Call signs in Canada
Call signs in Canada are three, four or five letters long (not including the "–FM", "TV" or "–DT" suffix) and are assigned to a variety of broadcasters. Call signs are regulated internationally by the ITU as well as nationally by Industry Canada, which regulates all aspects of amateur radio in the country. It assigns call signs, issues amateur radio licences, conducts exams, allots frequency spectrum, and monitors the radio waves.
Call signs generally begin with "CB", "CF", "CH", "CI", "CJ", "CK", "VA"–"VG", "VO", "VX", "VY", or "XJ"–"XO". The "CB" series calls are assigned to Chile by the ITU, but Canada makes de facto use of this series anyway for stations belonging to, but not exclusively broadcasting programs from, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). Several other prefixes, including "CG", "CY", "CZ" and the "XJ" to "XO" range, are available. Conventional radio and television stations almost exclusively use "C" call signs; with a few exceptions noted below, the "V" codes are restricted to specialized uses such as amateur radio.
Special broadcast undertakings such as Internet radio, cable FM, carrier current or closed circuit stations may sometimes be known by unofficial call signs such as "CSCR". These are not governed by the Canadian media regulation system, and may at times reflect call signs that would not be permissible on a conventional broadcast platform.
- 1 Assignments
- 2 Amateur radio
- 3 History of call sign allocation
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
|Call sign block|
While not directly related to call signs, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has further divided all countries assigned amateur radio prefixes into three regions; Canada is located in ITU Region 2.
Four-letter call signs are the norm. Three-letter call signs are only permitted to CBC Radio stations or to commercial stations which already had a three-letter call sign before the current rules were adopted, and five-letter call signs exclusively identify CBC transmitters (which may be either rebroadcasters or Ici Radio-Canada Télé owned-and-operated stations outside of Quebec).
Stations of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation tend to identify themselves as "CBC Radio One"/"CBC Radio Two" (English-language) or "La Première Chaîne"/"Espace Musique" (French-language) of a city, although they do have official three- and four- letter call signs. These generally (but not always) begin with "CB".
Call signs with four digits preceded by "VF" (for radio) or "CH" (for television) are only assigned to very-low-power local services, such as rebroadcasters or limited-interest stations similar to Part 15 operations in the United States; "VO" call signs may only be used commercially by stations in Newfoundland and Labrador which were licensed before that province joined the Canadian Confederation in 1949 (VOCM, VOAR and VOWR broadcast from St. John's long before confederation). Only one station, VOCM-FM, has been allowed to adopt a "VO" call sign after 1949. It was granted the VOCM calls because of its corporate association with the AM station.
All Canadian FM stations have an "–FM" suffix, except for low-power rebroadcasters which have semi-numeric "VF" call signs. Higher-power rebroadcasters are generally licensed under the call sign of the originating station, followed by a numeric suffix and, for FM re-broadcasters of an AM station, a "–FM" suffix. For example, CJBC-1-FM rebroadcasts CJBC (860 Toronto), whereas CJBC-FM-1 rebroadcasts CJBC-FM (90.3 Toronto). Some rebroadcasters, however, may have their own distinct call signs. Canadian television stations always use the "-TV" suffix, with the exception of those CBC-owned stations which have a call sign in the "CB-(-)T" format. Canadian digital transitional television undertakings have "-DT" suffixes, even where the base call sign is a CBC/Radio-Canada O&O in pattern "CB(insert third letter)T", "CB(insert third letter)ET" or "CB(insert third letter)FT" (respectively for English language or French language television). For instance, Ici Radio-Canada Télé's O&O CBOFT-DT would represent "CBC Ottawa Français Télévision - Digital Television". Canada does not use the "-LP" or "-CA" suffixes that are in use in the United States but makes limited use of "-SW" for privately owned shortwave radio stations.
For rebroadcasters which use a numeric suffix, the suffixes usually follow a 1–2–3 numeric sequence, which indicates the chronological order in which rebroadcast transmitters were added. There are some cases where television rebroadcasters are suffixed with the channel number on which the transmitter broadcasts (for instance, CIII-DT's rebroadcasters are numbered with their channel assignment rather than sequentially), but this is not generally the norm.
