, published on the letters page of the New York Times, of Henry Kissinger’s foreign policy.[24] This assisted noted historian and expert on U.S. foreign policy James Chace in helping Carr, after he left New York University, to get a job as a researcher and editorial assistant for the Foreign Affairs Quarterly,[25] where Chace was managing editor. A longtime friend of John Speicher, Chace had known Carr since he was nine and became his mentor. "Because of his difficult upbringing, Caleb didn't trust many adults," Chace told New York magazine in 1994. "I became the exception because he sensed I was on his side."

In 1980, Carr left Foreign Affairs to fine-tune and publish his first novel, Casing the Promised Land, a coming of age story about three young men in New York City. It was dedicated to "Everyone who fed me and to: James Chace." Nearly 20 years after Casing the Promised Land was published, the extreme prices that book dealers were offering for the volume forced Carr to post this "self-criticism" on the book’s Amazon.com page: "I am the author of this book. It has a few good scenes, but is essentially ‘roman a clef’ nonsense that every writer has to get out of his system early on. Do yourself a favor and read ANYTHING else I’ve written (you’ll be doing me a favor, too). Forgive the follies of youth."[26]

James Chace brought Carr on to organize and edit his acclaimed book, Endless War,[27] dealing with the crisis in Central America, which Carr then covered as a freelance journalist for the Berkshire Eagle and The New York Times.[8][25] In 1988 Carr and Chace co-authored America Invulnerable: The Quest for Absolute Security from 1812 to Star Wars,[28] an unprecedented and highly-acclaimed study of America’s traditional and unequivocal approach to national security, beginning with the Founders. From the book: "For More than two centuries, the United States has aspired to a condition of perfect safety from foreign threats. Alarmed by even potential dangers to the nation’s security, Americans have forcefully responded to both real and imagined assaults against our own borders as well as against those of foreign nations and provinces whose security we have seen as either strategically or politically linked to our own…Yet the goal of absolute security has constantly eluded us."

That same year Carr became a contributing editor to MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History. This relationship continued until 2008.[8][9]

In 1991 Carr published The Devil Soldier: The Story of Frederick Townsend Ward, the American Soldier of Fortune Who Became a God in China,[29] a biography, and the first of his books to receive wide recognition.[3] According to the New York Times, "by marshaling his scholarship well and setting it out as an adventure story, Mr. Carr gives a good picture of the buccaneering milieu of the time, and makes a plausible case for the devil soldier being on the side of the angels."[30]

Carr was also active in Hollywood in the 80’s and 90’s as a screenwriter and producer. He wrote one movie for television, Bad Attitudes (1991), but the revision and execution of his script deeply disappointed him.[3][12][31]

Carr returned to New York to begin researching and writing what would prove his breakthrough novel, The Alienist, published in 1994. The book became an international bestseller and has been translated into more than 24 languages. Winner of the 1995 Anthony Award[32] for best first novel (although technically it was his second), the book, set in 1896 New York City follows the exploits of a small band of individuals determined to catch a serial killer. The book was also nominated for the 1995 Bram Stoker award.[33]

Carr’s lifelong interest in violence, which initially fed his study of military history, expanded into a study of serial killers with the advent of the Son of Sam murders of 1976-1977.[3] (Once again, this was not a mere fascination with brutality, but with the underlying causes of violence and with people—especially military leaders—who seek to limit killing.) Later, as The Alienist began taking shape in his imagination, Carr immersed himself in the history of the New York City neighborhoods in which he had grown up and biographies of its notable figures of the Nineteenth century.[9] He also sought the counsel, during a series of meetings, with Dr. David Abrahamsen, the psychiatrist who examined David Berkowitz after his capture and "unraveled the mind" of the Son of Sam killer.[3]

From the cover: "On a cold March night New York Times crime reporter John Schuyler Moore is summoned to the East River by his friend and former Harvard classmate Dr. Laszlo Kreizler, a psychologist, or "alienist." On the unfinished Williamsburg Bridge, they view the horribly mutilated body of an adolescent boy, a prostitute from one of Manhattan’s infamous brothels. The newly appointed police commissioner, Theodore Roosevelt, in a highly unorthodox move, enlists the two men in the murder investigation, counting on the reserved Kreizler’s intellect and Moore’s knowledge of New York’s vast criminal underworld. They are joined by Sara Howard, a brave and determined woman who works as a secretary in the police department. Laboring in secret (for alienists, and the emerging discipline of psychology, are viewed by the public with skepticism at best), the unlikely team embarks on what is a revolutionary effort in criminology—amassing a psychological profile of the man they’re looking for based on the details of his crimes. Their dangerous quest takes them into the tortured past and twisted mind of a murderer who has killed before…and will kill again before the hunt is over." Carr sold the movie rights for The Alienist to Paramount based on an early draft of the book.[3]

Returning to Hollywood, Carr wrote the pilot for a dystopian vision of the far future, The Osiris Chronicles, for Paramount Television. After a vigorous auction, sale of the broadcast rights went to CBS. Once again, however, the execution of the production was deeply disappointing to Carr, and the show was not picked up. Consulted by Paramount TV as to what could be done to salvage the pilot, Carr told Paramount that, if left to work on his own with the assistant editor, he could produce a new cut of the show for a television movie that would at least be moderately successful, especially abroad. Paramount agreed, and the movie, titled Warlord: Battle for the Galaxy (1998), did indeed prove a modest success, particularly in foreign markets.[31]

