California Labor School
The California Labor School (CLS), formerly the Tom Mooney Labor School (renamed in 1945), was an educational house in San Francisco from 1942 to the 1950s. Along with the contemporary Jefferson School of Social Science, the CLS represented the "transformed and upgraded" successors of the "workers schools" of the 1920s and 1930s, e.g., New York Workers School.
During World War II, as part of Browderism, Communist Party USA Earl Browder established new communist "schools of social sciences" in major urban areas. On the East Coast, these schools included names of American patriots: the Sam Adams School (Boston), Tom Paine School of Social Sciences (Philadelphia), George Washington Carver School (Harlem), Abraham Lincoln School (Chicago), and Jefferson School of Social Sciences (New York). West Coast schools used geographic names: the Pacific Northwest Labor School and the California Labor School.
The CLS was founded in August 1942, in premises above a car showroom at 678 Turk Street, and named for labor leader Tom Mooney, who had died on 6 March that year. It later moved to a 5-story building at 216 Market Street, and in 1947 bought premises at 240 Golden Gate Avenue.
The school was supported by 72 trade unions, members of the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations. Its initial program "promised to analyze social, economic and political questions in light of the present world struggle against fascism". It also taught the arts: the teenage Maya Angelou had a scholarship to study dance and drama. The school taught students on many subjects such as labor organization, journalism, music, drama, history, women's studies, economics and industrial arts. Union officials and professors from Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley taught the courses at CLS. The most popular course at the CLS called "Mental Hygiene Today" was taught by Erik Erikson. The most important history course was called "History and Problems of the Negro in America.". The school offered different kinds of services such as preparing union pamphlets and newspapers, conducting dance concerts and theatrical shows at local meetings.
From 1944 to 1948, the school ran a "counterpart" or "extension" called the "People's Educational Center" (or "Peoples Educational Center). Its head was Dorothy Healey, head of the Communist Party of Los Angeles. Frances Eisenberg of Canoga Park High School served on its board of directors. John Lawson was an instructor there. Robert E. Stripling stated that the center succeed the writers school of the League of American Writers. Sam Wood testified that Edward Dmytryk taught there. Oliver Carlson testified that William Wolfe of the ILGWU education department ran it, succeeded by Sidney Davison (sent from New York); Herbert Biberman taught there (Soviet theater), as did Guy Endore Robert Lees. Advisors included Lees, Lawson, Healey, Herbert Sorrell, Frank Tuttle, and Sondra Gorney.
From 1945 to 1947 the school was accredited for veterans' education under the G.I. Bill of Rights, and by 1947 there were 220 full-time students, among the 1800 students attending 135 classes. In 1948 the school was placed on the Subversive List and attendances declined. The school closed in the 1950s.
The largest funder of the CLS was the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU), headed by Harry Bridges. The American Federation of Labor (AFL), Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), American Veterans Committee, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACOP) also supported it.
Teachers included Oleta Yates, Jules Carson, Celeste Strack, Tillie Olsen, muralist Anton Refregier, and dramatist Dave Sarpis, and psychologist Erik Erikson. Howard Selsam and Philip S. Foner lectured as guests from the Jefferson School.
- Rand School of Social Science (1906)
- Work People's College (1907)
- Brookwood Labor College (1921)
- New York Workers School (1923):
- Highlander Research and Education Center (formerly Highlander Folk School) (1932)
- San Francisco Workers' School (1934)
- California Labor School (formerly Tom Mooney Labor School) (1942)
- Continuing education
- Los Angeles People's Education Center
- "Finding Aid for the California Labor School Records, 1942-1955". University of Michigan: Special Collections Library. Retrieved 15 April 2013. Includes several paragraphs about the school
- Gettleman, Marvin (7 October 2001). "Lost World of U.S. Labor Education: Curricula at East and West Coast Community Schools, 1944-1957" (PDF). Gotham Center.
- "California Labor School". Social Networks and Archival Context Project. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- "Biography". Official Website. Maya Angelou. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- Robert W., Cherny (2004). "East and West Coast Communist Schools". In William, Issel; Kieran Walsh, Taylor. American Labor and the Cold War: Grassroots Politics and Postwar Politics. New Jersey: Rutgers University. pp. 207–208. ISBN 0-8135-3403-8.
- Committee on Un-American Activities, United States House of Representatives (March 1947). Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States. US GPO. pp. 244, 246. Retrieved 29 October 2001.
- Investigation of Communist Activities in the Los Angeles, Calif., Area. US GPO. July 1955. p. 1786. Retrieved 29 October 2001.
- "Hearings regarding the communist infiltration of the motion picture industry". US GPO. 1947. pp. 68 (Wood), 241-242 (Carlson), 244 (Carlson). Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- Ryskind, Allan (5 January 2015). Hollywood Traitors: Blacklisted Screenwriters Ð Agents of Stalin, Allies of Hitler. Regnery. pp. 191-193 (Carlson), 234 (Davison). Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- "Inventory of the California Labor School Collection, 1942 - 1957". Online Archive of California. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- "Re: Workmen's Educational Association - San Francisco". H-LABOR@H-NET.MSU.EDU. 26 July 2000. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Jenkins, David (1993). "The Union Movement, the California Labor School, and San Francisco Politics, 1926-1988" (transcription as manuscript in PDF) (oral history interview). Interviewed by Lisa Rubens. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
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