Labour Government 1974–79

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Callaghan ministry)
Jump to: navigation, search

The Labour Party, led by Harold Wilson and then James Callaghan as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, governed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1974 until 1979. The end of Callaghan’s ministry was marked by the Winter of Discontent, a period of serious industrial discontent. This was followed by the election of Conservative Margaret Thatcher in 1979. See also First Wilson ministry for the 1964-1970 period.

Formation[edit]

After the February 1974 general election, no party had a majority of seats. The incumbent Conservative party won the popular vote, but Labour took the most seats. Edward Heath, the Conservative prime minister, attempted to negotiate a coalition with the Liberal party, but resigned as prime minister after failing in this regard. The Labour Party, led by Harold Wilson, then established a minority government, which took office on 4 March 1974.

It was generally recognised that this had no long-term stability, and that another general election was likely within a few months. Wilson called another general election for 10 October, and won by a majority of three seats.

The economy was in recession by the time of the first election, but economic growth was re-established by 1976, although inflation which had run into double digits before Labour came to power was now above 20%. It would remain high for the rest of this government, rarely falling below 10%. Unemployment was now well in excess of 1 million, whereas it had been less than 600,000 at the start of the decade. This was the result of the economic decline, as well as advancing engineering techniques which required fewer personnel, along with other factors including the closure of uneconomic factories and coalmines.

In March 1976, having just turned 60, Wilson resigned as prime minister, ending 13 years as Labour Party leader and a total of nearly eight years as prime minister. He was replaced by James Callaghan, who had held senior government roles during both of Wilson's spells as prime minister and had been a shadow cabinet member in the early 1960s.

Within a year of Callaghan taking office, the narrow Labour majority was eliminated due to by-election defeats, prompting a vote of confidence which prevented the government's collapse and a general election from being called. In order to sustain the government, Labour formed the Lib-Lab pact in March 1977 and this remained in force for 16 months. This minority government also managed to stay in power with unofficial deals with the Ulster Unionist Party and Scottish National Party.

By September 1978, economic growth was firmly re-established and inflation was below 10%, although unemployment now stood at a postwar high of 1.5million and with most of the opinion polls showing a clear Labour lead it was widely expected that prime minister James Callaghan would call a general election that autumn, despite having another year to do so, in order to gain a majority and give his government the chance of surviving in office until 1983.

However, he resisted these calls and Britain began 1979 with Labour still in power and Callaghan still in charge, but his failure to call a general election during the autumn of 1978 would prove to be the undoing of this Labour government.

Major contributions[edit]

Although the 1974-79 Labour Government faced a number of economic difficulties, it was nevertheless able to carry out a broad range of reforms during its time in office. During Harold Wilson's final premiership from 1974-6, a number of changes were carried out such as the introduction of new social security benefits and improvements in the rights of tenants. In March 1974, an additional £2 billion were announced for benefits, food subsidies, and housing subsidies, including a record 25% increase in the pension. Council house rents were also frozen. Council house building continued on a substantial scale, although there was now a greater emphasis on modernising older properties rather than replacing them with new ones.

That same year, national insurance benefits were increased by 13%, which brought pensions as a proportion of average earnings "up to a value equivalent to the previous high, which was reached in 1965 as a result of Labour legislation." In order to maintain the real value of these benefits in the long term, the government introduced legislation which linked future increases in pensions to higher incomes or wages.[1] In 1974–75, social spending was increased in real terms by 9%. In 1974, pensions were increased in real terms by 14%, while in early 1975 increases were made in family allowances. There were also significant increases in rate and rent subsidies, together with £500 million worth of food subsidies.[2]

An Independent Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (now simply called Acas) (regarded as very much the brainchild of the trade union leader Jack Jones) was set, which according to Robert Taylor continues to provide "an impartial and impressive function in resolving disputes and encouraging good industrial relations practice." A Manpower Services Commission was set up to encourage a more active labour market policy to improve job placements and deal with unemployment. The Pay Board was abolished, while the Price Commission was provided with greater powers to control and delay price increases. In addition, the Housing Rents and Subsidies Act 1975 gave power over rents back to local authorities.[3]

To help those with disabilities, the government introduced an Invalid Care Allowance, a Mobility Allowance, a Non-Contributory Invalidity Pension for those unable to contribute through national insurance, and other measures. To combat child poverty, legislation to create a universal Child Benefit was passed in 1975 (a reform later implemented by the Callaghan Government). To raise the living standards of those dependant on national insurance benefits, the government index-linked short-term benefits to the rate of inflation, while pensions and long-term benefits were tied to increases in prices or earnings, whichever was higher.[4]

In 1975, a State Earnings Related Pension Scheme (SERPS) was introduced. A new pension, which was inflation-proofed and linked to earnings, was added to the basic pension which was to increase in line with earnings for the first time ever. This reform assisted women by the linking of pensions to the 'twenty best years' of earnings, and those who worked at home caring for children or others were counted as contributors. This scheme was reformed by the subsequent Thatcher Government. The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 gave women the right in principle to equal access to jobs and equal treatment at work with men, while the Employment Protection Act 1975 introduced Statutory Maternity Leave.[5] That same year, the wage stop was finally abolished. [6] In addition, differentials between skilled and unskilled workers were narrowed as a result of egalitarian pay policies involving flat-rate increases.