At the same time, he appeared on the History Channel’s Jack the Ripper: Phantom of Death (1995) as an expert commentator; additionally he was a guest commentator on PBS’s American Experience: New York Underground. He was also a featured commentator in Ric Burns’ 1999 documentary New York: A Documentary History. Back in Los Angeles, he did a page-one rewrite of William Wisher’s script for a prequel to The Exorcist for Morgan Creek Productions, producing a screenplay that attracted the legendary John Frankenheimer to direct, Liam Neeson to star, and the famed cinematographer Vittorio Storaro to shoot. But when Frankenheimer suddenly died and was replaced by Paul Schrader, who insisted on doing his own version of the script, Neeson abandoned the project and Carr, deeply disillusioned, returned to New York for the last time. He is given partial story credit for the movie eventually produced, 2003’s Dominion: Prequel to the Exorcist, although, in a subsequent interview with the Los Angeles Weekly, Carr emphasized that the movie bore little to no relation to his story.[31][34]

For his next novel, Carr brought back the principals from The Alienist to solve another serial murder case in The Angel of Darkness, published in 1997. This sequel not only sold more copies than its predecessor, it received more critical acclaim. This time, the killer at the center of the hunt is a female murdering infants. The narrator for this adventure is Stevie Taggart, the street urchin Dr. Lazlo Kreizler saved from jail years earlier. When asked about the subject matter, Carr stated, "You want to believe that there’s one relationship in life that’s beyond betrayal--a relationship that’s beyond that kind of hurt--and there isn’t. The simple fact is, if the mothers that we see in the press are doing this kind of stuff, then the numbers who are actually doing it are probably much higher."[5]

Carr had continued to write on security issues and international terrorism, which culminated in a long 1996 study in The World Policy Journal titled "Terrorism as Warfare: the Lessons of Military History."[1] The piece not only analyzed the ancient to modern path of terrorism, but also prescribed a military solution along the lines that would eventually be followed. He also published widely-recognized essays on the Somalia intervention ("The Consequences of Somalia,"[2]) on the corruption and what he saw as the immorality of the CIA ("Aldrich Ames and the Conduct of American Intelligence"[3]), and the pointlessness of trying to pursue purely "humanitarian" military interventions, which the Clinton Administration was trying to establish as a doctrine ("The Humanitarian Illusion"[4]), along with numerous other security and military policy pieces. In recognition of these efforts, Random House appointed Carr editor for the Modern Library War series. Carr is also a member of their Modern Library Board. As such, in 1998 and 1999, he participated in the "100 best" project, voting on the 100 best novels and 100 best non-fiction works of the 20th century.[35]

In 2000, Carr published his next novel, Killing Time, another dystopian tale of the future, this time the near future: 2023. First serialized in Time Magazine in 1999. The book finds a world with an abundance of information too easily manipulated, thus frequently obscuring reality. The characters travel from New York to the jungles of Africa in their quest to use such manipulation for the benefit of mankind, only to find themselves enmeshed in the central tragic paradox of their efforts, summed up best in a line from the book that is now a commonplace: "Information is not knowledge." Although some agreed with USA Today that Killing Time was "a techno-terrifying tale of the information age run amok" and "a daring departure from the successful Alienist formula, but Carr is still a master of the cliffhanger, serving up a non-stop thrill ride as the story builds to a surprising finish," many found its stark view of information manipulation and its consequences too pessimistic, and the book was only briefly a New York Times bestseller.[36]

Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, which were along the lines that Carr had warned of in his writings on terrorism, he returned to the subject, using his "Terrorism as Warfare" piece as the basis for his best-selling, highly-acclaimed but controversial book, The Lessons of Terror: A History of Warfare Against Civilians.[37] Published in 2002, this study of the history of terrorism from ancient Rome to the present was among the first to provide a precise definition of terrorism, one that has endured and made the book a landmark book in the field: Once again, reviews were extreme but mixed: some did not share the opinion of the Christian Science Monitor, which foretold correctly that, "After the deadly attacks against the United States, many Americans may now find Carr’s earlier arguments prescient and his approach the only one that has a chance of working;"[38] instead, many critics agreed with Newsweek’s opinion that, "The Lessons of Terror is so earnest, so well informed and so outrageous…that almost any reader will find something to love and something that will make you want to throw the book across the room. It is, in short, pure Carr."[39] But the work achieved the influence among military historians, one of the most eminent of whom, John Lynn, subsequently declared, in his own ensuing volume, Battle: a History of Combat and Culture, that Carr’s "insistence that Terrorism [sic] can be traced back to the ancient world and that great armies and great states have engaged in attacks on civilians designed to intimidate and terrorize them is important in both obvious and subtle ways",[40] as well as among terrorism experts, and the military and defense communities that Carr had sought; and it formed the basis of his deeper involvement in an advisory capacity for members of the government. Shortly after its publication, he testified before the House Subcommittee on National Security,[41] met privately with Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld to discuss the future of the war on terrorism, and served as a guest speaker on every major network and many cable news outlets during the American invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.

Bard College had asked Carr, in 2003, to speak on the topic of Imperial America.[42] He furthered his relationship with Bard as a Visiting Professor of History from 2004-2005 teaching courses ranging from World Military History to the History of American Intelligence to the History of Insurgencies and Counter Insurgencies.[43][44] In 2007, he again participated in the Bard Globalization and International Affairs Program’s Speakers Series speaking on the topic of anticipating counter insurgency in Iraq. On September 10, 2002, Carr participated in the Bard’s Globalization and International Affairs Program panel discussions to mark the events of September 11, 2001, discussing the repercussions of the attacks on the World Trade Center, Shanksville, Pennsylvania, and the Pentagon.[45] More recently, Bard hosted a six week academic exchange program on foreign policy with the U.S. State Department in 2013, titled, "Grand Strategy in Context: Institutions, People, and the Making of U.S. Foreign Policy." [46]

