California grizzly bear
|California grizzly bear|
|Specimen at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History|
†U. a. californicus
|†Ursus arctos californicus|
Merriam 1896 
The California grizzly bear (Ursus arctos californicus) is an extinct population or subspecies of the brown bear, generally known (together with other North American brown bear populations) as the grizzly bear. "Grizzly" could have meant "grizzled" – that is, with golden and grey tips of the hair – or "fear-inspiring" (as a phonetic spelling of "grisly"). Nonetheless, after careful study, naturalist George Ord formally classified it in 1815 – not for its hair, but for its character – as Ursus horribilis ("terrifying bear"). Genetically, North American brown bears are closely related; in size and coloring, the California grizzly bear was much like the Kodiak bear of the southern coast of Alaska. In California, it was particularly admired for its beauty, size, and strength. The grizzly became a symbol of the Bear Flag Republic, a moniker that was attached to the short-lived attempt by a group of American settlers to break away from Mexico in 1846. Later, this rebel flag became the basis for the state flag of California, and then California was known as the "Bear State."
A 1953 researcher stated, "The specific status of North American brown bears (or grizzly bears) is one of the most complex problems of mammalian taxonomy. The difficulty stems directly from the work of Merriam (1918), who concluded that there are 86 forms of grizzlies (and brown bears) in North America."
North American brown bears were taxonomically grouped as a species apart from other bear species, until DNA testing revealed that they should properly be grouped in the same species as the other brown bears. Grizzlies living in California had been classified by Merriam into many subspecies, but the only genetically anomalous grouping in North America is the ABC Islands bears.
History and extinction
Prior to Spanish settlement in the second half of the 1700s, it is estimated that 10,000 grizzly bears inhabited what is modern-day California. It is thought that the bears lived across almost the entirety of the state, save its most southeastern and northeastern corners. Probably the southernmost records for this subspecies are from the Sierra de Juárez, during the 18th century. The bears ate a diverse diet from California’s varied climates, ranging from plant sources like grasses, seeds, and berries, to animal sources such as deer, fish, and carrion – including beached whale carcasses.
Europeans' first recorded encounters with California grizzly bears are found in diaries kept by several members of the 1769 Portola expedition, the first European land exploration of what is now the state of California. Several place names that include the Spanish word for bear (oso) trace their origins back to that first overland expedition (e.g. Los Osos). As the settled frontier of New Spain was extended northward, settlers began to populate California and establish large cattle herds as the main industry. The ranchers’ domesticated livestock were easy prey for the grizzly bears roaming freely across the state. By eating their livelihood and scaring them, the grizzlies became enemies of the rancheros. Vaqueros hunted the grizzlies, often roping and capturing them to be pitted against other animals in public battles.
These bear-baiting events flourished as popular spectacles in 19th century California. Bloody fights that pitted bears against bulls often inspired betting as to whether the bear or the bull would win. One persistently popular, but false phrase origin story related to these fights stems from famous 19th-century newspaperman Horace Greeley. While visiting California Greeley allegedly witnessed such a fight, and supposedly gave the modern stock market its "bear" and "bull" nicknames based on the fighting styles of the two animals: the bear swipes downward while the bull hooks upward. In truth, the phrase’s origins predate Greeley's 1859 journey to California by at least 100 years, but the myth of the California connection persists.
In 1866, a grizzly bear described as weighing as much as 2,200 pounds (1,000 kg) was killed in what is present-day Valley Center, California. The incident was recalled in 1932 by Catherine E. Lovett Smith, and it was the biggest bear ever found in California; if its measurements are accurate, this particular bear was one of the largest specimens of any bear species ever recorded. Lovett Smith witnessed the bear’s killing on her family's ranch when she was six years old. (Other sources confirm her account of the bear, but differ as to its exact size.) Her telling of that bear is part of the oral history of “Bear Valley,” the original name for Valley Center.
Less than 75 years after the discovery of gold in 1848, almost every grizzly bear in California had been tracked down and killed. One prospector in Southern California, William F. Holcomb (nicknamed "Grizzly Bill" Holcomb), was particularly well known for hunting grizzly bears in what is now San Bernardino County. Noted California mountain man Seth Kinman claimed to have shot over 800 grizzly bears in a 20 year period in the areas surrounding present day Humboldt County. The last hunted California grizzly bear was shot in Tulare County, California, in August 1922, although no body, skeleton or pelt was ever produced. Two years later in 1924, what was thought to be a grizzly was spotted in Sequoia National Park for the last time and thereafter, grizzlies were never seen again in California.
California still has habitat that can sustain about 500 grizzlies. In 2014, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service received and rejected a petition to reintroduce grizzly bears to California. In 2015, the Center for Biological Diversity launched a petition aimed at the California state legislature to reintroduce the grizzly bear to the state. The California grizzly bear has been considered as a possible candidate for attempts at de-extinction, through the proposed use of back-breeding, cloning and genetic engineering to recreate extinct species.
The California grizzly bear is one of the state's most visible and enduring symbols, adorning both the state flag and seal. The Bear Flag first flew in 1846 as a symbol of the short-lived California Republic. A second version was adopted as the state flag by the state legislature in 1911. The bear symbol became a permanent part of the state seal in 1849. The California grizzly bear was designated the official state animal in 1953. The bear is celebrated in name and as mascot of the sports teams of the University of California, Berkeley (the California Golden Bears), and of the University of California, Los Angeles (the UCLA Bruins) and in the mascot of University of California, Riverside (Scottie the Bear, dressed in a Highland kilt). The California Maritime Academy operates a training ship named Golden Bear.