The 1975 Social Security Pensions Act provided for equal access by men and women to employers’ pension schemes and also included a home responsibilities provision ensuring that parents and those looking after elderly dependents could retain their pension rights in spite of employment breaks. As a means of combating sex discrimination within the social security system, the Act provided that in future married women would receive the same level of personal sickness or unemployment benefit.[7] The Housing Finance Act 1974 increased aid to local authorities for slum clearance, introduced a system of "fair rents" in public and private sector unfurnished accommodation, and introduced rent rebates for council tenants. The Housing Act 1974 improved the Renovation Grants scheme, provided increased levels of aid to housing associations (which emerged as a popular alternative to council housing for people seeking to rent a home), and extended the role of the Housing Corporation. The Rent Act 1974 extended security of tenure to tenants of furnished properties and allowed access to rent tribunals. The Community Land Act 1975 allowed for the taking into public control of development land, while the Child Benefits Act 1975 introduced an extra payment for lone parents.[8] A Resource Allocation Working Party (RAWP) was also set up to produce a formula for a more equitable distribution of health care expenditure.[9] Anthony Crosland, while serving as a minister during Wilson's second government, made a decision to reform the level of Rate Support Grant, introducing a standard level of relief across the country to benefit poorer urban areas.[3]

Circular 4/74 (1974) renewed pressure for moves towards comprehensive education (progress of which had stalled under the Heath Government), while the industrial relations legislation passed under Edward Heath was repealed. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 set up a Health and Safety Commission and Executive and a legal framework for health and safety at work. The Employment Protection Act 1975 set up the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Services (ACAS) to arbitrate in industrial disputes, enlarged the rights of employees and trade unions, extended the redundancy payments scheme, and provided redress against unfair dismissal. The legislation also provided for paid maternity leave and outlawed dismissal for pregnancy. The Act also obliged employers to pay their workers a minimum guaranteed payment “if they are laid off through no fault of their own.”[10] The Social Security Act 1975 introduced a maternity allowance fund, while the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 set up an Equal Opportunities Commission and outlawed gender discrimination (both indirect and direct).[8] In addition, the Social Security Act of 1975 included progressive noise-induced hearing loss “in the list of prescribed diseases covered by the Industrial Injuries Scheme as Occupational Deafness.”[11]

The Woodworking Machines Regulations 1974, replacing the 1922 Regulations, came into operation on in November 1974. These regulations raised the standard of guarding of the most dangerous machines.[12] Improvements were made in mine-workers' pensions, while the Coal Mines (Respirable Dust) Regulations 1975, which came into operation in October that year, were aimed at reducing the incidence of coal miners' pneumoconiosis. They prescribed permitted amounts of respirable dust at workplaces in coal mines as well as arrangements for the suppression and continuous sampling of dust, and they include a scheme for the medical supervision of workers at risk. The Protection of Eyes Regulations 1974 and 1975, replacing the 1938 Regulations, extended protection to those employed on construction sites as well as in factories.[13] In addition, the Policyholders Protection Act 1975 introduced safeguards for customers of failed insurance companies.[14]

Wilson's successor Callaghan, together with his ministers, also introduced a number of reforms during their time in office. The Supplementary Benefits Act 1976 gave every person over the age of 16, whose resources were not enough to meet his or her basic needs, the right to claim a supplementary pension if he or she had reached state-pension age, and a supplementary allowance if he or she was less than this age.[15][16] The Rent (Agricultural) Act 1976 provided security of tenure for agricultural workers in tied accommodation, while the Bail Act 1976 reformed bail conditions with courts having to explain refusal of bail. The Police Act 1976 set up a Police Complaints Board "to formalise the procedure for dealing with public complaints." The Education Act 1976 limited the taking up of independent and Direct grant school places and required all local authorities who had failed to do so "to submit proposals for comprehensive schools," while the Housing (Homeless Persons) Act 1977 extended local council responsibility "to provide accommodation for homeless people in their area,"[17] and instituted the right of homeless families to a permanent local council tenancy.[18] In addition, efforts were made under the Environment Secretary Peter Shore to redistribute resources toward deprived urban areas.[19] The Inner Urban Areas Act 1978 allowed local authorities to assist declining industrial areas and central government provided new subsidies to those inner city areas with the most problems,[20] while the 1978 Finance Act introduced profit-sharing schemes.[21] In April 1976, a Child Interim Benefit for single-parent families was introduced,[22] followed by a universal Child Benefit scheme the following year.[23]