Carr had not altogether ignored fiction during this period, however: his next novel, a Sherlock Holmes pastiche called The Italian Secretary, was commissioned by the estate of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and published in 2005. The project was initially to be part of an anthology of new Sherlock Holmes stories by modern mystery writers. Carr’s short story grew too long for inclusion and the decision was made to publish it as a novel. The story involves a murder that takes place during the renovations of the medieval west tower of the Royal Palace of Holyrood in Edinburgh; the same wing where Mary, Queen of Scots had resided and where David Rizzio, her private secretary, met his brutal end. Fearing new threats against the reigning Queen, Mycroft Holmes, summons Sherlock and Dr. Watson to investigate. When asked why he took on this project, Carr responded, "I think my interest in Holmes is probably like a lot of authors'. There are authors for whom the Holmes stories are part of the beginning of their decision to become writers, especially writers who aspire to popular fiction that has a bit more to it. Conan Doyle remains, along with a few others, the model of how to do that—how to write popular fiction that has a transcendent importance within not just literature but within the use that literature has in society. There's a reason why Sherlock Holmes is the best-known character in the world. It has to do with what reading is all about. I think that authors who aspire to not just express themselves—to not just write memoir fiction, to not just do all the nonsense that's so popular in our own era—feel they have to come to terms with Holmes at some point."[47]

Carr’s next fiction endeavor, an ambitious volume he had been tinkering with since the 1980s,[48] was published under the title The Legend of Broken[49] in 2012. This work of speculative history set during a time period we know little about—the Dark Ages—imagines a multilayered tale where cultures collide in their bid to rule a kingdom where the borders of the natural world seem to almost bleed over into the unnatural, at times, although Carr was and is adamant in his declaration that the book was not a work of fantasy. The fictional kingdom of Broken occupies the part of modern Germany known as the Harz Mountains, in particular the mountain peak known in as Brocken, which for centuries had been considered the seat of supernatural doings, because, Carr demonstrates, of the ignorance and superstition of man. As the book progresses we see how the word "broken" pertains, not only to the city, but also to the characters. The book is an allegory, a cautionary tale for our own time that The Washington Post declared, "an excellent and old-fashioned entertainment… The Legend of Broken seamlessly blends epic adventure with serious research and asks questions that men and women grappled with in the Dark Ages and still do today."[50]

Carr has spent the last few years researching and writing his next novel, Surrender, New York, to be published August 23, 2016 by Penguin Random House.[51] Carr states, "This book is essentially a modern application of the principles and theories of Dr. Laszlo Kreizler to criminal behavior especially that directed at children."[52]

After many failed attempts at adapting The Alienist to film, Paramount announced, in the summer of 2015, that it had partnered with TNT to produce a TV series adaptation helmed by Cary Fukunaga, Emmy winning director of "True Detective." Carr, tentatively hired on (pending his approval of the final scripts produced) as a consulting producer, commenting, "After twenty years of tough struggle and countless failed attempts, I’m delighted that Paramount Television, Anonymous Content and TNT have decided to join forces and bring ‘The Alienist’ to life in what, based on the material I’ve read, has the potential to be a faithful and exciting TV series." Hossein Amini ("Drive," "The Wings of the Dove," etc.), Gina Gionfriddo ("House of Cards, "Law & Order"), E. Max Frye ("Band of Brothers") and John Sayles ("Bass Reeves," "Eight Men Out," etc.) also joined the Paramount Television and Anonymous Content project as writers.[53]

But Carr has consistently kept up his nonfiction writing, on terrorism, especially. In response to the continued threats from ISIS near the end of 2015 and early in 2016, for example, Carr published a quartet of essays embodying once again his roots as a noted military scholar. The first article, published in the L.A. Times, was "If France Wants to Succeed against Islamic State, it should Study the U. S. Invasion of Afghanistan."[54] That was followed by "Let Europe Lead the War in Syria: History Counsels Caution for American Troops," published in the New York Daily News.[55] Next, Vanity Fair published, "The Frantic Media Response to San Bernardino is Making Us Less Safe;"[56] and most recently, the Daily News published another essay of Carr’s called, "Strangling Isis, Slowly but Surely."[57] The last warned what Carr saw as an American public that has never fully recovered psychologically from the attacks of 9/11 that the Global War on Terrorism will never have "a Hiroshima moment," and should not attempt one; instead, victory will only be gained patiently and over a span of decades.

Career - listed by profession[edit]

Military and diplomatic historian and scholar[edit]

Carr first went to work for The Council of Foreign Relations after high school as a library assistant, and rose during his college year summers (and a semester off) to research assistant.[23] He also wrote freelance articles on global issues. During this period, he published his first nationally noticed broadside: a long indictment, published on the letters page of the New York Times, of Henry Kissinger’s foreign policy.[24] This assisted noted historian and expert on U.S. foreign policy James Chace in helping Carr, after he left New York University, to get a job as a researcher and editorial assistant for the Foreign Affairs Quarterly,[25] where Chace was managing editor. A longtime friend of John Speicher, Chace had known Carr since he was nine and became his mentor. "Because of his difficult upbringing, Caleb didn't trust many adults," Chace told New York magazine in 1994. "I became the exception because he sensed I was on his side." At night, Carr worked in the theater directing both repertory works as well as productions of his own plays. Additionally, he played guitar in a band called Hell and High Water.[23]

James Chace brought Carr on to organize and edit his acclaimed book, Endless War, dealing with the crisis in Central America, which Carr then covered as a freelance journalist for the Berkshire Eagle and The New York Times.[8][25] In 1988 Carr and Chace co-authored America Invulnerable: The Quest for Absolute Security from 1812 to Star Wars,[28] an unprecedented and highly-acclaimed study of America’s traditional and unequivocal approach to national security, beginning with the Founders. From the book: "For More than two centuries, the United States has aspired to a condition of perfect safety from foreign threats. Alarmed by even potential dangers to the nation’s security, Americans have forcefully responded to both real and imagined assaults against our own borders as well as against those of foreign nations and provinces whose security we have seen as either strategically or politically linked to our own…Yet the goal of absolute security has constantly eluded us."