- Merriam 1896, pp. 76–77
- Wright, William Henry (1909), The Grizzly Bear: The Narrative of a Hunter-naturalist, Historical, Scientific and Adventurous
- Grisly indeed, Grizzly Island was aptly named". Daily Republic. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Miller, C.; Waits, L.; Joyce, P. (2006). "Phylogeography and mitochondrial diversity of extirpated brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations in the contiguous United States and Mexico". Mol Ecol. 15 (14): 4477–4485. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03097.x. PMID 17107477. S2CID 7336900.
- Storer, T.I.; Tevis, L.P. (1996). California Grizzly. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp. 335, 42–187. ISBN 978-0-520-20520-8. Archived from the original on 1955.
- Rausch, Robert L. (July 1953). "On the Status of some Arctic Mammals". Journal of the Arctic Institute of North America. Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology. Paper 497. 6 (2).
- Stephens, Tim (14 March 2013), DNA Study Clarifies Relationship Between Polar Bears and Brown Bears, Newscenter: University Of California, Santa Cruz
- "Valley Center History Museum". Retrieved 2018-10-16.
- "California grizzly bear (extinct)". Retrieved 2018-10-16.
- "The Brutal Bull-and-Bear Fights of 19th-Century California". Retrieved 2018-10-16.
- "Bull, n1 III.8.a." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2014. Web. 20 January 2015.
- "The History of 'Bull' and 'Bear' Markets". Retrieved 2018-10-16.
- Johnson, Brett (August 9, 2014). "Great grizzly bear hunt in Santa Paula backcountry reaps state flag icon, tall tales". Ventura County Star. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
- Grinnell, J.; Dixon, J.; Linsdale., J. (1937). Fur bearing animals of California.
- Carroll, C.; R. F. Noss; N. H. Schumaker; P. C. Paquet (2001). David Maehr; Reed F. Noss; Jeffery L. Larkin (eds.). Large Mammal Restoration: Ecological and Sociological Challenges in the 21st Century (1 ed.). Washington, D.C.: Island Press. pp. 25–46. ISBN 978-1-5596-3817-3.
Is the return of the wolf, wolverine, and grizzly bear to Oregon and California biologically feasible?
- Woody, Todd (20 Jun 2014). "A New Move to Bring the Grizzly Bear Back to California". TakePart. Participant Media. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- "EDITORIAL: Grizzly bear homecoming?". Fresno Bee. 19 Jul 2014. Retrieved 28 Sep 2015.[dead link]
- "Where are the Bears?". Center for Biological Diversity. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Platt, John (28 Jul 2015). "Waving the Flag for the Grizzly's Return to California". TakePart. Participant Media. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Miller, Craig (May 2, 2016). "Move to Return Grizzly Bears to California Will Be an Uphill Push". KQED Science. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
- Gross, Liza (June 5, 2013). "De-Extinction Debate: Should Extinct Species Be Revived?". KQED Science. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
- Trinkle, William J. (4 August 2013). "A Brief History of the Bear Flag". The Bear Flag Museum. Sacramento, CA USA. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
The flag soon came to be called the “Bear Flag” and the insurgency came to be called the “Bear Flag Revolt"
- "History and Culture – State Symbols". California State Library. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- California State Legislature (1911), "An act to select adopt the bear flag as the state flag of California", The statutes of California and amendments to the codes passed at the thirty-ninth session of the legislature, San Francisco: Bancroft-Whitney, p. 6, retrieved 24 September 2011
- Brown, David E. (1996). The Grizzly in the Southwest: Documentary of an Extinction. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2880-1.
- Merriam, C. Hart (13 April 1896), "Preliminary Synopsis of the American Bears", Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 10: 65–83 + plates IV–VI, retrieved 23 September 2011
- Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Subspecies Ursus arctos californicus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 589. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Merriam, C. Hart (13 August 1914), "Description of Thirty apparently New Grizzly and Brown Bears from North America", Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 27: 173–196, retrieved 24 September 2011
- Merriam, C. Hart (6 September 1916), "Nineteen Apparently New Grizzly and Brown Bears from Western America", Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 29: 133–154, retrieved 24 September 2011
- Hall, E. Raymond (10 August 1984), "Geographic variation among brown and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in North America", Special publication 13, University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, retrieved 24 September 2011
- Miller, Craig R.; Waits, Lisette P.; Joyce, Paul (December 2006), "Phylogeography and mitochondrial diversity of extirpated brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations in the contiguous United States and Mexico" (PDF), Molecular Ecology, 15 (14): 4477–4485, doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03097.x, PMID 17107477, S2CID 7336900, archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2012, retrieved 24 September 2011
- Solnit, Rebecca; Caron, Mona (2010), A California Bestiary, Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books, pp. 13–15, ISBN 978-1-59714-125-3
- "Ursus arctos californicus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
- "Ursus arctos californicus Merriam, 1896" at the Encyclopedia of Life
- Shaggy God – Topic: Ursus arctos californicus Merriam, 1896
- The Monarch Bear Institute
- Bring Back the California Grizzly
- Grizzly Bear National Monument (proposed)
- The California Grizzly Research Network
Data related to Ursus arctos californicus at Wikispecies