|Designer(s)||William Addison Dwiggins|
|Foundry||Mergenthaler Linotype Company|
|Design based on||Scotch Roman + Bulmer|
|Also known as||Cornelia|
Caledonia is a serif typeface designed by William Addison Dwiggins in 1938 for the Mergenthaler Linotype Company and commonly used in book design. As a transitional serif design, one inspired by the Scotch Roman typefaces of the early nineteenth century, Caledonia has a contrasting design of alternating thick and thin strokes, a design that stresses the vertical axis and sharp, regular serifs on ascenders and descenders.
Dwiggins chose the name Caledonia, the Roman name for Scotland, to express the face's basis on Scotch Roman typefaces. However, though Dwiggins began with the thought of copying the classical Scotch Romans, eventually he drew more inspiration from the Bulmer design of William Martin. The G is open and the R has a curved tail. the t is unbracketed. Italic characters p and q have no foot serif. The character set, as drawn by Dwiggins was wide, including ranging (old style) figures, lining figures, and small capitals in the text and bold weights. A Greek version of the face is available.
Hot Metal Type
Caledonia made initially for machine composition with foundry type only made later, and then only in Germany. The following variants were designed by Dwiggins and released by Linotype:
- Caledonia + Italic (1938)
- Caledonia Bold + Bold Italic (1940)
Linotype also made 36 point matrices for Caledonia Bold Condensed, but it is doubtful that Dwiggins had anything to do with their design. The face was sold by Linotype in England under the same name, and in Germany as Cornelia.
Cold Type Copies
- Caledonia — Mergenthaler, Monotype
- Caledo — Alphatype
- Highland — Autologic, Dymo, Star/Photon, Varityper
- Balmoral — Autologic, Berthold, Harris, , Varityper.
- California — Compugraphic
- CaledonStar — Star/Photon
- Edinburgh — Graphic Systems Inc.
- Laurel — Harris, MGD Graphic Systems
- Calderon — Scangraphic
- Gael — Information International Inc.
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- Hlasta, Stanley C., Printing Types & How to Use Them, Carnegie Press, Pittsburgh, PA, 1950, pp. 111-114.
- MacGrew, Mac, American Metal Typefaces of the Twentieth Century, Oak Knoll Books, New Castle Delaware, 1993, ISBN 0-938768-34-4, pp. 56 + 57.
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- Wheatley, W.F., Typeface Analogue, National Composition Association, Arlington, Virginia, 1988, p. 7 + Lawson, Alexander, Archie Provan, and Frank Romano, Primer of Typeface Identification, National Composition Association, Arlington, Virginia, 1976, pp. 34 - 35.
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