California Proposition 11 (1972)

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Proposition 11, sometimes known as the "Privacy Initiative" or the "Right to Privacy Initiative", was a ballot initiative to amend the constitution of the state of California to include privacy as an inalienable right to citizens in "Article 1: Declaration of Rights" of the constitution.

The Proposition was co-authored by California State Assemblyman Kenneth Cory (D-Garden Grove) and California State Senator George Moscone (D-San Francisco) as a protective measure against government agencies collecting personal information from citizens.[1] Assemblyman Cory also expressed specific concern for privacy due to the potential threat that new technology had on compromising privacy.[1] Opponents of the measure argued that such an initiative was unnecessary since the courts and State Legislature already had the power to address issues of privacy.[1]

On November 7, 1972, the proposition overwhelmingly passed and consequently resulted in explicit references to privacy in the California State Constitution.[2]


  1. ^ a b c Blake, Gene (1972-10-18). "Prop. 11 Adds Privacy to Peoples' Rights in California Constitution". Los Angeles Times. p. C7. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  2. ^ Grodin, Joseph R.; Calvin R. Massey; Richard B. Cunningham (1993). The California State Constitution: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 23–24. doi:10.1336/031327228X. ISBN 0-313-27228-X.