Experimental television stations in Canada had call signs beginning with "VX9".
The "CG" prefix is used by Canadian Coast Guard stations and ship-to-shore radio on federally owned ships. Coast Guard Radio stations have also used "VA" through "VF". Individual ships will use call signs with a Canadian two-letter prefix (such as "CF", "CY", "CZ", "VB", "VC" or "VY") followed by a four-digit number. Aircraft are identified with a prefix such as "CF" or "CG" followed by three letters. Military radio fixed stations also bear call signs in the "CF"-"CK", "CY"-"CZ", "VE" and "VX"-"VY" series. Environment Canada weather stations have call signs of three letters and three numbers, issued from various "C", "V" or "X" Canadian prefix series.
Canadian amateur radio stations generally begin with "VE", "VA", or "VY". The number following these letters indicates the province, going from "VA1"/"VE1" for Nova Scotia, "VA2"/"VE2" (Québec), "VE3"/"VA3" (Ontario) through "VA7"/"VE7" for British Columbia and "VE8" for the Northwest Territories, with latecomer "VE9" for New Brunswick. ("VE1" used to be for all three Maritime provinces.) "VE0" is for maritime mobile amateur transmissions. "VY1" is used for the Yukon Territory, "VY2" for Prince Edward Island, and "VY0" for Nunavut. "CY0" and "CY9" are Sable Island (population 5) and St. Paul Island (uninhabited); with little or no local population, reception of these distant points is rare, although amateur radio stations do temporarily operate from these islands during shortwave radio contests. Special prefixes are often issued for stations operating at significant events.
The Dominion of Newfoundland prefix "VO" remains in active use by amateurs in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, VO1AA atop Signal Hill in St. Johns being the most famous amateur station. Radio amateurs on the Island of Newfoundland use calls beginning with "VO1", while Labrador amateurs use "VO2". A popular backronym for "VO" stations is "Voice of...", although prefixes do not have any official meaning.
There are 68,000 licensed operators in Canada with call signs. Industry Canada from the Canadian federal government allots the individual call signs to the radio amateurs it licenses. There are 24 possible 2-letter prefixes and 240 2-letter/1-number prefixes available to Canadian operators based on the ITU blocks (CF, CG, CH, CI, CJ, CK, CY, CZ, VA, VB, VC, VD, VE, VF, VG, VO, VX, VY, XJ, XK, XL, XM, XN, and XO). There are potentially approximately 4,340,000 call signs available in Canada.
Of these prefixes, 5 are currently assigned (CY, VA, VE, VO, and VY) for normal amateur radio operation. Industry Canada assigns regular operating call signs from 25 prefix/numeral blocks (e.g. VE1, CY9....). The other prefixes are assigned for special event operation for a time-limited period.
For Canadian amateur licences, suffixes of radio call signs usually comprise two or three letters, the former being available only to amateurs who have been licensed for 5 years or more. Amateurs can hold only one two-letter suffix call sign, but as many three-letter suffix call signs as they wish.
There are 18,252 possible combinations of two- or three-letter suffix call signs per prefix. Industry Canada follows Article 19 of the ITU Radio Regulations by disallowing 156 suffix-combinations because they may be confused with 3-letter communications signals (i.e. Q-codes) or other combinations which can be confused with distress signals. The Recommendation ITU-R M.1172  lists groups of letters from QOA to QUZ as abbreviations and signals to be used in radiotelegraphy communications. 'SOS' is also generally excluded, however the old distress call of 'CQD' can be allocated.
For occasional special events, 1-, 4-, or -5 letter suffixes can be assigned to a licensed operator for a specific period of time.