The Callaghan Government also introduced a range of measures aimed at moderating pressures for wage rises and to create a favourable climate “for an orderly restoration of collective bargaining.” These included the granting of family income supplements to bring the incomes of lower-paid workers up to the level of social security benefits, the lowering of marginal tax rates on smaller incomes by rises in personal allowances, and increases in children’s allowances (which were payable to the mother). However, child tax allowances were lowered, which had the effect of reducing the take home pay of fathers. The impact of consumer price rises was also mitigated by higher income limits for free school meals, an increased milk subsidy, and a substantial reduction in the duty on petrol. In addition, electricity prices were lowered for families in receipt of supplementary benefits.[24]

The government came under fire from the British public in November 1977, when the Fire Brigades Union called its first national strike, in response to the government's refusal to grant firefighters a 30% pay rise. The strike lasted until after Christmas, and for its duration Britain's fire services were operated by hastily-trained army troops, whose Green Goddess vehicles dated from the 1950s and were considerably slower than the fire engines of the 1970s, and the troops lacked the breathing equipment available to the fire brigade.[25]Well over 100 people died in fires during the strike, with the worst tragedy occurring in Wednesbury, where four children died in a house fire.[26]

The Training Opportunities Scheme, under which more than 90,000 people completed their training in 1976 and which catered mainly for people over 19 years old, was extended during 1977 to include provisions for training persons for self-employment. In addition, technician training was extended and the network of skillcentres continued to expand. In August 1977, a scheme for voluntary early retirement was introduced in the coal industry for men aged 62 or more with 20 or more year's underground service, with weekly payments up to normal pensionable age. In January 1977, unions became authorized to lodge a claim on behalf of workers with the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service for an improvement in terms and conditions of employment on the grounds that existing terms and conditions were less favourable than the relevant recognized terms and conditions for the trade in the area or, where these did not exist, the general level. In February, sections of the Employment Act 1975 were brought into operation dealing with the qualifying hours for part-time work, thereby entitling large numbers of part-time workers to the same rights and job security as full-time workers. Also in February, employees became entitled to receive guarantee payments from their employers when laid off or on short time, while in April sections of the 1975 Employment Act were activated giving employees the right to paid time off work in order to perform certain public duties. The main provisions of the Race Relations Act 1976 came into force in June 1977, making it unlawful for an employer to discriminate in recruitment or dismissal or in the treatment of existing employees in matters of promotion, transfer, training or other benefits on the grounds of nationality, race, colour, colour, or ethic or national origins. A Commission for Racial Equality was established to work towards the elimination of discrimination the promotion of equality of opportunity, and good relations between persons of different racial groups.[27]

In Scotland, the Community Service by Offenders Act 1978 introduced provisions whereby offenders might, under certain circumstances, be ordered by courts to undertake community work as an alternative to a prison sentence. This legislation brought Scotland in line with England and Wales where similar provisions already apply. The Mines (Precautions Against Inrushes) Regulations 1979 applied to all types of mines and made provision for measures to be taken against the hazard of inrushes of water or gas or material which flows when wet.[28]

In housing policy, a shift of emphasis in housing policy towards rehabilitation was evident in the further increase in the number of General Improvement Areas and the number of Housing Action Areas declared. An Act of March 1977 makes provision, for a limited period, for benefits to be paid from the age of 64 to workers who agree to retire in order to free jobs for young unemployed people, in response to the rise of youth unemployment. A number of other improvements were introduced in 1977, with Attendance Allowances extended to cover handicapped foster children and non-contributory disablement pensions extended to married women whose invalidity prevented them from carrying out their household tasks. In January 1977, regulations were issued which brought about a change in the administration of legislation governing fire precautions at places of work. Under these regulations the Health and Safety Executive retained full responsibility for fire safety in certain 'special' premises such as nuclear installations, coalmines and chemical plants, whereas responsibility for general fire precautions at places of work was transferred to local fire authorities.[27] In July 1977, an experimental Job Introduction Scheme was introduced to provide financial assistance enabling certain disabled people to undertake a trial period of employment with an employer, where there was reasonable doubt as to the person’s ability to perform a particular job. In July 1978, a revised and simplified scheme designed to assist severely disabled people with their travel-to-work costs was introduced.[29]

The Safety Representatives and Committees Regulations of 1977 made provision for recognised trade unions to appoint health and safety representatives “and gave such representatives rights to representation and consultation on health and safety as well as rights to access to training and facilities to support them in undertaking these tasks.”[30] The Homes Insulation Act 1978 provided for grants to occupiers towards the cost of thermal insulation of their dwellings, while under the Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations recognized trade unions were allowed to appoint safety representatives who would have certain rights and functions. As part of an extension in external consultation on the prevention of industrial accidents and occupationally induced diseases the Health and Safety Commission established three Industry Advisory Committees for construction, railways and oil and regulations were issued in March 1978 dealing with the packaging and labelling of some 800 dangerous chemicals commonly used at work and in the home. Improvements to the Mineworkers Sick Pay Scheme were also introduced from 1978, with improvement in the formula for calculating benefit improved and the period of 'waiting days' reduced from seven to three.[31] The Home Purchase Assistance and Housing Corporation Guarantee Act 1978, gave help to first-time home buyers.[32] The Consumer Safety Act 1978 protected consumers from purchasing potentially harmful goods,[33] while the 1979 Credit Unions Act, the last piece of legislation passed by the Labour government,[34] set up a legal structure for credit unions.[35]

Fate[edit]

With strikes affecting Britain during the Winter of Discontent (late 1978/early 1979) and inflation back in double digits, the loss of a vote of no confidence in 1979 precipitated a General Election, which the Conservatives won - with their leader Margaret Thatcher becoming Britain's first female prime minister.