That same year Carr became a contributing editor to MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History. This relationship continued until 2008.[8][9]

Carr had continued to write on security issues and international terrorism, which culminated in a long 1996 study in The World Policy Journal titled "Terrorism as Warfare: the Lessons of Military History."[5] The piece not only analyzed the ancient to modern path of terrorism, but also prescribed a military solution along the lines that would eventually be followed. He also published widely-recognized essays on the Somalia intervention ("The Consequences of Somalia,"[6]) on the corruption and what he saw as the immorality of the CIA ("Aldrich Ames and the Conduct of American Intelligence"[7]), and the pointlessness of trying to pursue purely "humanitarian" military interventions, which the Clinton Administration was trying to establish as a doctrine ("The Humanitarian Illusion"[8]), along with numerous other security and military policy pieces.

Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, which were along the lines that Carr had warned of in his writings on terrorism, he returned to the subject, using his "Terrorism as Warfare" piece as the basis for his best-selling, highly-acclaimed but controversial book, The Lessons of Terror: A History of Warfare Against Civilians.[37] Published in 2002, this study of the history of terrorism from ancient Rome to the present was among the first to provide a precise definition of terrorism, one that has endured and made the book a landmark book in the field: Once again, reviews were extreme but mixed: some did not share the opinion of the Christian Science Monitor, which foretold correctly that, "After the deadly attacks against the United States, many Americans may now find Carr’s earlier arguments prescient and his approach the only one that has a chance of working;"[38] instead, many critics agreed with Newsweek’s opinion that, "The Lessons of Terror is so earnest, so well informed and so outrageous…that almost any reader will find something to love and something that will make you want to throw the book across the room. It is, in short, pure Carr."[39] But the work achieved the influence among military historians (one of the most eminent of whom), John Lynn, subsequently declared, in his own ensuing volume, Battle: a History of Combat and Culture, that Carr’s "insistence that Terrorism [sic] can be traced back to the ancient world and that great armies and great states have engaged in attacks on civilians designed to intimidate and terrorize them is important in both obvious and subtle ways",[40] as well as among terrorism experts, and the military and defense communities that Carr had sought; and it formed the basis of his deeper involvement in an advisory capacity for members of the government. Shortly after its publication, he testified before the House Subcommittee on National Security,[41] met privately with Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld to discuss the future of the war on terrorism, and served as a guest speaker on every major network and many cable news outlets during the American invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. Then, in 2005, Carr spoke before a closed-door Defense Department conference on the prosecution of the multi-front war to end terrorism, both Islamist and otherwise.

Carr has consistently kept up his nonfiction writing, on terrorism, especially. In response to the continued threats from ISIS near the end of 2015 and early in 2016, for example, Carr published a quartet of essays embodying once again his roots as a noted military scholar. The first article, published in the L.A. Times, was "If France Wants to Succeed against Islamic State, it should Study the U. S. Invasion of Afghanistan."[54] That was followed by "Let Europe Lead the War in Syria: History Counsels Caution for American Troops," published in the New York Daily News.[55] Next, Vanity Fair published, "The Frantic Media Response to San Bernardino is Making Us Less Safe;"[56] and most recently, the Daily News published another essay of Carr’s called, "Strangling Isis, Slowly but Surely."[57] The last warned what Carr saw as an American public that has never fully recovered psychologically from the attacks of 9/11 that the Global War on Terrorism will never have "a Hiroshima moment," and should not attempt one; instead, victory will only be gained patiently and over a span of decades.

Novelist[edit]

In 1980 Carr published his first novel, Casing the Promised Land, a coming of age story about three young men in New York City. It was dedicated to "Everyone who fed me and to: James Chace." Nearly 20 years after Casing the Promised Land was published, the extreme prices that book dealers were offering for the volume forced Carr to post this "self-criticism" on the book’s Amazon.com page: "I am the author of this book. It has a few good scenes, but is essentially ‘roman a clef’ nonsense that every writer has to get out of his system early on. Do yourself a favor and read ANYTHING else I’ve written (you’ll be doing me a favor, too). Forgive the follies of youth."[26]

Carr's breakthrough novel, The Alienist, was published in 1994. The book became an international bestseller and has been translated into more than 24 languages. Winner of the 1995 Anthony Award[32] for best first novel (although technically it was his second), the book, set in 1896 New York City follows the exploits of a small band of individuals determined to catch a serial killer. The book was also nominated for the 1995 Bram Stoker award.[33]

From the cover: "On a cold March night New York Times crime reporter John Schuyler Moore is summoned to the East River by his friend and former Harvard classmate Dr. Laszlo Kreizler, a psychologist, or "alienist." On the unfinished Williamsburg Bridge, they view the horribly mutilated body of an adolescent boy, a prostitute from one of Manhattan’s infamous brothels. The newly appointed police commissioner, Theodore Roosevelt, in a highly unorthodox move, enlists the two men in the murder investigation, counting on the reserved Kreizler’s intellect and Moore’s knowledge of New York’s vast criminal underworld. They are joined by Sara Howard, a brave and determined woman who works as a secretary in the police department. Laboring in secret (for alienists, and the emerging discipline of psychology, are viewed by the public with skepticism at best), the unlikely team embarks on what is a revolutionary effort in criminology—amassing a psychological profile of the man they’re looking for based on the details of his crimes. Their dangerous quest takes them into the tortured past and twisted mind of a murderer who has killed before…and will kill again before the hunt is over." Carr sold the movie rights for The Alienist to Paramount based on an early draft of the book.[3]

