|Part of the Conquest of California|
and California Gold Rush
|Genocide, ethnic cleansing, human hunting, slavery, rape, Indian removal|
|Deaths||9,492 to 16,094 (Madley) (other estimates: 4,500–100,000) indigenous Californians outright killed, thousands more died due to disease and other causes|
|Injured||24,000 to 27,000 Native Americans were taken as forced laborers by white settlers; 4,000 to 7,000 of them children|
|Perpetrators||United States Army, California State Militia, settlers of Mexican, Spanish and other European descent|
|Part of a series on|
|Genocide of indigenous peoples|
|Late Ottoman genocides|
|World War II (1941–1945)|
|Genocides in postcolonial Africa|
|Ethno-religious genocides in contemporary era|
The California genocide consisted of actions taken by United States government agents and private citizens in the 19th century, following the American Conquest of California from Mexico, that resulted in the dramatic decrease of the indigenous population of California. Between 1849 and 1870 it is conservatively estimated that American colonists murdered some 9,500 California Natives, and acts of enslavement, kidnapping, rape, child separation and displacement were widespread, encouraged, carried out by and tolerated by state authorities and militias.
The 1925 book Handbook of the Indians of California estimated that the indigenous population of California decreased from perhaps as many as 150,000 in 1848 to 30,000 in 1870 and fell further to 16,000 in 1900. The decline was caused by disease, starvation and massacres. California Native Americans, particularly during the Gold Rush, were targeted in killings. 24,000 to 27,000 Native Americans were also taken as forced labor by settlers. The state of California used its institutions to favor white settlers' rights over indigenous rights and was responsible for dispossession of the natives.
Since the 2000s several American academics and activist organizations, both Native American and European American, have characterized the period immediately following the U.S. Conquest of California as one in which the state and federal governments waged genocide against the Native Americans in the territory. In 2019, California's governor Gavin Newsom apologized for the genocide and called for a research group to be formed to better understand the topic and inform future generations.
Prior to Spanish arrival, California was home to an indigenous population thought to have been as high as 300,000. The largest group were the Chumash people, with a population around 10,000. The region was highly diverse, with numerous distinct languages spoken. While there was great diversity in the area, archeological findings show little evidence of intertribal conflicts.
The various groups appear to have adapted to particular areas and territories. California habitats and climate supported an abundance of wildlife, including rabbits, deer, varieties of fish, fruit, roots, and acorns. The natives largely followed a hunter-gatherer lifestyle, moving around their area through the seasons as different types of food were available.
California was one of the last regions in the Americas to be colonized. Spanish missionaries, led by Franciscan administrator Junípero Serra and military forces under the command of Gaspar de Portolá, did not reach this area until 1769. The mission was intended to spread the Christian faith among the region's indigenous peoples and establish places to develop area resources and products for the empire. The Spanish built San Diego de Alcalá, the first of 21 missions, at what developed as present-day San Diego in the southern part of the state along the Pacific. Military outposts were constructed alongside the missions to house the soldiers sent to protect the missionaries.
Spanish and Mexican rule were devastating for native populations. “As the missions grew, California’s native population of Indians began a catastrophic decline.” Gregory Orfalea estimates that pre-contact population was reduced by 33% during the Spanish and Mexican regimes. Most of the deaths stemmed from imported diseases and the disruption of traditional ways of life, but violence was common, and some historians have charged that life in the missions was close to slavery.
California statehood and genocide
In the latter half of the 19th century California state and federal authorities incited, aided, and financed miners, settlers, ranchers, and people's militias to enslave, kidnap, murder, and exterminate a major proportion of displaced Native American Indians. The latter were sometimes contemptuously referred to as "Diggers", for their practice of digging up roots to eat. Many of the same policies of violence were used here against the indigenous population as the United States had done throughout its territory.
Simultaneous to the ongoing extermination, reports of the decimation of Native Americans were made to the rest of the United States and internationally.[note 1]
The California Act for the Government and Protection of Indians was enacted in 1850 (amended 1860, repealed 1863). This law provided for "apprenticing" or indenturing Indian children to Whites, and also punished "vagrant" Indians by "hiring" them out to the highest bidder at a public auction if the Indian could not provide sufficient bond or bail. This legalized a form of slavery in California. White settlers took 24,000 to 27,000 California Native Americans as forced laborers, including 4,000 to 7,000 children.