James Callaghan would continue to lead Labour in opposition for 18 months before stepping down to make way for Michael Foot. He remained in parliament until stepping down at the 1987 general election, having served in parliament for 42 years.

Cabinets[edit]

Wilson's Cabinet, March 1974 – April 1976[edit]

OFFICE NAME TERM
Prime Minister
First Lord of the Treasury
Minister for the Civil Service
Harold Wilson 1974–1976
Chancellor of the Exchequer Denis Healey 1974–1976
Lord Chancellor The Lord Elwyn-Jones 1974–1976
Lord President of the Council Edward Short 1974–1976
Lord Privy Seal The Lord Shepherd 1974–1976
Foreign Secretary James Callaghan 1974–1976
Home Secretary Roy Jenkins 1974–1976
Secretary of State for Defence Roy Mason 1974–1976
Secretary of State for Education and Science Reg Prentice 1974–1975
  Fred Mulley 1975–1976
Secretary of State for Employment Michael Foot 1974–1976
Secretary of State for Energy Eric Varley 1974–1975
  Tony Benn 1975–1976
Secretary of State for the Environment Anthony Crosland 1974–1976
Secretary of State for Social Services Barbara Castle 1974–1976
Secretary of State for Industry Tony Benn 1974–1975
  Eric Varley 1975–1976
Minister for Overseas Development Reg Prentice 1975–1976
Secretary of State for Prices and Consumer Protection Shirley Williams 1974–1976
Secretary of State for Trade Peter Shore 1974–1976
Secretary of State for Transport William Rodgers 1974–1976
Secretary of State for Scotland William Ross 1974–1976
Secretary of State for Wales John Morris 1974–1976
Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Merlyn Rees 1974–1976
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster Harold Lever 1974–1976
Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury Robert Mellish 1974–1976
Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Fred Peart 1974–1976
Minister for Planning and Local Government John Silkin 1974–1976

Callaghan’s Cabinet, April 1976 – May 1979[edit]

OFFICE NAME TERM
Prime Minister
First Lord of the Treasury
Minister for the Civil Service
James Callaghan 1976–1979
Chancellor of the Exchequer Denis Healey 1976–1979
Lord Chancellor The Lord Elwyn-Jones 1976–1979
Lord President of the Council Michael Foot 1976–1979
Lord Privy Seal The Lord Shepherd 1976
  The Lord Peart 1976–1979
Foreign Secretary Anthony Crosland 1976–1977
  David Owen 1977–1979
Home Secretary Roy Jenkins 1976
  Merlyn Rees 1976–1979
Secretary of State for Defence Roy Mason 1976
  Fred Mulley 1976–1979
Secretary of State for Education and Science Fred Mulley 1976
  Shirley Williams 1976–1979
Secretary of State for Employment Albert Booth 1976–1979
Secretary of State for Energy Tony Benn 1976–1979
Secretary of State for the Environment Peter Shore 1976–1979
Secretary of State for Social Services David Ennals 1976–1979
Secretary of State for Industry Eric Varley 1976–1979
Minister for Overseas Development Reginald Prentice 1976
Secretary of State for Prices and Consumer Protection Shirley Williams 1976
  Roy Hattersley 1976–1979
Secretary of State for Trade Edmund Dell 1976–1978
  John Smith 1978–1979
Secretary of State for Transport Bill Rodgers 1976–1979
Secretary of State for Scotland Bruce Millan 1976–1979
Secretary of State for Wales John Morris 1976–1979
Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Merlyn Rees 1976
  Roy Mason 1976–1979
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster Harold Lever 1976–1979
Chief Secretary to the Treasury Joel Barnett 1977–1979
Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Fred Peart 1976
  John Silkin 1976–1979
Minister for Social Security Stanley Orme 1976–1979
Minister for Local Government and Planning John Silkin 1976

Full List of Ministers[edit]

Members of the Cabinet are in bold face.