For his next novel, Carr brought back the principals from The Alienist to solve another serial murder case in The Angel of Darkness, published in 1997. This sequel not only sold more copies than its predecessor, it received more critical acclaim. This time, the killer at the center of the hunt is a female murdering infants. The narrator for this adventure is Stevie Taggart, the street urchin Dr. Lazlo Kreizler saved from jail years earlier. When asked about the subject matter, Carr stated, "You want to believe that there’s one relationship in life that’s beyond betrayal--a relationship that’s beyond that kind of hurt--and there isn’t. The simple fact is, if the mothers that we see in the press are doing this kind of stuff, then the numbers who are actually doing it are probably much higher."[5]

In 2000, Carr published his next novel, Killing Time, another dystopian tale of the future, this time the near future: 2023. First serialized in Time Magazine in 1999. The book finds a world with an abundance of information too easily manipulated, thus frequently obscuring reality. The characters travel from New York to the jungles of Africa in their quest to use such manipulation for the benefit of mankind, only to find themselves enmeshed in the central tragic paradox of their efforts, summed up best in a line from the book that is now a commonplace: "Information is not knowledge." Although some agreed with USA Today that Killing Time was "a techno-terrifying tale of the information age run amok" and "a daring departure from the successful Alienist formula, but Carr is still a master of the cliffhanger, serving up a non-stop thrill ride as the story builds to a surprising finish," many found its stark view of information manipulation and its consequences too pessimistic, and the book was only briefly a New York Times bestseller.[36]

The Italian Secretary, was commissioned by the estate of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and published in 2005. The project was initially to be part of an anthology of new Sherlock Holmes stories by modern mystery writers. Carr’s short story grew too long for inclusion and the decision was made to publish it as a novel. The story involves a murder that takes place during the renovations of the medieval west tower of the Royal Palace of Holyrood in Edinburgh; the same wing where Mary, Queen of Scots had resided and where David Rizzio, her private secretary, met his brutal end. Fearing new threats against the reigning Queen, Mycroft Holmes, summons Sherlock and Dr. Watson to investigate. When asked why he took on this project, Carr responded, "I think my interest in Holmes is probably like a lot of authors'. There are authors for whom the Holmes stories are part of the beginning of their decision to become writers, especially writers who aspire to popular fiction that has a bit more to it. Conan Doyle remains, along with a few others, the model of how to do that—how to write popular fiction that has a transcendent importance within not just literature but within the use that literature has in society. There's a reason why Sherlock Holmes is the best-known character in the world. It has to do with what reading is all about. I think that authors who aspire to not just express themselves—to not just write memoir fiction, to not just do all the nonsense that's so popular in our own era—feel they have to come to terms with Holmes at some point."[47]

Carr’s next fiction endeavor, an ambitious volume he had been tinkering with since the 1980s,[48] was published under the title The Legend of Broken[49] in 2012. This work of speculative history set during a time period we know little about—the Dark Ages—imagines a multilayered tale where cultures collide in their bid to rule a kingdom where the borders of the natural world seem to almost bleed over into the unnatural, at times, although Carr was and is adamant in his declaration that the book was not a work of fantasy. The fictional kingdom of Broken occupies the part of modern Germany known as the Harz Mountains, in particular the mountain peak known in as Brocken, which for centuries had been considered the seat of supernatural doings, because, Carr demonstrates, of the ignorance and superstition of man. As the book progresses we see how the word "broken" pertains, not only to the city, but also to the characters. The book is an allegory, a cautionary tale for our own time that The Washington Post declared, "an excellent and old-fashioned entertainment… The Legend of Broken seamlessly blends epic adventure with serious research and asks questions that men and women grappled with in the Dark Ages and still do today."[50]

Carr has spent the last few years researching and writing his next novel, Surrender, New York, to be published August 23, 2016 by Penguin Random House.[51] Carr states, "This book is essentially a modern application of the principles and theories of Dr. Laszlo Kreizler to criminal behavior especially that directed at children."[52] The synopsis as listed on Amazon.com: "In rural, impoverished Burgoyne County, New York, a pattern of strange deaths begins to emerge: adolescent boys and girls are found murdered, their corpses left hanging in gruesome, ritualistic fashion. Senior law enforcement officials are quick to blame a serial killer, yet their efforts to apprehend this criminal are peculiarly ineffective.

Meanwhile, in the county's small town of Surrender, Trajan Jones, a psychological profiler (and the world's leading expert on the life and work of one Dr. Laszlo Kreizler), and Michael Li, a trace evidence expert, once famed advisors to the New York City Police Department, teach online courses in profiling and forensic science from Jones's family farm. Alone and armed mainly with their wits, protected only by farmhands and Jones' unusual ‘pet,’ the outcast pair are secretly called in to consult on the case. Jones and Li immediately discern that the various victims were all ‘throwaway children,’ a new state classification given to young people who are neither orphans, runaways nor homeless, but victims of a terrible phenomenon sweeping America's poor: abandoned by their families, the throwaways are left to fend for themselves. One of these throwaways, Lucas Kurtz, along with his blind older sister, cross paths with Jones and Li, offering information that could blow the case wide open. Racing against the case's mounting stakes, Jones and Li find that they are battling not only to unravel the mystery of how the throwaways died, but also to defend themselves and the Kurtz siblings from the threats of shadowy but powerful agents who want to stop them from uncovering the truth. It is a truth that, Jones believes, leads away from their world and back to the increasingly wealthy city where both he and his long-dead intellectual guide, Dr Kreizler, did their greatest work. But will they be able to trace the case to New York before they fall victim to the murderous forces that stalk them? Moving at the same rapid pace as his earlier books, yet with the same depth of historical and scientific research, Carr creates another roller-coaster ride of ideas and emotions. Like The Alienist, Surrender, New York brings to life the grim underbelly of a prosperous nation - and those most vulnerable to its failings."