A notable early eyewitness testimony and account: "The Indians of California" 1864, is from John Ross Browne, Customs official and Inspector of Indian Affairs on the Pacific Coast. He systematically described the fraud, corruption, land theft, slavery, rape, and massacre perpetrated on a substantial portion of the aboriginal population. This was confirmed by a contemporary, Superintendent Dorcas J. Spencer.
By one estimate, at least 4,500 Californian Indians were killed between 1849 and 1870. Contemporary historian Benjamin Madley has documented the numbers of Californian Indians killed between 1846 and 1873; he estimates that during this period at least 9,492 to 16,092 Californian Indians were killed by non-Indians. Most of the deaths took place in what he defined as more than 370 massacres (defined as the "intentional killing of five or more disarmed combatants or largely unarmed noncombatants, including women, children, and prisoners, whether in the context of a battle or otherwise").
The Native American activist and former Sonoma State University Professor Ed Castillo claimed that "well armed death squads combined with the widespread random killing of Indians by individual miners resulted in the death of 100,000 Indians in the first two years of the gold rush".
List of recorded massacres
|Year||Date||Name||Current location||Description||Reported casualties||Claimants|
|1846||April 6||Sacramento River massacre||California||Captain John C. Frémont's men attacked a band of Indians (probably Wintun) on the Sacramento River in California, killing between 120 and 200 Indians.||120–200|||
|1846||May 12||Klamath Lake massacre||California||Captain John C. Frémont's men, led by Kit Carson, attacked a village of Klamath Indians on the banks of Klamath Lake, killing at least 14 Klamath people.||14+|||
|1846||June||Sutter Buttes massacre||California||Captain John C. Frémont's men attacked a rancheria on the banks of the Sacramento River near Sutter Buttes, killing several Patwin people.||14+|||
|1846||December||Pauma massacre||California||11 Californios captured at Rancho Pauma were killed as horse thieves by Indians at Warner Springs, California, leading to the Temecula massacre.||11 (settlers)|||
|1846||December||Temecula massacre||California||33 to 40 Luiseño Indians killed in an ambush in revenge for the Pauma Massacre east of Temecula, California.||33–40|||
|1847||March||Rancheria Tulea massacre||California||White slavers retaliate to a slave escape by massacring five Indians in Rancheria Tulea.||5|||
|1847||March 29||Kern and Sutter massacres||California||In response to a plea from White settlers to put an end to raids, U.S. Army Captain Edward Kern and rancher John Sutter led 50 men in attacks on three Indian villages.||20|||
|1847||late June/early July||Konkow Maidu slaver massacre||California||Slavers kill 12–20 Konkow Maidu Indians in the process of capturing 30 members of the tribe for the purpose of forced slavery.||12–20|||
|1850||May 15||Bloody Island massacre||California||Nathaniel Lyon and his U.S. Army detachment of cavalry killed 60–100 Pomo people on Bo-no-po-ti island near Clear Lake, (Lake Co., California); they believed the Pomo had killed two Clear Lake settlers who had been abusing and murdering Pomo people. (The Island Pomo had no connections to the enslaved Pomo.) This incident led to a general outbreak of settler attacks against and mass killing of native people all over Northern California. The site is now California Registered Historical Landmark #427.||60–100|||
|1851||January 11||Mariposa War||California||The gold rush increased pressure on the Native Americans of California, because miners forced Native Americans off their gold-rich lands. Many were pressed into service in the mines; others had their villages raided by the army and volunteer militia. Some Native American tribes fought back, beginning with the Ahwahnechees and the Chowchilla in the Sierra Nevada and San Joaquin Valley leading a raid on the Fresno River post of James D. Savage, in December 1850. In retaliation Mariposa County Sheriff James Burney led local militia in an indecisive clash with the natives on January 11, 1851 on a mountainside near present-day Oakhurst, California.||40+|
|1851||Old Shasta Town||California||Miners killed 300 Wintu Indians near Old Shasta, California and burned down their tribal council meeting house.||300|||
|1852||April 23||Bridge Gulch massacre||California||70 American men led by Trinity County sheriff William H. Dixon killed more than 150 Wintu people in the Hayfork Valley of California, in retaliation for the killing of Col. John Anderson.||150|||
