The California kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae) is a nonvenomous colubrid snake endemic to the western United States and northern Mexico, and is found in a variety of habitats. Due to ease of care and a wide range of color variations, the California kingsnake is one of the most popular snakes in captivity.
Range and habitat
The California kingsnake is widespread along the West Coast of North America to elevations of approximately 6,100 ft (1,900 m) in the Tehachapi Mountains and to over 7,000 ft (2,100 m) in the southeastern Sierra Nevada Mountains. This species lives in a wide variety of habitats, including woodland chaparral, grassland, deserts, marshes, and even suburban areas. These snakes live in Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, southwestern Colorado, northwestern New Mexico, and northwestern Mexico. In Arizona, they intergrade with the desert kingsnake (Lampropeltis splendida) and the Mexican black kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula nigrita). The species has also become invasive on the Spanish island of Gran Canaria.
Behavior and diet
The California kingsnake is primarily diurnal, but may become increasingly nocturnal during periods of particularly hot weather. In the winter, they retreat underground and enter a hibernation-like state called brumation. When disturbed, California kingsnakes will often coil their bodies to hide their heads, hiss, and rattle their tails, which can produce a sound somewhat resembling that of a rattlesnake. They are considered harmless to humans, but if handled it is common for this species to bite, as well as excrete musk and fecal contents from their cloaca.
California kingsnakes are opportunistic feeders and common food items include rodents, birds, other reptiles and amphibians. All kingsnakes are non-venomous, but are powerful constrictors and generally kill their prey through suffocation. The "king" in their name refers to their propensity to hunt and eat other snakes, including venomous rattlesnakes, that are commonly indigenous to their natural habitat. California kingsnakes are naturally resistant to the venom of rattlesnakes, but are not totally immune.
As was discovered in studies of kingsnake muscle power, California kingsnakes seem to have the strongest squeeze proportionate to body size of any snakes, like larger snakes such as the Burmese python, green anaconda, reticulated python and twice that of a similarly sized rat snake or python. This adaptation may have evolved in response to the snake's diet of reptilian prey, which needs less oxygen to survive an attack by constriction than mammals do.
The California kingsnake is an oviparous internal fertilization animal, meaning it lays eggs, as opposed to giving live birth like some other snakes. Courtship for this kingsnake begins in the spring and involves the males competing for available females. Their mating ritual begins by the male snake vibrating uncontrollably. Eggs are laid between May and August, which is generally 42–63 days after mating;in preparation the female will have chosen a suitable location. The typical clutch size is five to 12 eggs with an average of nine, though clutches of 20 or more eggs are known. The hatchlings usually emerge another 40–65 days later and are approximately eight to 13 inches in length. Adult California kingsnakes are most commonly 2.5–3.5 feet in length, and rarely exceed four feet.
The California kingsnake is one of the most popular pet reptiles due to its ease of care, attractive appearance and docile demeanour. Due to natural color and pattern variability between individual snakes, snake enthusiasts have selectively bred for a variety of color patterns and morphs. Dozens of color variations are sold in the pet trade. Wildtype California kingsnakes are technically illegal to sell without special permits in their home state of California. These increased restrictions are due to a law that prohibits trafficking native California species within state lines. As captive-bred morphs are generally exempt from these rules, the law is loosely enforced.
- Bartlett, R. D. and Markel, R. (2005) Kingsnakes and Milksnakes. Barron's Educational Services, Inc. ISBN 0764128531
- "California Kingsnake - Lampropeltis californiae". www.californiaherps.com. Retrieved 2016-04-19.
- "Unwanted Visitors: California Kingsnakes Are Overwhelming This Spanish Island". TakePart. Retrieved 2016-04-19.
- California King Snake. Rosamond Gifford Zoo. Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- Hubbs, Brian (2009) Common Kingsnakes. Tricolor Books, Tempe, Arizona ISBN 0975464116.
- Lampropeltis getula californiae – California Kingsnake Archived 2009-04-14 at the Wayback Machine. Californiaherps.com. Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- "All Hail The California Kingsnake". www.reptilesmagazine.com. Retrieved 2016-04-27.
- "Science: Reptiles and Amphibians". www.wildlife.ca.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-27.
Media related to Lampropeltis californiae at Wikimedia Commons
- Lampropeltis californiae – California Kingsnake – information and photos of wild snakes.
- California Kingsnake – information on captive care.
- DesertUSA: Common Kingsnake – information about wild common kingsnakes.
- Control of the invasive alien species Lampropeltis getula californiae on the island of Gran Canaria (Spain).
- California Kingsnake Care Sheet REPTILES magazine