Callosciurus

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Callosciurus
Temporal range: Early Pleistocene to Recent
Callosciurus prevosti.jpg
Prevost's squirrel (Callosciurus prevostii)
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Family: Sciuridae
Tribe: Callosciurini
Genus: Callosciurus
Gray, 1867
Species

Callosciurus is a genus of squirrels collectively referred to as the "beautiful squirrels". They are found mainly in Southeast Asia, though a few species also occur in Nepal, northeastern India, Bangladesh and southern China.[1] Several of the species have settled on islands. In total, the genus contains 15 species and numerous varieties and subspecies.[1] The genera Glyphotes, Rubrisciurus, and Tamiops have sometimes been included in Callosciurus.

Species[edit]

There are approximately 15 species in this genus,[1] and over 60 subspecies. These squirrels range in length from 13 to 27 cm (5.1 to 10.6 in), not including the tail which is often about the same length as the body.[2][3] Most are rather dull olive-brown to gray and several have a pale and dark stripe on their side, however a few are very colorful.[2] The Pallas squirrel may have an unremarkable olive-gray back, while its belly is often –but not always– bright red.[4] The "typical" subspecies of Prevost's squirrels have black backs, white sides, and red-brown undersides. The Finlayson's squirrel occurs in numerous varieties, three of which are overall red-brown, overall black, or pure white.[2]

Most squirrels in Callosciurus live in tropical rain forests, but some individuals live in parks and gardens in cities. In the trees, they build their nests out of plant material. They are solitary, and give birth to one to five young. Their food consists of nuts, fruits, and seeds, and also of insects and bird eggs.