Office Name Dates Notes
Prime Minister,
First Lord of the Treasury
and Minister for the Civil Service
Harold Wilson 4 March 1974 – 5 April 1976  
James Callaghan 5 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Minister of State, Civil Service Department Robert Sheldon 7 March 1974  
Charles Morris 18 October 1974  
Parliamentary Secretary, Civil Service Department John Grant 7 March 1974 – 18 October 1974  
Lord Chancellor The Lord Elwyn-Jones 5 March 1974  
Lord President of the Council
and Leader of the House of Commons
Edward Short 5 March 1974  
Michael Foot 8 April 1976  
Minister of State for the Privy Council Office Gerald Fowler 18 October 1974  
The Lord Crowther-Hunt 23 January 1976  
John Smith 8 April 1976  
The Baroness Birk 3 January 1979  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Privy Council Office William Price 18 October 1974  
Lord Privy Seal
and Leader of the House of Lords
The Lord Shepherd 7 March 1974  
The Lord Peart 10 September 1976  
Chancellor of the Exchequer Denis Healey 5 March 1974  
Chief Secretary to the Treasury Joel Barnett 7 March 1974 In Cabinet from Feb 1977
Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury Robert Mellish 5 March 1974  
Michael Cocks 8 April 1976  
Financial Secretary to the Treasury John Gilbert 7 March 1974  
Robert Sheldon 17 June 1975  
Minister of State, Treasury Robert Sheldon 18 October 1974  
Denzil Davies 17 June 1975  
Lords of the Treasury Donald Coleman 8 March 1974 – 6 July 1978  
James Dunn 8 March 1974 – 14 April 1976  
John Golding 8 March 1974 – 18 October 1974  
Tom Pendry 8 March 1974 – 18 January 1977  
James Hamilton 8 March 1974 – 28 June 1974  
Michael Cocks 28 June 1974 – 8 April 1976  
Jack Dormand 18 October 1974 – 4 May 1979  
David Stoddart 4 April 1976 – 18 November 1977  
Edward Graham 14 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Tom Cox 19 January 1977 – 4 May 1979  
Peter Snape 23 November 1977 – 4 May 1979  
Albert Stallard 5 July 1978 – 17 January 1979  
Alfred Bates 17 January 1979 – 4 May 1979  
Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs James Callaghan 5 March 1974  
Anthony Crosland 8 April 1976  
David Owen 21 February 1977  
Minister of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Ennals 7 March 1974 – 8 April 1976  
Roy Hattersley 7 March 1974 – 10 September 1976  
The Lord Goronwy-Roberts 4 December 1975 – 4 May 1979  
Ted Rowlands 14 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
David Owen 10 September 1976 – 21 February 1977  
Frank Judd 21 February 1977 – 4 May 1979  
Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Joan Lestor 8 March 1974 – 12 June 1975  
The Lord Goronwy-Roberts 8 March 1974 – 4 December 1975  
Ted Rowlands 12 June 1975 – 14 April 1976  
John Tomlinson 17 March 1976 – 4 May 1979 Also Overseas Development
Evan Luard 14 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Minister for Overseas Development Judith Hart 7 April 1974 Subordinated to Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs 10 June 1975
Minister of Overseas Development Reginald Prentice 10 June 1975  
Frank Judd 21 December 1976  
Judith Hart 21 February 1977  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Overseas Development William Price 11 March 1974  
John Grant 18 October 1974  
Frank Judd 14 April 1976  
John Tomlinson 3 January 1977  
Secretary of State for the Home Department Roy Jenkins 5 March 1974  
Merlyn Rees 10 September 1976  
Minister of State for Home Affairs The Lord Harris 8 March 1974 – 3 January 1979  
Alex Lyon 8 March 1974 – 14 April 1976  
Brynmor John 14 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
The Lord Boston 3 January 1979 – 4 May 1979  
Under-Secretary of State for Home Affairs Shirley Summerskill 8 March 1974  
Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Fred Peart 5 March 1974  
John Silkin 10 September 1976  
Minister of State for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Norman Buchan 8 March 1974  
Edward Stanley Bishop 18 October 1974  
Parliamentary Secretary to Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Roland Moyle 11 March 1974  
Edward Stanley Bishop 28 June 1974  
Gavin Strang 18 October 1974  