Canada is assigned DXCC entity #1, with the exception of Sable Is. and St.-Paul Is. which are DXCC entities #211 & #252 respectively. Call sign prefixes are issued according to one's province or territory of residence by the following table:
|Prefixes||Province/Territory||ITU Region||ITU Zone||CQ Zone||# within prefix issued||# amateurs|
|VE1 VA1||Nova Scotia||2||9||5||2,986||2,536|
|VE2 VA2||Quebec||2||4, 9||2, 5||17,031||16,975|
|VE3 VA3||Ontario||2||3, 4||2, 4, 5||20,623||20,752|
|VE7 VA7||British Columbia||2||2||3||13,836||14,130|
|VE8||Northwest Territories||2||2, 3||1||113||73|
|VY2||Prince Edward Island||2||9||5||273||335|
|VY9**||Government of Canada||5|
|*||VE0 call signs are only intended for use when the amateur radio station is operated from a vessel that makes international voyages. First assigned in 1954, Canada is the only country to assign a special prefix to operators on its ships in international waters. None of the operators reside at sea, but have residence within one of the other call-sign areas.|
|**||Industry Canada lists five (5) call signs with VY9 prefix issued to individuals related to that government department. These individuals reside in or near Ottawa, as well as Sherbrooke, Quebec, and Fort Smith, NWT.|
|***||Sable Is. and St-Paul Is. are assigned separate call sign prefixes by virtue of being directly under the authority of the federal government of Canada. They are respectively DXCC entities #211 & #252. St.-Paul Is. used to be covered by the VY9 prefix and Sable Is. used to use VX9 (which is now used by experimental stations).|
|Note: calls issued do not reflect the actual number of amateurs in a call area – some amateur operators have more than one call sign, and due to lag in reporting changes some might currently be issued to an operator living in another call sign area|
Special event call signs
Typically, for national or regional observances licensed amateurs add their suffix to the assigned special event prefix as per the following explanation. An individual amateur may apply for a single special event callsign that has any of the 24 prefixes and an appropriate suffix related to the event. For instance, VA3OR received the special event call CF3NAVY from 4 June to 3 July 2010 to commemorate the 100th Anniversary of the Royal Canadian Navy. In 1973 for the centennial of the RCMP a call sign VE3RCMP was issued and used from N division in Ottawa from April to November. The operators were all members of the RCMP who were also amateur radio operators.
For the special national event commemorating the 2010 Vancouver Olympics, from 1 Feb to 31 Mar 2010 amateurs could substitute VG for VA, VX for VE, XJ for VO, XK for VY so that an amateur with call sign VE3AAA could use VX3AAA, or VY0AAA could use XK0AAA.
Call Signs with more than one numeral
Some special event call signs have been issued by Industry Canada with more than one numeral. For instance, VE2008VQ was issued for the 400th anniversary of the founding of Québec City from June 28 to July 27, 2008. Also, CG200I was issued for the 200th Anniversary of the Lighthouse of L'Ile Verte (Green Island), Québec.
Technically speaking, the first digit is the numeral separating prefix from the suffix, and the rest are part of the suffix.
Automobile licence plates for amateur operators
Canadian provincial and territorial motor vehicle licensing authorities can issue special licence plates to amateurs resident in their jurisdiction. In British Columbia, the ICBC application form clearly allows only call signs beginning with VE7 or VA7, but calls from other jurisdictions sometimes slip through.
Reciprocal agreement with the United States
Under a reciprocal agreement between the United States and Canada, United States citizens licensed by the FCC can use their call sign within Canada as long as they affix the appropriate Canadian area-prefix to the end of their American call sign. For instance, a United States amateur with call sign W6AAA operating in British Columbia would sign as W6AAA/VE7.
History of call sign allocation
The following paragraphs outline the history of amateur call sign allocation in Canada.
Before 1913 amateur and experimental operators in Canada identified with the initials of their name.
The first regulation came in 1913 which required that an operator begin the call sign with an "X" (for "experimental"), followed by the first letter of their surname. The last letter in this 3-letter code was assigned in alphabetical order as people applied for a call sign.
The Berlin and London Radiotelegraphic Conventions of 1913 assigned the block VAA–VGZ to Canada; however, amateur radio stations were not yet part of this international lettering scheme.
In 1920 a preceding number was added to the call to indicate the region within Canada the operator resided.
|1||Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island|
|4||Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba|
|5||British Columbia, North West Territories and Yukon Territory|
As international communication became more frequent, Canadian amateurs by habit put a prefix of 'C' in front of the number above, and Americans similarly used a 'U' as a prefix. On 1 Feb 1927, European countries began using a two-letter prefix beginning with 'E' in front of their regional identifying numbers. Following that practise North American operators put a leading 'N' in front of their calls, so that Canada's prefix became 'NC' and Americans used 'NU'. For example a British Columbia amateur would sign their transmissions with a prefix of NC5.