Non-fiction books[edit]

In 1991 Carr published The Devil Soldier: The Story of Frederick Townsend Ward, the American Soldier of Fortune Who Became a God in China,[29] a biography, and the first of his books to receive wide recognition. From the book: "Frederick Townsend Ward was a young soldier of fortune from Salem, Massachusetts who had come to China in 1859 and offered his services to the imperial government in its bitter war against a hugely powerful group of quasi-Christian mystics calling themselves the Taipings. When he arrived in Shanghai, Ward was 28 years old and penniless; when he died in battle three years later, he was the most honored American in Chinese history, a naturalized Chinese subject and a mandarin…But above all, he had assembled out of the most improbable elements an army that was unlike anything China or the world had ever seen: a highly disciplined force of native Chinese soldiers commanded by western officers that was expert in the use of foreign weapons and capable of defeating vastly superior numbers of opponents in the field." According to the New York Times, "by marshaling his scholarship well and setting it out as an adventure story, Mr. Carr gives a good picture of the buccaneering milieu of the time, and makes a plausible case for the devil soldier being on the side of the angels."[30]

Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, which were along the lines that Carr had warned of in his writings on terrorism, he returned to the subject, using his "Terrorism as Warfare" piece as the basis for his best-selling, highly-acclaimed but controversial book, The Lessons of Terror: A History of Warfare Against Civilians.[37] Published in 2002, this study of the history of terrorism from ancient Rome to the present was among the first to provide a precise definition of terrorism, one that has endured and made the book a landmark book in the field: Once again, reviews were extreme but mixed: some did not share the opinion of the Christian Science Monitor, which foretold correctly that, "After the deadly attacks against the United States, many Americans may now find Carr’s earlier arguments prescient and his approach the only one that has a chance of working;"[38] instead, many critics agreed with Newsweek’s opinion that, "The Lessons of Terror is so earnest, so well informed and so outrageous…that almost any reader will find something to love and something that will make you want to throw the book across the room. It is, in short, pure Carr."[39] But the work achieved the influence among military historians (one of the most eminent of whom), John Lynn, subsequently declared, in his own ensuing volume, Battle: a History of Combat and Culture, that Carr’s "insistence that Terrorism [sic] can be traced back to the ancient world and that great armies and great states have engaged in attacks on civilians designed to intimidate and terrorize them is important in both obvious and subtle ways",[40] as well as among terrorism experts, and the military and defense communities that Carr had sought; and it formed the basis of his deeper involvement in an advisory capacity for members of the government. Shortly after its publication, he testified before the House Subcommittee on National Security,[41] met privately with Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld to discuss the future of the war on terrorism, and served as a guest speaker on every major network and many cable news outlets during the American invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. Then, in 2005, Carr spoke before a closed-door Defense Department conference on the prosecution of the multi-front war to end terrorism, both Islamist and otherwise.

Screenwriter[edit]

Carr was also active in Hollywood in the '80s and '90s as a screenwriter and producer. He wrote one movie for television, Bad Attitudes (1991), but the revision and execution of his script deeply disappointed him.[31] Carr wrote the pilot for a dystopian vision of the far future, The Osiris Chronicles, for Paramount Television. After a vigorous auction, sale of the broadcast rights went to CBS. Once again, however, the execution of the production was deeply disappointing to Carr, and the show was not picked up. Consulted by Paramount TV as to what could be done to salvage the pilot, Carr told Paramount that, if left to work on his own with the assistant editor, he could produce a new cut of the show for a television movie that would at least be moderately successful, especially abroad. Paramount agreed, and the movie, titled Warlord: Battle for the Galaxy (1998), did indeed prove a modest success, particularly in foreign markets.[31][58] He did a page-one rewrite of William Wisher’s script for a prequel to The Exorcist for Morgan Creek Productions, producing a screenplay that attracted the legendary John Frankenheimer to direct, Liam Neeson to star, and the famed cinematographer Vittorio Storaro to shoot. But when Frankenheimer suddenly died and was replaced by Paul Schrader, who insisted on doing his own version of the script, Neeson abandoned the project and Carr, deeply disillusioned, returned to New York for the last time. He is given partial story credit (and received high praise from William Peter Blatty, the author/screenwriter of The Exorcist) for the movie eventually produced, 2003’s Dominion: Prequel to the Exorcist, although, in a subsequent interview with the Los Angeles Weekly, Carr emphasized that the movie bore little to no relation to his story.[31][34]

Commentator[edit]

Carr appeared on the History Channel’s Jack the Ripper: Phantom of Death (1995) as an expert commentator; additionally he was a guest commentator on PBS’s American Experience: New York Underground. He was also a featured commentator in Ric Burns’ 1999 documentary New York: A Documentary History.[31]

Bard College - visiting professor, guest lecturer[edit]

Bard College had asked Carr, in 2003, to speak on the topic of Imperial America.[42] He furthered his relationship with Bard as a Visiting Professor of History from 2004-2005 teaching courses ranging from World Military History to the History of American Intelligence to the History of Insurgencies and Counter Insurgencies.[43][44] In 2007, he again participated in the Bard Globalization and International Affairs Program’s Speakers Series speaking on the topic of anticipating counter insurgency in Iraq. On September 10, 2002, Carr participated in the Bard’s Globalization and International Affairs Program panel discussions to mark the events of September 11, 2001, discussing the repercussions of the attacks on the World Trade Center, Shanksville, Pennsylvania, and the Pentagon.[45] More recently, Bard hosted a six week academic exchange program on foreign policy with the U.S. State Department in 2013, titled, "Grand Strategy in Context: Institutions, People, and the Making of U.S. Foreign Policy." [46]

Personal life[edit]