|1852||November||Wright massacre||California||White settlers led by a notorious Indian hunter named Ben Wright massacred 41 Modocs during a "peace parley".||41|||
|1853||Howonquet massacre||California||Californian settlers attacked and burned the Tolowa village of Howonquet, massacring 70 people.||70|||
|1853||Yontoket Massacre||California||A posse of settlers attacked and burned a Tolowa rancheria at Yontocket, California, killing 450 Tolowa during a prayer ceremony.||450|||
|1853||Achulet Massacre||California||White settlers launched an attack on a Tolowa village near Lake Earl in California, killing between 65 and 150 Indians at dawn.||65–150|||
|1853||Before December 31||"Ox" incident||California||U.S. forces attacked and killed an unreported number of Indians in the Four Creeks area (Tulare County, California) in what was referred to by officers as "our little difficulty" and "the chastisement they have received".|||
|1855||January 22||Klamath River massacres||California||In retaliation for the murder of six settlers and the theft of some cattle, whites commenced a "war of extermination against the Indians" in Humboldt County, California.|||
|1856||March||Shingletown||California||In reprisal for Indian stock theft, white settlers massacred at least 20 Yana men, women, and children near Shingletown, California.||20|||
|1856–1859||Round Valley Settler Massacres||California||White settlers killed over a thousand Yuki Indians in Round Valley over the course of three years in an uncountable number of separate massacres.||1,000+|||
|1859–1860||Jarboe's War||California||White settlers calling themselves the "Eel River Rangers", led by Walter Jarboe, killed at least 283 Indian men and countless women and children in 23 engagements over the course of six months. They were reimbursed by the U.S. government for their campaign.||283+|||
|1859||September||Pit River||California||White settlers massacred 70 Achomawi Indians (10 men and 60 women and children) in their village on the Pit River in California.||70|||
|1859||Chico Creek||California||White settlers attacked a Maidu camp near Chico Creek in California, killing indiscriminately 40 Indians.||40|||
|1860||Exact date unknown||Massacre at Bloody Rock||California||A group of 65 Yuki Indians were surrounded and massacred by white settlers at Bloody Rock, in Mendocino County, California.||65|||
|1860||February 26||Indian Island massacre||California||In three nearly simultaneous assaults on the Wiyot, at Indian Island, Eureka, Rio Dell, and near Hydesville, California, white settlers killed between 80 and 250 Wiyot in Humboldt County, California. Victims were mostly women, children, and elders, as reported by Bret Harte at Arcata newspaper. Other villages were massacred within two days. The main site is National Register of Historic Places in the United States #66000208.||80–250|||
|1863||April 19||Keyesville massacre||California||American militia and members of the California Volunteers cavalry killed 35 Tübatulabal men in Kern County, California.||35|||
|1863||August 28||Konkow Trail of Tears||California||In August 1863 all Konkow Maidu were to be sent to the Bidwell Ranch in Chico and then be taken to the Round Valley Reservation at Covelo in Mendocino County. Any Indians remaining in the area were to be shot. Maidu were rounded up and marched under guard west out of the Sacramento Valley and through to the Coastal Range. 461 Native Americans started the trek, 277 finished. They reached the Round Valley on 18 September 1863.||184|||
|1864||Oak Run massacre||California||California settlers massacred 300 Yana Indians who had gathered near the head of Oak Run, California for a spiritual ceremony.||300|||
|1865||Owens Lake massacre||California||To avenge the killing of a woman and child at Haiwai Meadows, White vigilantes attacked a Paiute camp on Owens Lake in California, killing about 40 men, women, and children.||40|||
|1865||Three Knolls massacre||California||White settlers massacred a Yana community at Three Knolls on the Mill Creek, California.|||
|1868||Campo Seco||California||A posse of white settlers massacred 33 Yahis in a cave north of Mill Creek, California.||33|||
|1871||Kingsley Cave massacre||California||4 settlers killed 30 Yahi Indians in Tehama County, California about two miles from Wild Horse Corral in the Ishi Wilderness. It is estimated that this massacre left only 15 members of the Yahi tribe alive.||30|||
|Groups||Population by year|
All minimum sources below cite:[unreliable source?]