At the International Radiotelegraph Conference (Washington, 1927) Canada was assigned the ITU blocks of CFA–CKZ and VAA–VGZ. These came into force 1 Jan 1929 and amateur radio was now included in the ITU lettering scheme. The amateur radio prefix used was 'VE' which replaced the prefix 'NC', as the N series had been allocated to the United States.
Following World War II, the International Radio Conference (Atlantic City, 1947) met and refined the international call sign blocks. Canada was issued with CFA–CKZ, CYA–CZZ, VAA–VGZ, VXA–VYZ, XJA–XOZ and 3BA–3FZ. These came into force 1 January 1949. The 3BA–3FZ block eventually was reallocated between Mauritius, Equatorial Guinea, Kingdom of Swaziland, Fiji, and Panama.
The Canadian government reformatted amateur call signs according to this table.
|VE1||Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island|
|VE8||Yukon and Northwest Territories|
|VE9||Experimental, transferred to NB in 1994|
In 1949 Newfoundland and Labrador joined with Canada and the VOA–VOZ block of prefixes came with them. In 1954 the federal government made VE0 available to Canadian operators in international waters. The additions to the 1946 prefixes are summarized as:
|1949||VO1||Newfoundland||Newfoundland entered Confederation|
|1949||VO2||Labrador||entered Confederation with Newfoundland|
|1954||VE0||International Waters||for Canadian operators at sea|
|1977||VY1||Yukon||Northwest Territories retained VE8|
|1990||VY2||Prince Edward Island||Nova Scotia retained VE1|
|1994||VE9||New Brunswick||Experimental prefix transferred to NB, NS retained VE1|
|1990s||VY9, VX9||Government of Canada||Reserved for Government of Canada operators and St.-Paul Is.; Sable Is. assigned VX9|
|1990s||CY0, CY9||Sable Is., St.-Paul Is.||Now considered separate DXCC entities (#211 & #252) so assigned unique prefixes, VX9 given to experimental stations|
|1995||VA3||Ontario||VA3 prefix adopted to increase number of available call signs|
|1999||VY0||Nunavut||Nunavut recognized as a territory on Apr 1, NWT retains VE8|
|1999||VA||NS, QC, MB, SK, AB, BC||VA1, VA2, VA4, VA5, VA6, VA7 prefixes adopted|
- List of television stations in Canada by call sign
- Amateur radio international operation
- Radio Amateurs of Canada
- ITU prefix – amateur and experimental stations
- Amateur radio license
- International Telecommunication Union country call sign assignments Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine.
- ITU Zone 4 Map (Map). International Telecommunication Union. Archived from the original on 2 August 2008. Retrieved July 23, 2008.
- CQ Zone 5 Map (Map). International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved July 23, 2008.
- Weather radio transmitter lists by province, Environment Canada
- CY9 St. Paul Island DXpedition, CY9AA, June 1997
- VO1AA TPN7055.ca
- Article 19 - ITU provisions for identification of stations
- Recommendation ITU-R M.1172 Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine.
- Special call sign database - Canadian Amateur radio
- Canadian Amateur Radio Call Sign Database
- Ham Data
- RAC Call Sign Database Power Search
- Radio Stations Common? Not This Kind by Spurgeon G. Roscoe
- Radio Amateurs of Canada - call prefix page
- Archive of special events recorded by RAC
- Special event call signs from RAC
- Canadian Amateur Radio Call Sign Database
- British Columbia Amateur (Ham) Radio License Plates
- ICBC Ham radio plates page
- "Application for Personalized Number Plates/Ham Plates" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 November 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Canada - United States Reciprocal Operating Agreement Archived 2010-10-05 at the Wayback Machine.
- Amateur and Experimental call signs
- Berlin and London Radiotelegraphic Conventions 1913
- International Radiotelegraph Conference (Washington, 1927)
- International Radio Conference (Atlantic City, 1947) Archived July 10, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.