While Carr’s early years at home were fraught with chaos and abuse, Chase states the house was also "full of learning." He continues, "The thing is, most people tend to be narrow," he says. "But all the Carrs know music incredibly well, history, literature—they’re extraordinarily remarkable." In the '80s while Carr pursued his career as a scholar and journalist; he spent his nights working in the theater directing both repertory works as well as productions of his own plays. Additionally, he played guitar in a band called Hell and High Water.[3][12]

The late '90s found Carr expanding his literary repertoire while working as librettist for the opera Merlin, a reinterpretation of the Arthurian legends, with his friend and composer, Ezequiel Vinao. A staged recital of the first scene was performed with a full orchestra at the Paris Opera House in 1999. The work is unfinished.[59]

Carr has lived the majority of his life on Manhattan’s Lower East Side, spending his summers and many weekends at his family's home in Cherry Plain, New York. In 2000, he purchased his own property, known as Misery Mountain, in Cherry Plain; and in 2006 he moved there permanently. He currently shares his home with his Siberian cat, Masha.[60]

Publications[edit]

Books[edit]

Kreizler series

Other Novels

  • Casing the Promised Land (1980)
  • America Invulnerable: The Quest for Absolute Security from 1912 to Star Wars co-written with James Chace (1989)
  • The Devil Soldier: The American Soldier of Fortune Who Became a God in China (1992)
  • Killing Time (2000)
  • The Lessons of Terror: A History of Warfare Against Civilians: Why It Has Always Failed and Why It Will Fail Again (2002)
  • The Italian Secretary (2005); an authorized Sherlock Holmes mystery [21]
  • The Legend of Broken (2012)

Anthologies[edit]

Columns[edit]

  • 2003 New York Observer: Historical Context M.I.A.: Blame the Commander in Chief [9]
  • 2003 New York Observer: On Beholding Baghdad [10]
  • 2003 New York Observer: Handicapping Military Is Order of the Day; Maureen Is Feasting [11]
  • 2003 New York Observer: The Ferocious Spectacle in Baghdad [12]
  • 2003 New York Observer: Fear Subsuming Offensive Goals of War on Iraq [13]
  • 2003 New York Observer: Strategic Bombing Brings Ups Quandary of Military Ethics [14]
  • 2003 New York Observer: Trouble in Turkey, Al Qaeda Capture Intensify the Heat [15]
  • 2003 New York Observer: Bush's Conflict: Military Methods At War For Iraq [16]

Opinion pieces[edit]

Journal publications[edit]

  • 2007 "Terrorism": Why the Definition Must be Broad, World Policy Journal, Vol. 24, No.4, (Spring, 2007), pp. 47–50 [17]
  • 1996/1997 Terrorism as Warfare: The Lessons of Military History, World Policy Journal, Vol.13, No.4, (Winter, 1996/1997), pp. 1–12 [18]
  • 1995: Internationalism in the Age of Factionalism, World Policy Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, (Summer, 1995), pp. 67–70 [19]
  • 1994: The Dark Knight, MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 6, No. 3, (Spring, 1994), [20]
  • 1994: Aldrich Ames and the Conduct of American Intelligence, World Policy Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3 (Fall, 1994), pp. 19–28 [21]
  • 1993: The Consequences of Somalia, World Policy Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3 (Fall, 1993), pp. 1–4 [22]
  • 1992: The American Rommel, MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 4, No. 4, (Summer, 1992) [23]
  • 1990: The Troubled Genius of Oliver Cromwell, MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 2, No. 4, (Summer, 1990) [24]
  • 1989: The Man of Silence, MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 2, No. 4, (Spring, 1989) [25]
  • 1989: Poland, 1939, MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 2, No. 1, (Autumn, 1989) [26]

Reviews[edit]

  • Carr, Caleb (2002) The New York Times: Dealing With the Work of a Fiend [27]
  • Carr, Caleb (2000) The New York Times: Nor Any Drop to Drink [28]
  • Carr, Caleb (1993) The New York Times: James the Ripper? [29]
  • Carr, Caleb (1992) The New York Times: Should War Be Left to The Generals? [30]
  • Carr, Caleb (1992) The New York Times: Minnesota Death Trip [31]