(up to 3,100)
(up to 2,000 to 2,700)
(up to 2,476)
|Nongatl, Sinkyone, Lassik||2,000
(up to 7,957)
(up to 2,760)
(up to 1,100
(up to 6,000 to 20,000)
(up to 1,650
(up to 10,000 to 18,000)
(up to 5,600 to 10,000
|Chimariko, New River, Konomihu, Oakwanuchu||1,000||(*)|
|Modoc in California||500||(*)|
(up to 9,500)
|Miwok (Plains and Sierra)||9,000||700|
(up to 70,000)
(up 10,000 to 26,000 combined with Salinan))
(up to 13,650 to 20,400
|Washo in California||500||300|
|Northern Paiute in California||500||300|
|Eastern and Western Mono||4,000||1,500|
|Koso, Chemehuevi, Kawaiisu||1,500||500|
|Serrano, Vanyume, Kitanemuk, Alliklik||3,500||150|
|Gabrielino, Fernandeño, San Nicoleño||5,000||(*)|
(up to 10,000
(up to 750)
(up to 6,000 to 15,000)
(up to 6,000 to 19,000)
|Halchidhoma (emigrated since 1800)||1,000
(up to 2,500)
|Total of groups marked (*)||..........||450|
|Less river Yumans in Arizona||3,000
(up to 4,000)
|Non-Californian Indians now in California||..........||350|
|Affiliation doubtful or not reported||..........||1,000|
(up to 230,407 to 301,233)
Call for tribunals
Native American scholar Gerald Vizenor has argued in the early 21st century for universities to be authorized to assemble tribunals to investigate these events. He notes that United States federal law contains no statute of limitations on war crimes and crimes against humanity, including genocide. He says:
Genocide tribunals would provide venues of judicial reason and equity that reveal continental ethnic cleansing, mass murder, torture, and religious persecution, past and present, and would justly expose, in the context of legal competition for evidence, the inciters, falsifiers, and deniers of genocide and state crimes against Native American Indians. Genocide tribunals would surely enhance the moot court programs in law schools and provide more serious consideration of human rights and international criminal cases by substantive testimony, motivated historical depositions, documentary evidence, contentious narratives, and ethical accountability.
Vizenor believes that, in accordance with international law, the universities of South Dakota, Minnesota, and California Berkeley ought to establish tribunals to hear evidence and adjudicate crimes against humanity alleged to have taken place in their individual states. Attorney Lindsay Glauner has also argued for such tribunals.
Apology by California's governor
In a speech before representatives of Native American peoples in June, 2019, California governor Gavin Newsom apologized for the genocide. Newsom said, "That’s what it was, a genocide. No other way to describe it. And that’s the way it needs to be described in the history books." After hearing testimony, a Truth and Healing Council will clarify the historical record on the relationship between the state and California Native Americans.
- California Indian Wars
- California mission clash of cultures
- Genocide of indigenous peoples
- List of Indian massacres
- Trail of Tears
- Long Walk of the Navajo
- 1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic
- Comanche campaign
- Yavapai Wars
- Northern Cheyenne Exodus
- Aboriginal Americans. Quote: "Dr. MacGowan, in a lecture delivered at New York, estimated the present number of Indians in the United States to be about 250,000, and said that unless something prevented the oppression and cruelty of the white man, these people would gradually become reduced, and finally extinct. He predicted the total extermination of the Digger Indians of California and the tribes of other states within ten years, if something were not done for their relief. The lecturer concluded by strongly urging the establishment of a Protective Aborigines Society, something similar to the society in England to prevent cruelty to animals. By this means he thought the condition of the Indian might be improved and the race longer perpetuated." The British Medical Journal, Vol. 1, No. 274 (March 31, 1866), p. 350
- Madley, Benjamin (2016). An American Genocide, The United States and the California Catastrophe, 1846–1873. Yale University Press. pp. 11, 351. ISBN 978-0-300-18136-4.
