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Callio Pyhäsalmi
Old tower and surrounding buildings of Pyhäsalmi mine
Old tower and surrounding buildings of Pyhäsalmi mine
Callio Pyhäsalmi is located in Finland
Callio Pyhäsalmi
Callio Pyhäsalmi
Coordinates: 63°39′36″N 26°02′28″E / 63.659902°N 26.041062°E / 63.659902; 26.041062Coordinates: 63°39′36″N 26°02′28″E / 63.659902°N 26.041062°E / 63.659902; 26.041062

Callio is a project to oversee the reuse of the Pyhäsalmi Mine, located in the town of Pyhäjärvi in Finland. The mine is closing in 2019,[1] at which time Callio is supposed to take over for the mine facilities and all the associated infrastructure. Callio will be an operating environment for businesses and an underground research facility.

Callio is a joint project by the town of Pyhäjärvi and the University of Oulu. In 2017 the facility joined the "Baltic Sea Underground Facilities and Innovation Network" (BSUIN).[2][3][4]

The word ”callio” is an anglicised version of the Finnish word ”kallio” [kael-lee-oh], meaning crystalline bedrock.[5][6][7]

Operations and facilities[edit]

Callio is an umbrella organization for a variety of non-mining activities in and around the mine. Of these, CallioLab[8] oversees scientific research and development. Proposed new activities include a secure underground data center, pumped hydroelectrical energy storage, plant and fungus growing laboratories, breeding sites for insects and fish, and several other types of underground businesses.[9][10]

As of 2018,[3][8] there are four environmentally controlled laboratories in Callio. Listed top-to-bottom, they are:

  • Lab 1 at 75 m level (245 ft depth), occupied by the EMMA experiment;
  • Lab 4 at 660 m (2165 ft);
  • Lab 3 at 990 m (3250 ft);
  • Lab 2 at 1430 m (4690 ft), 120 m2, height ≈9 m, partly occupied by C14 experiment.
  • Numerous additional service, storage and maintenance halls exist along the access tunnel.

The ambient temperature within the mine depends on the depth but is otherwise constant. At the Lab 4 (660 m) level it is 15 °C (59 °F) and at Lab 2 (1430 m) level 28 °C (82 °F).[11]

Measurement station of EMMA, one of the longest-standing experiments in the Pyhäsalmi Mine.

Currently (2018) the mine harbors two scientific experiments: C14 liquid scintillator[12][13] and EMMA,[13][14][15] operated by CUPP, University of Oulu and University of Jyväskylä.

Past projects[edit]

The laboratory has hosted cosmic-ray experiments MUG (studying the depth dependency and time-dependence of the radiation) in 2001-2003 and MUD (studying the depth-dependency of the muon flux from cosmic radiation) in 2003-2005.

In 2017, plant growing experiments were conducted in Lab 4 by LUKE (the Natural Resources Institute Finland).[9][16][17][11]

The site was previously the prime candidate for the LAGUNA project, which fell through due to funding issues.[18][19][20][21][22] LAGUNA is a proposed very large volume underground neutrino observatory, designed to study e.g., the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. Pyhäsalmi mine would have been at the optimal distance from the CERN particle accelerators, which would have provided the neutrino beams for the experiment.[13][19]

Recently the mine has opened up for a variety of cultural activities. It has hosted the deepest concert in the world (by Agonizer at 1271 m ) as well as dance performances.[23][24][25] The 11 km long spiral-shaped main tunnel has also seen several uphill running and cycling competitions.[26][27][28]


The "main level" of the mine is at 1400 meters depth, and is equipped with service and social facilities, e.g., a restaurant and the deepest sauna in the world.[15][29] Accessing the main level from the surface takes just 3 minutes using the elevator (average speed 8 m/s, maximum 12 m/s (39 ft/s, 43 km/h, or 27 mp/h)).[8] The same descent takes about 30 minutes by car or lorry, along the 11 km long decline access tunnel.[10]

The Pyhäsalmi Mine[edit]

The overall depth of the Pyhäsalmi mine is 1450 m (4760 ft), making it the deepest base metal mine in Europe.[1][30] Its main metals are copper and zinc.

The mine was opened in 1962 by Outokumpu, sold to Inmet mining in 2002, and obtained by First Quantum Minerals in 2013.[31][32] Mining activities are projected to end in 2019, but above-ground refinery will continue until 2025.[1][9][33]