Other[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Macintyre, Ben (October 12, 1997). "Gaslight". The New York Times. 
  2. ^ Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (September 29, 1997). "'The Angel of Darkness': Pursuing a Mysterious Kidnapper in Old New York". The New York Times. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l LLC, New York Media (1994-04-04). New York Magazine. New York Media, LLC. 
  4. ^ "Caleb Carr | Penguin Random House". PenguinRandomhouse.com. Retrieved 2016-06-01. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Garner, Dwight. "The Salon Interview, Caleb Carr". Salon. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  6. ^ Miller, Tom (2013-04-17). "Daytonian in Manhattan: The 1917 No. 92 Grove Street". Daytonian in Manhattan. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  7. ^ "Carr trouble - Books - Entertainment - theage.com.au". www.theage.com.au. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g "Ezequiel Vinao: Merlin the Opera (about Caleb Carr)". merlin.tloneditions.com. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  9. ^ a b c d Purdy, Matthew. "ON THE LOWER EAST SIDE WITH: Caleb Carr; Writing to Flee the Past", The New York Times, May 19, 1994. Accessed November 7, 2007. "CALEB CARR inhabits two New Yorks. There is the New York of 1994, where he lives alone in a somewhat messy Lower East Side walkup."
  10. ^ "PBS: New York City, Caleb Carr interview". PBS.org. 
  11. ^ Purdy, Matthew (May 19, 1994). "ON THE LOWER EAST SIDE WITH: Caleb Carr; Writing to Flee the Past". The New York Times. Retrieved November 7, 2007.  "CALEB CARR inhabits two New Yorks. There is the New York of 1994, where he lives alone in a somewhat messy Lower East Side walkup."
  12. ^ a b c "Time Traveler : People.com". www.people.com. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  13. ^ "BookPage Interview". www.oocities.org. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  14. ^ a b Lawlor, William (2005). Beat Culture: Lifestyle, Icons and Impact. 
  15. ^ a b c "Son of famous Beat murderer Lucien Carr disputes 'Kill Your Darlings' film's version of events". The Daily Caller. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  16. ^ a b Campbell. This is the Beat Generation. 
  17. ^ "Columbia University | Treasures of New York | Video | THIRTEEN - New York Public Media". THIRTEEN - New York Public Media. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  18. ^ Adams, Frank (August 17, 1944). "Columbia Student Kills Friend and Sinks Body in Hudson River". The New York Times. 
  19. ^ Oliver, Myrna (2005-01-30). "Lucien Carr, 79; Catalyst, Muse for Beat Writers". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  20. ^ a b "Carr trouble - Books - Entertainment - theage.com.au". www.theage.com.au. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  21. ^ a b Wadler, Joyce (2005-05-12). "Caleb Carr: Rebuilding the Past in Words and Wood". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-01-07. 
  22. ^ woodruff, wil gerken, nathan hendler, doug floyd, amy burnham, zak. "Books: Man Possessed (NewCity . 11-03-97)". www.weeklywire.com. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  23. ^ a b c "Time Traveler : People.com". www.people.com. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  24. ^ a b Safire, William (1974-10-15). "Letters to the Editor; Kissinger's 19th-Century Diplomacy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  25. ^ a b c d "PW: James Chace: Policy With Panache". PublishersWeekly.com. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  26. ^ a b Carr, Caleb (1980-06-01). Casing the Promised Land (1st ed.). New York: Harpercollins. ISBN 9780060107079. 
  27. ^ Chase, James (1984). Endless War. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-394-72779-7. 
  28. ^ a b America Invulnerable: The Quest for Absolute Security from 1812 to Star Wars. Simon & Schuster, Inc. 1988. ISBN 0-671-61778-8. 
  29. ^ a b Carr, Caleb (1992). The Devil Soldier. Random House. ISBN 0-679-41114-3. 
  30. ^ a b Kobak;, Annette (1992-01-19). "A Yank in the Manchu Dynasty". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f g "Caleb Carr". IMDb. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  32. ^ a b c "Anthony Award Nominees and Winners". Bouchercon. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2014. 
  33. ^ a b "Horror Writers Association - Past Bram Stoker Award Nominees & Winners". horror.org. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  34. ^ a b Foundas, Scott. "Hell Hath No Fury". L.A. Weekly. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  35. ^ "The Modern Library Board Members «  Modern Library". www.modernlibrary.com. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  36. ^ a b "Hour 25 - Previous Shows - November & December 2000". www.hour25online.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. 
  37. ^ a b c Carr, Caleb (2002). The Lessons of Terror: A History of Warfare Against Civilians. Random House. ISBN 0-375-76074-1. 
  38. ^ a b c Rose, Peter I. "Terrorism never works, never has". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  39. ^ a b c Jones, Malcom (February 10, 2002). "A Recipe for Fighting Terror". Newsweek.com. Retrieved April 10, 2016. 
  40. ^ a b c Lynn, John (2003). Battle: A History of Combat and Culture. Westview Press. p. 324. ISBN 0-813-33372-5. 
  41. ^ a b c "- COMBATING TERRORISM: AXIS OF EVIL, MULTILATERAL CONTAINMENT OR UNILATERAL CONFRONTATION?". www.gpo.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  42. ^ a b "BGIA | Bard Globalization & International Affairs Program in New York City | Speaker Series Archive". bgia.bard.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  43. ^ a b College, Bard. "History of Bard College". www.bard.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  44. ^ a b "Course". inside.bard.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  45. ^ a b "BGIA | Bard Globalization & International Affairs Program in New York City | Speaker Series Archive". bgia.bard.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  46. ^ a b College, Bard. "Bard Press Release | Bard College to Host Six-Week Academic Exchange Program on Foreign Policy with U.S. State Department this Summer". www.bard.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  47. ^ a b "Returning to Holmes". PublishersWeekly.com. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  48. ^ a b Donahue, Joe. "The Book Show #1280 - Caleb Carr". wamc.org. Retrieved 2016-04-22. 
  49. ^ a b Carr, Caleb (2012). The Legend of Broken. Random House. ISBN 978-0-8129-8452-1. 
  50. ^ a b Hand, Elizabeth (2012-11-26). "Book review: 'The Legend of Broken' by Caleb Carr". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  51. ^ a b "Surrender, New York by Caleb Carr | PenguinRandomHouse.com". PenguinRandomhouse.com. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  52. ^ a b Carr, Caleb (2016-08-23). Surrender, New York: A Novel. Random House. ISBN 9780679455691. 
  53. ^ Wagmeister, Elizabeth. "'The Alienist' Author Caleb Carr Boards TNT Series as Consulting Producer (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  54. ^ a b "If France wants to succeed against Islamic State, it should study the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan". latimes.com. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  55. ^ a b "Caleb Carr: Let Europe lead the war in Syria". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  56. ^ a b Carr, Caleb. "What We Can Learn from the Frantic Media Response to San Bernardino". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  57. ^ a b "Caleb Carr: Defeating ISIS, slowly but surely". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  58. ^ "Hour 25 - Previous Shows - November & December 2000". www.hour25online.com. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  59. ^ "Ezequiel Vinao: Merlin the Opera (introduction)". merlin.tloneditions.com. Retrieved 2016-04-11. 
  60. ^ "Amazon.com: Caleb Carr: Books, Biography, Blog, Audiobooks, Kindle". www.amazon.com. Retrieved 2016-04-11. 
  61. ^ Carr, Caleb (2016-08-23). Surrender, New York: A Novel. Random House. ISBN 9780679455691. 

External links[edit]