  • Anderson's squirrel (Callosciurus quinquestriatus) is made up of two subspecies, C. q. quinqestriatus andC. q. imarius.[5] This species is found throughout China and Myanmar, but is listed as "Near Threatened" by the IUCN due to habitat loss.[6]
  • The black-striped squirrel (Callosciurus nigrovittatus) is found throughout Java, Sumatra, southern Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, and numerous small islands. This taxon consists of four subspecies: C. n. nigrovittatus, C. n. bilimitatus, C. n. bocki, and C. n. klossi.[5] It is listed as "Near Threatened" by the IUCN.[7]
  • The Borneo black-banded squirrel (Callosciurus orestes) is endemic to northern Borneo, and listed as "Least Concern" by the IUCN.[8]
  • The ear-spot squirrel (Callosciurus adamsi), endemic to northern Borneo, listed as "Vulnerable" by the IUCN.[1][9]
  • Finlayson's squirrel (Callosciurus finlaysonii, misspelled C. finlaysoni) or the variable squirrel is found in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.
  • Grey-bellied squirrel (Callosciurus caniceps) consist of six subspecies found in forests, plantations and gardens in Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, southern Myanmar, southern China (Yunnan) and possibly western Laos.[10]
  • The Hon Khoai squirrel (Callosciurus honkhoaiensis) is a dwarf species found only on Hon Khoai island off the southern tip of Vietnam. First described in 2018, it is related to the grey-bellied squirrel, from which it probably diverged during the Pliocene.[11]
  • The inornate squirrel (Callosciurus inornatus) is distributed across Laos, Vietnam, and the Chinese province of Yunnan. This squirrel was once considered a subspecies of Callosciurus pygerythrus, and as a result several texts inaccurately cite C. pygerythrus as being found in these areas.[12] The reclassification was based on different fur characteristics, placing it closer in relation to C. caniceps.[12][13] It is listed as "Least Concern" by IUCN.[12]
  • The Irrawaddy squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus) is made up of seven subspecies found throughout Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal.[5][14]
  • The Kinabalu squirrel (Callosciurus baluensis), endemic to northeastern Borneo, specifically the wide area around Mount Kinabalu.[1] Its tail and upperparts are grizzled blackish, the underparts are reddish-orange, and the flanks have a narrow buff stripe with a broader black stripe below.[3] This species is listed as "Least Concern" by the IUCN.[15]
  • Kloss's squirrel (C. albescens), endemic to northern Sumatra, population data is insufficient to assess its endangerment status according to the IUCN.[1][16] It is debated whether it is a subspecies of C. notatus, which would make Kloss's squirrel instead be named C. notatus albescens.
  • Mentawai squirrel (Callosciurus melanogaster) is one of 20 or so species native to the Mentawai Islands off the west coast of Sumatra. It is further dived into three subspecies: C. m. melanogaster, C. m. mentawi, and C. m. atratus.[5] This small isolated population is listed as "Vulnerable" by the IUCN due to habitat loss.[17]
  • Phayre's squirrel (Callosciurus phayrei) is found in China and southern Myanmar, it listed as "Least Concern" by the IUCN.[1][18]
  • The plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus), is also one of several species called the oriental squirrel or tricolored squirrel. It is found in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, in a wide range of habitats: forests, mangroves, parks, gardens, agricultural areas.
  • Prevost's squirrel (Callosciurus prevostii), or Asian tri-colored squirrel, is found in forest in the Thai-Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and nearby smaller islands, with an introduced population in northern Sulawesi.
  • Pallas's squirrel (Callosciurus erythraeus), also known as the red-bellied tree squirrel, is a species of squirrel native to Greater China, India, and Southeast Asia.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Thorington, R.W., Jr.; Hoffmann, R.S. (2005). "Family Sciuridae: Genus Callosciurus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference (3rd ed.). The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 26158608.
  2. ^ a b c Francis, C. M. (2008). A Guide to the Mammals of Southeast Asia. ISBN 978-0-691-13551-9
  3. ^ a b Payne, J., and C. M. Francis (1985), A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo. ISBN 967-99947-1-6
  4. ^ Smith, T. S., and Y. Xie, editors (2008). A Guide to the Mammals of China. ISBN 978-0-691-09984-2
  5. ^ a b c d Thorington, R.W., Jr.; Hoffmann, R.S. (2005). "Family Sciuridae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference (3rd ed.). The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 754–818. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 26158608.
  6. ^ Lunde, D.; Duckworth, J. W.; Lee, B. & Tizard, R. J. (2008). "Callosciurus quinquestriatus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T3605A9977678. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T3605A9977678.en. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  7. ^ Duckworth, J. W.; Lee, B. & Tizard, R. J. (2008). "Callosciurus nigrovittatus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T3599A9967361. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T3599A9967361.en. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  8. ^ Duckworth, J. W.; Lee, B. & Tizard, R. J. (2008). "Callosciurus orestes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  9. ^ Duckworth, J. W. & Meijaard, E. (2008). "Callosciurus adamsi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  10. ^ Duckworth, J. W. (2008). "Callosciurus caniceps". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  11. ^ Nguyen, Son Truong; Oshida, Tatsuo; Dang, Phuong Huy; Bui, Hai Tuan; Motokawa, Masaharu (June 2018). "A new species of squirrel (Sciuridae:Callosciurus) from an isolated island off the Indochina Peninsula in southern Vietnam". Journal of Mammalogy. 99 (4): 813–825. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyy061.
  12. ^ a b c Duckworth, J. W. & Timmins, R. J. (2008). "Callosciurus inornatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  13. ^ Corbet and Hill, 1992
  14. ^ Shrestha, N.; Sarkar, S. K.; Lunde, D.; Duckworth, J. W.; Lee, B.; Tizard, R. J. & Molur, S. (2008). "Callosciurus pygerythrus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  15. ^ Duckworth, J. W.; Meijaard, E. & Gumal, M. (2008). "Callosciurus baluensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  16. ^ Meijaard, E. & van Strien, N. J. (2008). "Callosciurus albescens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  17. ^ Lunde, D.; Duckworth, J. W.; Lee, B. & Tizard, R. J. (2008). "Callosciurus melanogaster". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  18. ^ Chiozza, F. (2008). "Callosciurus phayrei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 January 2009.

External links[edit]