Secretary of State for Defence Roy Mason 4 March 1974  
Frederick Mulley 10 September 1976  
Minister of State for Defence William Rodgers 4 March 1974  
John Gilbert 10 September 1976  
Under-Secretary of State for the Navy Frank Judd 8 March 1974  
Patrick Duffy 14 April 1976  
Under-Secretary of State for the Air Force Brynmor John 8 March 1974  
James Wellbeloved 14 April 1976  
Under-Secretary of State for the Army Desmond Brayley 4 March 1974  
Robert Brown 18 October 1974  
Secretary of State for Education and Science Reginald Prentice 5 March 1974  
Frederick Mulley 10 June 1975  
Shirley Williams 10 September 1976  
Minister of State, Education and Science Gerald Fowler 8 March 1974  
Norman Crowther Hunt 18 October 1974  
Gerald Fowler 23 January 1976  
Gordon Oakes 10 September 1976  
Janet Young 7 May 1979  
Under-Secretary of State, Education and Science Ernest Armstrong 7 March 1974  
Joan Lestor 12 June 1975  
Margaret Jackson 12 March 1976  
Secretary of State for Employment Michael Foot 5 March 1974  
Albert Booth 8 April 1976
Minister of State, Employment Albert Booth 8 March 1976  
Harold Walker 14 April 1976  
Under-Secretary of State, Employment John Fraser 8 March 1974 – 14 April 1976  
Harold Walker 8 March 1974 – 14 April 1976  
John Golding 14 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
John Grant 14 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Secretary of State for Energy Eric Varley 5 March 1974  
Tony Benn 10 May 1975  
Minister of State, Energy Thomas Balogh 7 March 1974  
John Smith 4 December 1975  
Dickson Mabon 14 April 1976  
Under-Secretary of State, Energy Gavin Strang 7 March 1974 – 18 October 1974  
Alex Eadie 7 March 1974 – 4 May 1979  
John Smith 18 October 1974 – 4 December 1975  
The Lord Lovell-Davis 4 December 1975 – 14 April 1976  
Gordon Oakes 14 April 1976 – 10 September 1976  
Jack Cunningham 10 September 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Secretary of State for the Environment Anthony Crosland 5 March 1974  
Peter Shore 8 April 1976  
Minister of State, Urban Affairs Charles Morris 7 March 1974 – 18 October 1974  
Minister of State (Sport, Recreation and Water Resources) Denis Howell 7 March 1974 – 4 May 1979  
Under-Secretary of State, Environment Gerald Kaufman 8 March 1974 – 12 June 1975  
Neil Carmichael 8 March 1974 – 4 December 1975  
Gordon Oakes 8 March 1974 – 14 April 1976  
Alma Birk 18 October 1974 – 3 January 1979  
Ernest Armstrong 12 June 1975 – 4 May 1979  
Guy Barnett 5 December 1975 – 4 May 1979  
Kenneth Marks 14 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Phyllis Stedman 3 January 1979 – 4 May 1979  
Minister for Planning and Local Government John Silkin 7 March 1974 In Cabinet from 18 October 1974. Office abolished 10 September 1976
Minister for Transport Fred Mulley 7 March 1974  
John Gilbert 12 June 1975 Separate department and Cabinet Minister from 10 September 1976
Minister for Housing and Construction Reg Freeson 7 March 1974  
Secretary of State for Social Services Barbara Castle 5 March 1974  
David Ennals 8 April 1976  
Minister of State, Health and Social Security Brian O'Malley 8 March 1974 – 6 April 1976  
David Owen 26 July 1974 – 10 September 1976  
Stan Orme 8 April 1976 – 4 May 1979 In Cabinet as Minister for Social Security from 10 September 1976
Roland Moyle 10 September 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Under-Secretary of State, Health and Social Security David Owen 8 March 1974 – 26 July 1974  
Robert Brown 8 March 1974 – 18 October 1974  
Alec Jones 18 October 1974 – 12 June 1975  
Michael Meacher 12 June 1975 – 14 April 1976  
Eric Deakins 14 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
The Lord Wells-Pestell 3 January 1979 – 4 May 1979  
Under-Secretary of State, Disabled Industry Alf Morris 11 March 1974 – 4 May 1979  
Secretary of State for Industry Tony Benn 5 March 1974 Also Minister for Posts and Telecommunications 7–29 March 1974
Eric Varley 10 June 1975  
Minister of State, Industry Eric Heffer 7 March 1974 – 9 April 1975  
The Lord Beswick 11 March 1974 – 4 December 1975  
Gerald Kaufman 4 December 1975 – 14 April 1976  