- "Minorities During the Gold Rush". California Secretary of State. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014.
- Castillo, Edward D. "California Indian History". California Native American Heritage Commission. Archived from the original on June 1, 2019.
- Exchange Team, The Jefferson. "NorCal Native Writes Of California Genocide". JPR Jefferson Public Radio. Info is in the podcast. Archived from the original on November 14, 2019.
- Madley, Benjamin (2016). An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe, 1846–1873.
- "California Genocide". Indian Country Diaries. PBS. September 2006. Archived from the original on May 6, 2007.
- Lindsay, Brendan C. (2012). Murder State: California's Native American Genocide 1846–1873. United States: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 2, 3. ISBN 978-0-8032-6966-8.
- "The First Peoples of California | Early California History: An Overview | Articles and Essays | California as I Saw It: First-Person Narratives of California's Early Years, 1849-1900 | Digital Collections | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Kroeber, A. L. (1925). Handbook of the Indians of California. Washington. p. 883. hdl:2027/mdp.39015006584174.
- Castillo, Edward. "A Short Overview of California Indian History". Native American Caucus of the California Democratic Party. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- Downes, Lawrence (August 18, 2015). "Opinion | California's Saint, and a Church's Sins (Published 2015)". The New York Times.
- "Elias Castillo's 'Cross of Thorns' presents a bleak picture of California history". Santa Cruz Sentinel. March 16, 2015.
- On January 6, 1851, at his State of the State address to the California Senate, 1st Governor Peter Burnett said: "That a war of extermination will continue to be waged between the races until the Indian race becomes extinct must be expected. While we cannot anticipate this result but with painful regret, the inevitable destiny of the race is beyond the power or wisdom of man to avert."
- Burnett, Peter (January 6, 1851). "State of the State Address". California State Library. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
- Coffer, William E. (1977). "Genocide of the California Indians, with a Comparative Study of Other Minorities". The Indian Historian. San Francisco, CA. 10 (2): 8–15. PMID 11614644.
- Norton, Jack. Genocide in Northwestern California: 'When our worlds cried'. Indian Historian Press, 1979.
- Lynwood, Carranco; Beard, Estle (1981). Genocide and Vendetta: The Round Valley Wars of Northern California. University of Oklahoma Press.
- Lindsay, Brendan C. (2012). Murder State: California's Native American Genocide, 1846–1873. University of Nebraska Press.
- Johnston-Dodds, Kimberly (2002). Early California Laws and Policies Related to California Indians (PDF). Sacramento, California: California State Library, California Research Bureau. ISBN 1-58703-163-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 12, 2014. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
- Trafzer, Clifford E.; Lorimer, Michelle (2014). "Silencing California Indian Genocide in Social Studies Texts". American Behavioral Scientist. 58 (1): 64–82. doi:10.1177/0002764213495032.
- Madley, Benjamin (May 22, 2016). "Op-Ed: It's time to acknowledge the genocide of California's Indians". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
- Ojibwa (March 2, 2015). "California's War On Indians, 1850 to 1851". Native American Netroots. Archived from the original on April 13, 2019.
- "Crusoe's Island: A Ramble in the Footsteps of Alexander Selkirk. With Sketches of Adventure in ..." Harper & brothers. October 10, 1871 – via Internet Archive.
- Browne, John Ross. The Indians of California. No. 2. Colt Press, 1864.
- Browne, J. Ross (1864). The California Indians, a Clever Satire on the Government's Dealings with its Indian Wards. Harper Brothers. p. 17.
- Kiernan 2007, p. 352
- Madley, Benjamin (2016). An American Genocide: The United States and the California India Catastrophe, 1846–1873. Yale University Press.
- Parker, Horace (1971). The Temecula Massacre. The Historic Valley of Temecula. Paisano Press. OCLC 286593.
