Callithrix

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Callithrix[1][2]
Marmoset copy.jpg
Common marmoset
(Callithrix jacchus)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Callitrichidae
Genus: Callithrix
Erxleben, 1777
Type species
Simia jacchus
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

6; see text

Synonyms
  • Anthopithecus F. Cuvier, 1829
  • Arctopithecus G. Cuvier, 1819
  • Hapale Illiger, 1811
  • Hapales F. Cuvier, 1829
  • Harpale Gray, 1821
  • Iacchus Spix, 1823
  • Jacchus É. Geoffroy, 1812
  • Midas É. Geoffroy, 1828
  • Ouistitis Burnett, 1826
  • Sagoin Desmarest, 1804
  • Sagoinus Kerr, 1792
  • Sagouin Lacépède, 1799
  • Saguin Fischer, 1803

Callithrix is a genus of New World monkeys of the family Callitrichidae, the family containing marmosets and tamarins. The genus contains the Atlantic Forest marmosets. The name Callithrix is derived from the Greek words kallos, meaning beautiful, and thrix, meaning hair.

Taxonomy[edit]

The genera Mico and Callibella were formerly considered a subgenus of the genus Callithrix.[2][3] Callithrix differs from Mico in dental morphology and in geographic distribution — Callithrix species are distributed near the Atlantic coast of Brazil, while Mico species are distributed further inland.[4] Callithrix differs from Callibella in these features, as well as in size, with Callithrix species being significantly larger.[4] Callithrix species differ from the tamarins of the genus Saguinus in that Callithrix has enlarged mandibular incisor teeth the same size as the canine teeth which are used for gouging holes in trees to extract exudates.[5]

Some authorities, including Rosenberger (1981), believe that the pygmy marmoset, genus Cebuella, should be included within Callithrix on the basis of genetic studies, although Cebuella is significantly smaller than Callithrix.[2][4]

In general, Callithrix and Mico species tend to form larger groups and live within smaller home ranges, and thus live in higher population densities, than other Callitrichids. But these statistics can vary dramatically among various Callithrix species. C. jacchus and C. pencillata typically have home territories of less than 10 hectares, while other Callithrix species tend to have larger home territories.[4]

Species[edit]

The genus includes the following species:

Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).jpg Callithrix jacchus Common marmoset Brazil, in the states of Piaui, Paraiba, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco, Alagoas and Bahia.
Sagui Tufos Pretos (Callithrix penicillata).jpg Callithrix penicillata Black-tufted marmoset Brazil from Bahia to Paraná
Callithrix kuhlii 2.jpg Callithrix kuhlii Wied's marmoset eastern Brazil
HD Weißgesicht-Seidenäffchen groß.jpg Callithrix geoffroyi White-headed marmoset Brazil
Callithrix flaviceps 2.jpg Callithrix flaviceps Buffy-headed marmoset Brazil from southern Espírito Santo and possibly northern Rio de Janeiro and its distribution extends into Minas Gerais
Buffy-tufted marmoset (Callithrix aurita).jpg Callithrix aurita Buffy-tufted marmoset southeast Brazil

Ecology[edit]

Exudates, such as gum and sap, fruit, nectar and fungus make up the bulk of Callthrix species' diet, but it also eats animal prey such as arthropods, young birds, small lizards and frogs. They are specialized for exploiting exudates by their elongated, chisel-like lower incisors and a wide jaw gape that allows them to gouge bark of trees that produce gums. Their intestines also have an enlarged, complex cecum that allows them to digest gums more efficiently than most other animals. The ability of Callithrix species to feed on exudates allows them to survive in areas where fruit is highly seasonal or not readily available. Some species, such as C. jacchus and C. pencillata have been known to inhabit city parks, backyards and coconut plantations.[4]

Breeding[edit]

Callithrix females generally gives birth to two or more infants at a time. They can ovulate and conceive within two to four weeks after giving birth, and ovulation is not inhibited by lactation. Polygyny is known to occur in several Callithrix species. Infanticide is also known to occur, at least within C. jacchus in which the dominant female kills the offspring of a subordinate female. Females generally reach sexual maturity between 12 and 17 months, and males between 15 and 25 months.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ a b c Rylands AB, Mittermeier RA (2009). "The Diversity of the New World Primates (Platyrrhini)". In Garber PA, Estrada A, Bicca-Marques JC, Heymann EW, Strier KB. South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Springer. pp. 23–54. ISBN 978-0-387-78704-6. 
  3. ^ Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 129–134. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Digby, L.; Ferari, S. & Saltzman, W. (2007). "Callitrchines". In Campbell, C.; et al. Primates in Perspective. pp. 85–106. ISBN 978-0-19-517133-4. 
  5. ^ Rowe, N. (1996). The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. p. 59. ISBN 0-9648825-0-7.