Alan Williams 14 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Under-Secretary of State, Industry Gregor Mackenzie 7 March 1974 – 10 June 1975  
Michael Meacher 7 March 1974 – 12 June 1975  
Gerald Kaufman 12 June 1975 – 4 December 1975  
The Lord Melchett 4 December 1975 – 10 September 1976  
Neil Carmichael 4 December 1975 – 14 April 1976  
Les Huckfield 4 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Bob Cryer 10 September 1976 – 20 November 1978  
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster Harold Lever 5 March 1974
Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Merlyn Rees 5 March 1974  
Roy Mason 10 September 1976  
Minister of State, Northern Ireland Stan Orme 7 March 1974 – 8 April 1976  
Roland Moyle 27 June 1974 – 10 September 1976  
Don Concannon 14 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
The Lord Melchett 10 September 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Under-Secretary of State, Northern Ireland The Lord Donaldson of Kingsbridge 4 March 1974 – 5 April 1976  
Don Concannon 27 June 1974 – 5 April 1976  
James Dunn 5 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Raymond Carter 5 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Tom Pendry 11 November 1978 – 4 May 1979  
Paymaster General Edmund Dell 7 March 1974
Shirley Williams 5 April 1976  
Secretary of State for Prices and Consumer Protection Shirley Williams 4 March 1974  
Roy Hattersley 10 September 1976  
Minister of State, Prices and Consumer Protection Alan Williams 4 March 1974  
John Fraser 5 April 1976  
Under-Secretary of State, Prices and Consumer Protection Robert Maclennan 4 March 1974  
Secretary of State for Scotland William Ross 4 March 1974  
Bruce Millan 5 April 1976  
Minister of State for Scotland Bruce Millan 4 March 1974 – 5 April 1976  
The Lord Hughes 4 March 1974 – 8 August 1975  
The Lord Kirkhill 8 August 1975 – 15 December 1978
Gregor Mackenzie 5 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Under-Secretary of State for Scotland Robert Hughes 4 March 1974 – 22 July 1975  
Hugh Brown 27 June 1974 – 4 May 1979  
Harry Ewing 18 October 1974 – 4 May 1979  
Frank McElhone 22 July 1975 – 4 May 1979  
Secretary of State for Trade Peter Shore 4 March 1974  
Edmund Dell 5 April 1976  
John Smith 11 November 1978  
Under-Secretary of State for Trade Eric Deakins 4 March 1974 – 5 April 1976  
Clinton Davis 4 March 1974 – 4 May 1979  
Michael Meacher 5 April 1976 – 4 May 1979  
Secretary of State for Transport William Rodgers 10 September 1976  
Under-Secretary of State for Transport John Horam 10 September 1976  
Secretary of State for Wales John Morris 4 March 1974
Under-Secretary of State for Wales Ted Rowlands 4 March 1974 – 12 June 1975  
Barry Jones 4 March 1974 – 4 May 1979  
Alec Jones 12 June 1975 – 4 May 1979  
Attorney General Samuel Silkin 4 March 1974  
Solicitor General Peter Archer 4 March 1974  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Law Officers Arthur Davidson 4 March 1974  
Lord Advocate Ronald King Murray 4 March 1974  
Solicitor General for Scotland John McCluskey 4 March 1974  
Treasurer of the Household Walter Harrison 4 March 1974  
Comptroller of the Household Joseph Harper 4 March 1974  
James Hamilton 6 July 1978  
Vice-Chamberlain of the Household Don Concannon 4 March 1974  
James Hamilton 27 June 1974  
Donald Coleman 6 July 1978  
Captain of the Gentlemen at Arms The Baroness Llewellyn-Davies 4 March 1974  
Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard The Lord Strabolgi 4 March 1974  
Lords-in-Waiting The Lord Jacques 4 March 1974 – 19 January 1977, 11 January 1979 – 4 May 1979  
The Lord Garnsworthy 4 March 1974 – 4 September 1974  
The Baroness Birk 4 March 1974 – 18 October 1974  
The Lord Wells-Pestell 4 March 1974 – 11 January 1979  
The Lord Winterbottom 18 October 1974 – 27 October 1978  
The Lord Lovell-Davis 18 October 1974 – 4 December 1975  
The Lord Melchett 18 October 1974 – 4 December 1975  
The Baroness Stedman 4 December 1975 – 11 January 1979  
The Lord Oram 23 January 1976 – 23 March 1978  
The Lord Wallace of Coslany 19 January 1977 – 4 May 1979  
The Lord Leonard 27 October 1978 – 4 May 1979  
The Baroness David of Romsey 27 October 1978 – 4 May 1979  