- Letter, Brevet Capt. N. Lyon to Major E. R. S. Canby, May 22, 1850
- Heizer 1993, pp. 244–246
- Key, Karen (September 24, 2006). Prats, J. J. (ed.). "Bloody Island (Bo-no-po-ti)". The Historical Marker Database. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- Heizer, Robert; Sturtevant, William, eds. (1978). Handbook of North American Indians. 8: California. Smithsonian Institution. pp. 324–325. ISBN 978-0-16-004574-5.
- Norton 1979, pp. 51–54
- Thrapp, Dan L (1991). "Schonchin John". Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography. III: P–Z. University of Nebraska Press. p. 1276. ISBN 978-0-8032-9420-2.
- Collins, James (1997). Understanding Tolowa Histories: Western Hegemonies and Native American Responses. Routledge. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-41591-2082.
- Thornton 1990, p. 206
- Norton 1979
- Norton 1979, pp. 56–57
- Heizer 1993, Letter, Bvt. 2nd Lieut. John Nugens to Lieut T. Wright, December 31, 1853, pp. 12–13.
- Heizer 1993, Crescent City Herald, quoted in Sacramento newspaper., pp. 35–36
- Madley 2012b, pp. 21–22
- Madley, Benjamin (Autumn 2008). "California's Yuki Indians: Defining Genocide in Native American History". Western Historical Quarterly. 39 (3): 317–318. doi:10.1093/whq/39.3.303. JSTOR 25443732.
- Lindsay, Brendan C. (2012). Murder State: California's Native American Genocide, 1846–1873. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 192–193. ISBN 978-0-8032-2480-3.
- Madley 2012, pp. 118–119
- Madley 2012, p. 117
- "65 Yuki Indians Killed at Bloody Rock". Find a Grave. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
- Heizer 1993
- Rohde, Jerry (February 25, 2010). "Genocide and Extortion: 150 years later, the hidden motive behind the Indian Island Massacre". North Coast Journal. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- Kowinski, William S. (February 28, 2004). "In 1860 six murderers nearly wiped out the Wiyot Indian tribe – in 2004 its members have found ways to heal". SFGate. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
- Michno 2003, pp. 72–73
- "Keysville Massacre, April 19, 1863 (From Military Correspondence)". Kern County Historical Society Quarterly. 4a (2): 5–8. November 1952 – via vredenburgh.org.
- Dizard, Jesse A. (2016). "Nome Cult Trail". ARC-GIS storymap. technical assistance from Dexter Nelson and Cathie Benjamin. Department of Anthropology, California State University, Chico – via Geography and Planning Department at CSU Chico.
- Madley, Benjamin (2012). "The Genocide of California's Yana Indians". In Totten, Samuel; Parsons, Williams S. (eds.). Centuries of Genocide: Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. Routledge. pp. 16–53. ISBN 978-0-415871-921.
- Fradkin, Philip L. (1997). The Seven States of California: A Natural and Human History. University of California Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-520-20942-8.
- Thornton 1990, p. 110
- Scheper-Hughes 2003, p. 55
- Thornton 1990, p. 111
- ScheperHughe 2003, p. 56
- Ishi in Two Worlds (PDF) (Video transcript). California State Parks. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 23, 2005.
- Cook, Sherburne F. 1956. "The Aboriginal Population of the North Coast of California". Anthropological Records 16:81-130. University of California, Berkeley.
- Cook, Sherburne F (1956). "The Aboriginal Population of the North Coast of California". Anthropological Records. University of California, Berkeley. 16 (81–130): 98.
- Sherburne Friend Cook (1943). The Conflict Between the California Indian and White Civilization. ... : The Physical and demographic reaction of the non-mission Indians in colonial and provincial California. 22. University of California Press.
- Baumhoff, Martin A. 1958. "California Athabascan Groups". Anthropological Records 16:157–238. University of California, Berkeley.
- Cook 1956, pp. 108, 127
- Thornton 1990, p. 201 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFThornton1990 (help)
- Cook, Sherburne F. The Conflict Between the California Indian and White Civilization. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1976. ISBN 0-520-03143-1. p. 174
- "Clear Lake's First People". Archived 2009-04-24 at the Wayback Machine (pdf) Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake. Retrieved 27 Feb 2009.
