A calligram is a text visually arranged in a way that it forms an image associated with the text's contents. It can be a poem, a phrase, or a single word; the visual arrangement can rely on certain use of the typeface, calligraphy or handwriting, for instance along non-parallel and curved text lines, or in shaped paragraphs. The image created by the words illustrates the text by expressing visually what it says, or something closely associated; it can also, on purpose, show something contradictory with the text or otherwise misleading.
Biggest Calligram in the World, part of the permanent exhibition of the Valencian Museum of Ethnology.
- Sonja A.J. Neef: Kalligramme. Zur Medialität einer Schrift. Anhand von Paul van Ostaijens "De feesten van angst en pijn". Amsterdam: ASCA Press 2000 
- Deme, Zoltan: Poem-miniatures. In: Chords of Scales, Globe Publish House 1995. Library of Congress No: 2003278749 
- Post-War Japanese Poetry (with lots of Japanese calligrams), Penguin Books, 1972.
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