The mine safety has improved significantly over the last decades, and the underground mine has become a test bed for new (often award-winning[34][35]) access control, monitoring and automation technology.[36][37][38] Underground accidents in Pyhäsalmi are very rare, and the last fatality occurred in 1995.[39] Several easily contained on-ground refinery fires have however occurred at the site during the 2000's.[40][41][42][43] In 2012, explosives contaminated with pyrite ore were sent from the Pyhäsalmi mine for destruction at the Forcit ammunition factory in Vihtavuori, where (after a year in storage) the container started to heat up and smoke.[44][45] The reason for this potentially dangerous situation was revealed to be careless handling and packaging at the mine. This prompted significant changes in the safety protocols, and since 2013 all hazardous waste is destroyed on-site in Pyhäsalmi.[46]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Pyhäsalmi Copper mine". Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  2. ^ "BSUIN". Interreg Baltic Sea Region – Project Library (in German). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  3. ^ a b "Underground Laboratories". Callio Lab. 2017-09-26. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  4. ^ Rahko, Pekka (September 26, 2017). "Pyhäjärvi pääsi mukaan kaivosyhteistyöhön, jossa kehitetään maanalaisia laboratorioita". (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  5. ^ "kallio - Wiktionary". Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  6. ^ "kallio - Kielitoimiston sanakirja". Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  7. ^ "kallio from Finnish to all languages". Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  8. ^ a b c "Callio Lab". Callio Lab. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  9. ^ a b c Jokinen, Juha Veli (January 29, 2018). "Euroopan syvin kaivos lopettaa Pyhäsalmella". Ilta-Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  10. ^ a b "Callio". Pyhäjärven Callio. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  11. ^ a b Juopperi, Hanna (December 15, 2017). "Suomalaisen kaivoksen tunneleissa 660 metrin syvyydessä kasvaa perunaa – "Tämä mullistaa ruoantuotantoa maailmalla"". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  12. ^ "C14 Experiment". Pyhäjärven Callio. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  13. ^ a b c Enqvist, Timo (June 13, 2014). "Astroparticle Physics in the Pyhäsalmi Mine" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  14. ^ "EMMA experiment". Pyhäjärven Callio. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  15. ^ a b Shivni, Rashmi (May 31, 2016). "1,000 meters below". symmetry magazine. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  16. ^ Kontiainen, Jarmo (July 7, 2017). "Kuvagalleria: Pyhäsalmen kaivoksessa kasvatetaan nokkosta ja perunaa". (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  17. ^ Niskanen, Mirka (July 7, 2017). "Timo muutti kaivokseen – kasvinviljely alkoi perunalla ja nokkosella". Pyhäjärven Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  18. ^ Nuijten, Guido Alexander (2011). "LAGUNA DESIGN STUDY, Underground infrastructures and engineering". Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 308 (1): 012029. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/308/1/012029. ISSN 1742-6596.
  19. ^ a b Veräjänkorva, Arto (August 27, 2014). "Lagunan hiukkastutkimuspilotti yhä lähempänä toteutumista". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  20. ^ Buizza Avanzini, Margherita (24 March 2015). "The LAGUNA-LBNO Project". Physics Procedia. 61: 524–533. doi:10.1016/j.phpro.2014.12.117. ISSN 1875-3892.
  21. ^ Ukkonen, Risto (July 7, 2017). "Toimittajalta: Tieteistarina Suomesta – Miksi miljardihanke luovutettiin Yhdysvaltoihin?". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  22. ^ Mäkinen, Jari. "LAGUNA, valtava havaintonaite kallion sisälle". (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  23. ^ "Deepest concert underground". Guinness World Records. August 4, 2007. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  24. ^ "Tanssi, tila ja luonto yhdistyvät: Laguna - Lähempänä sydäntä". KP24 (in Finnish). July 24, 2012. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  25. ^ Lamberg, Veera (August 7, 2012). "Kuvia Petri Kekonin Lagunasta Täydenkuun tansseilta". (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  26. ^ Ovaska, Kimmo (November 3, 2013). "Pyhäjärven Alto de L'Angliru". Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  27. ^ Youtube video: Pohti SkiTeam (2016-08-16), Pyhäjärvi Tour Trailer mp4, retrieved 2018-03-02
  28. ^ Youtube video: Wil ho (2016-04-03), Kaivosajo 2 4 2016, retrieved 2018-03-02
  29. ^ Knoller, Rasso (April 18, 2017). "Finnland-Sauna: Hitze, Bier und Birkenzweige". Die Presse (in German). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  30. ^ "New life for old metal mines". euronews. 2012-05-02. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  31. ^ "Pyhäsalmen kaivoksella haikea tunnelma". (in Finnish). December 20, 2001. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  32. ^ Harala, Samuli (March 24, 2013). "Kanadalainen kuparijätti ostaa myös Suomessa toimivan kaivosyhtiön". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  33. ^ Mähönen, Erno (August 9, 2016). "Yara ja Pyhäsalmen kaivos pitkäaikaiseen sopimukseen pyriittitoimituksista | Kauppalehti". Kauppalehti (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  34. ^ "Malminrikastus sai automaatiopalkinnon". Tekniikka & Talous. September 9, 2003. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  35. ^ "Kaivosjärjestelmä sai automaatiopalkinnon". Tekniikka & Talous. January 26, 2006. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  36. ^ Claire Swedberg and Mark Roberti (April 8, 2015). "Pyhäsalmi Mine Will Expand RFID System to Boost Safety". Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  37. ^ Clark, Liat (April 8, 2015). "Finnish startup can locate you indoors using magnetic field anomalies". Wired Magazine. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  38. ^ Ikkala, Tapio (June 1, 2015). "Ericsson kokeilee 5G-verkkoja kaivoksessa - Malmirekka etäohjaukseen". Tekniikka & Talous. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  39. ^ Marttinen, Heikki (1995-07-03). "Mies kuoli pudottuaan 60 metriä kaivoksessa Pyhäsalmella". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  40. ^ "Palo Pyhäsalmen kaivoksella". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). 2002-10-14. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  41. ^ "Kaivoksessa tulipalo". (in Finnish). May 18, 2006. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  42. ^ "Kaivospaloa sammutettiin 30 metrin korkeudella Pyhäjärvellä". (in Finnish). May 22, 2010. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  43. ^ "Pyhäsalmen kaivoksen tornissa paloi - sammutustyöt 70 metrin korkeudessa". (in Finnish). March 1, 2015. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  44. ^ Pajunen, Ilpo (November 5, 2013). "Tukes: Varomattomuus aiheutti Vihtavuoren suuronnettomuusvaaran". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  45. ^ "Vihtavuoren onnettomuustutkinnan tulokset julki - tämä aiheutti suuronnettomuuden vaaran". Ilta-Sanomat (in Finnish). 2013-11-05. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  46. ^ Karppinen, Kirsi (July 25, 2013). "Laukaan vaaratilanne johti muutoksiin Pyhäsalmen kaivoksella". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-02.