- Cook, Sherburne F. (1976b). The Population of the California Indians, 1769–1970. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Renfro, Elizabeth (1992). The Shasta Indians of California and their neighbors. Happy Camp, California: Naturegraph Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0-87961-221-4.
- Cook (1976:179)
- Heizer, R. F., and A. B. Elsasser 1980. The Natural World of the California Indians. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03895-9.
- Levy, Richard. 1978. "Costanoan". In Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 8 (California), pp. 485–495. William C. Sturtevant, and Robert F. Heizer, eds. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-004578-9
- Cook, Sherburne F. 1976b. The Population of the California Indians, 1769–1970. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, June 1976. ISBN 0-520-02923-2. pp. 42–43. Note the number of 26,000 includes Salinans
- Cook, Sherburne F. 1976. The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization. University of California Press, Berkeley.
- Cook, Sherburne F. 1976. The Population of the California Indians, 1769–1970. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- White, Raymond C. (1963) "Luiseño Social Organization", in University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 48:91–194., pp. 117, 119
- Haas, Lisbeth (1996). Conquests and Historical Identities in California, 1769–1936. University of California Press. pp. 19–23. ISBN 9780520207042.
- Bean, Lowell John, and Charles R. Smith. "Cupeño". Heizer, Robert F., volume ed. Handbook of North American Indians: California, Volume 8. pp. 91–98. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. ISBN 978-0-16-004574-5.
- "Cahuilla People | Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians".
- Luomala 1978, p. 596 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLuomala1978 (help)
- Shipek 1986, p. 19 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFShipek1986 (help)
- Franciscan missionary-explorer Francisco Garcés
- Forbes, Jack D. (1965). Warriors of the Colorado: The Yumas of the Quechan Nation and Their Neighbors. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
- Vizenor, Gerald (2009). Native Liberty: Natural Reason and Cultural Survivance. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-8032-1892-5.
- Victorin-Vangerud, Aaron (March 6, 2010). "Gerald Vizenor: "Genocide Tribunals: Native Human Rights and Survivance" – A talk given at the IAS on October 10, 2006". Institute for Advanced Study, University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013.
- Glauner, Lindsay (Spring 2001). "Need for Accountability and Reparations: 1830-1976 the United States Government's Role in the Promotion, Implementation, and Execution of the Crime of Genocide against Native Americans". DePaul Law Review. 51 (3): 915–916.
Therefore, in accordance to Article IV of the Genocide Convention , which requires all parties to prosecute those charged with genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide, attempt to commit genocide, and complicity in genocide, regardless of their capacity as a ruler or public official, in a competent tribunal within the State where the crime took place or in a competent international tribunal that has proper jurisdiction over the case, any persons or agencies that commit acts of genocide within the territory of the United States must be held accountable for their crimes.
- Cowan, Jill (June 19, 2019). "'It's Called Genocide': Newsom Apologizes to the State's Native Americans". The New York Times. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
- "Newsom apologizes for California's history of violence against Native Americans". Los Angeles Times. June 18, 2019. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- Chapman, Charles E. (1921). A History of California; The Spanish Period. New York: The MacMillan Company.
- Engelhardt, Zephyrin (1922). San Juan Capistrano Mission. Los Angeles, California: Standard Printing Co.
- Kelsey, Harry (1993). Mission San Juan Capistrano: A Pocket History. Altadena, California: Interdisciplinary Research, Inc. ISBN 978-0-9785881-0-6.
- Ruscin, Terry (1999). Mission Memoirs. San Diego, California: Sunbelt Publications. ISBN 978-0-932653-30-7.
- Paddison, Joshua, ed. (1999). A World Transformed: Firsthand Accounts of California Before the Gold Rush. Berkeley, California: Heyday Books. ISBN 978-1-890771-13-3.
- Hinton, Alexander Laban; Woolford, Andrew; Benvenuto, Jeff, eds. (2014). Colonial Genocide in Indigenous North America. Duke University Press.