References[edit]

  1. ^ Taxation, Wage Bargaining, and Unemployment by Isabela Mares
  2. ^ Socialists in the Recession: The Search for Solidarity by Giles Radice and Lisanne Radice
  3. ^ a b New Labour, Old Labour: The Wilson and Callaghan Governments, 1974–79 edited by Anthony Seldon and Kevin Hickson
  4. ^ Labour in power? A study of the Labour Government 1974–1979 by David Coates
  5. ^ Labour's First Century by Duncan Tanner, Pat Thane, and Nick Tiratsoo
  6. ^ Poverty and the development of anti-poverty policy in the United Kingdom: a report to the Commission of the European Communities by Richard Berthoud, Joan C. Brown and Steven Cooper, Commission of the European Communities, Policy Studies Institute
  7. ^ Labour and Inequality: A Fabian Study of Labour in Power, 1974-79 edited by Nick Bosanquet and Peter Townsend
  8. ^ a b The Longman Companion to The Labour Party 1900–1998 by Harry Harmer
  9. ^ New Labour in Power: Precedents and Prospects - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Labour and Inequality: A Fabian Study of Labour in Power, 1974-79 edited by Nick Bosanquet and Peter Townsend
  11. ^ https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Pg5gUG5CYI8C&pg=PA860&dq=The+National+Insurance+%28Industrial+Injuries%29+Act+%281965%29+had+established+the+principle+of+payment+of+industrial+injury&hl=en&sa=X&ei=r8B1Vcb8CKLQ7AaLwYBw&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20National%20Insurance%20(Industrial%20Injuries)%20Act%20(1965)%20had%20established%20the%20principle%20of%20payment%20of%20industrial%20injury&f=false
  12. ^ http://aei.pitt.edu/9842/1/9842.pdf
  13. ^ http://aei.pitt.edu/10250/1/10250.pdf
  14. ^ Financial Enterprise Risk Management - Paul Sweeting - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  15. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=fPcEfxQvpD4C&pg=PA16&dq=Pensioners'+Payments+and+Social+Security+Act,+1979&hl=en&sa=X&ei=6rXZUZGgEYSsOoHRgIgB&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Pensioners'%20Payments%20and%20Social%20Security%20Act%2C%201979&f=false
  16. ^ "Supplementary Benefits Act 1976". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  17. ^ The Longman Companion to The Labour Party 1900–1998 by Harry Harmer
  18. ^ British Social Welfare in the Twentieth Century, edited by Robert M. Page and Richard Silburn
  19. ^ Prime Minister: The Conduct of Policy under Harold Wilson & James Callaghan by Bernard Donoughue
  20. ^ New Labour, Old Labour: The Wilson and Callaghan Governments, 1974–79 edited by Anthony Seldon and Kevin Hickson
  21. ^ Seeking a Premier Economy. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  22. ^ https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=J1iKAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA109&dq=united+kingdom+child+interim+benefit+1976&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0V-xVNv-KoSM7AazyIAg&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=united%20kingdom%20child%20interim%20benefit%201976&f=false
  23. ^ http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1978/jun/13/benefits#S5CV0951P0_19780613_CWA_37
  24. ^ https://books.google.co.za/books?id=RdwR50HFl-8C&pg=PA221&dq=united+kingdom+1978+rise+income+limit+school+meals+Wage+Determination+and+Incomes+Policy+in+Open+Economies+(EPub)&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ZB36VMeqG4Gv7Ab8qoCIAg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=united%20kingdom%201978%20rise%20income%20limit%20school%20meals%20Wage%20Determination%20and%20Incomes%20Policy%20in%20Open%20Economies%20(EPub)&f=false
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ [2]
  27. ^ a b "Report on the Development of the Social Situation in the Communities in 1977" (PDF). Aei.pitt.edu. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  28. ^ "Report on Social Developments Year 1979" (PDF). Aei.pitt.edu. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  29. ^ Final Term: The Labour Government 1974-1976 by Harold Wilson
  30. ^ https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=5Z9H6V6O4q4C&pg=PT30&dq=united+kingdom+Safety+Representative+and+Safety+Committee+regulations+1978&hl=en&sa=X&ei=eVIgVbmCII3_aNK-gqgP&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=united%20kingdom%20Safety%20Representative%20and%20Safety%20Committee%20regulations%201978&f=false
  31. ^ "Report on the Development of the Social Situation in the European Community I in 1978" (PDF). Aei.pitt.edu. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  32. ^ Growth to Limits. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  33. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pMnFocHqrpAC&pg=PT113&dq=UK+Consumer+Safety+Act+1978&hl=en&sa=X&ei=zKhyUtfUL4uQ7AaugoHoDg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=UK%20Consumer%20Safety%20Act%201978&f=false
  34. ^ "The history of credit unions". Abcul.org. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  35. ^ Social enterprise. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Bosanquet, Nick, and Peter Townsend, eds. Labour and Equality: A Fabian Study of Labour in Power, 1974–79 (Heinemann, 1980), 312pp
  • Butler D. and G. Butler. Twentieth Century British Political Facts 1900-2000
  • Donoughue, Bernard. Prime Minister: the conduct of policy under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan. (vol. 1. Vintage, 1987)
  • Harmon, Mark D. The British Labour government and the 1976 IMF crisis (St. Martin's Press, 1997)
  • Hay, Colin. "Chronicles of a death foretold: The winter of discontent and construction of the crisis of British Keynesianism." Parliamentary Affairs (2010) 63#3 pp: 446-470.
  • Hayter, Dianne. Fightback!: Labour's Traditional Right in the 1970s and 1980s (Manchester University Press, 2005)
  • Heppell, Timothy. Choosing the Labour Leader: Labour Party Leadership Elections from Wilson to Brown (IB Tauris, 2010)
  • Hickson, Kevin, and Anthony Seldon, eds. New Labour, Old Labour: The Wilson and Callaghan Governments 1974-1979 (Routledge, 2004)
  • Holmes, Martin. The labour government, 1974-79: political aims and economic reality (Macmillan, 1985)
  • Kerr, Hugh. "Labour's Social Policy 1974-79." Critical Social Policy (1981) 1#1 pp: 5-17.
  • Pimlott, Ben. Harold Wilson (1992), the standard biography
  • Rodgers, William. "Government Under Stress. Britain's Winter of Discontent 1979." Political Quarterly (1984) 55#2 pp: 171-179.
  • Rogers, Chris. "From Social Contract to ‘Social Contrick’: The Depoliticisation of Economic Policy‐Making under Harold Wilson, 1974–751." British Journal of Politics & International Relations (2009) 11#4 pp: 634-651. online
  • Wilson, Harold. Final term: the Labour government 1974-1976 (Weidenfeld and Nicolson: Joseph, 1979_
Preceded by
Heath ministry
Government of the United Kingdom
1974–1979
Succeeded by
First Thatcher ministry