Calochortus amabilis

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Calochortus amabilis
Calochortus amabilis 2.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Liliales
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Calochortus
Species: C. amabilis
Binomial name
Calochortus amabilis
Purdy

Calochortus amabilis[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] (syn. C. pulchellus var. amabilis)[10] is a species of the genus Calochortus in the family Liliaceae. It is also known by the common names Diogenes' lantern,[1][2][3][6] yellow globe-tulip,[6] golden globe-tulip,[3] yellow globe lily,[2] golden fairy lantern,[2][3][5][8][9] golden lily-bell,[6] Chinese lantern,[3] and short lily.[7]

Distribution and Habitat[edit]

The plant is endemic to northern California, north of the San Francisco Bay Area.[2][3][4][11] It grows in the Northern California Coast Ranges and Klamath Mountains, from 100 metres (330 ft)[1][3]–1,000 metres (3,300 ft)[1]–1,500 metres (4,900 ft)[3]in altitude. It is a common member of the scrub and woodland flora, found on dry slopes in California oak woodland and chaparral habitats.[1][2] Soil types vary, from the nearly solid serpentine rock to yellow clay.[3] Natural habitat is quite wet, with 75cm or more of rain per year, followed by a dry, hot summer. Winters are cool but not frigid (USDA zones 8-9). The growing season is from midwinter to the April-May-June flowering and seed set. The plant is dormant from mid-June to November.[3]

Common understory plant associates are Calochortus luteus, Clarkia unguiculata and Delphinium variegatum.[citation needed]

Description[edit]

Calochortus amabilis is a bulbous perennial herb producing an upright, somewhat waxy branching stem to heights between 10 and 50 centimeters.[1] The leaf at the base of the stem is flat, waxy, and narrow in shape, reaching up to 50 centimeters long and not withering away at flowering.[1][12]

The inflorescence bears two or more heavily nodding flowers, each with spreading pointed yellow sepals and brown-speckled yellow petals. The inside of the petals is waxy and coated in small hairs. The fruit is a winged capsule up to three centimeters long containing dark brown seeds.[1][4]

  • Height: 10-[1][4] 20-[2] 30-[6] 50 cm[1][2][4] (4–20 in) high at maturity.
  • Spread: 5 cm (2 in) spread.[4]
  • Stems: Stems are glaucous,[1][3][6] stout,[6] flexuous,[3] and generally branching,[1][2][3][6] reaching 10-[1][3][5] 20-30[6]-50 cm.[1][3][5]
  • Leaves: Leaves come in two types: cauline[1][2][6] or basal[1][2] (radical).[6]
  • Inflorescences: Nodding,[1][2][6] pendent[3] flowers are borne in groups of 2-many,[1] hanging in open branched clusters.[2] Bracts are lanceolate, and measure 2–10 cm in length.[1]
    • Flowers: Flowers measure about 2.5-[2][3] 4 cm[3] in length and are borne from April–June.[1][2]
    • Perianth: Perianth is spheric and is either neatly closed at the tip[1] or has petals that overlap slightly at the tip.[1][6]
      • Sepals: Three[2][6] conspicuous[4] ovate[1] to lanceolate,[1][2] spreading sepals, are deeply appressed at the base to the petals.[3] Sepals are often tinged green[3][4] or red,[3] and measure 1.5-[1] 2 cm[1][2] long. Sepals are held horizontally to slightly descending.[3]
      • Petals: Three[2][6] ovate [6] or widely lanceolate[1] petals with a short claw and obtuse apex[6] are deeply[1][2] to brightly[3] yellow, sometimes tinged green[3][4] with abaxial brown spots [1] and are glabrous,[1][6] except for the margins, which are densely ciliate (having a fringe of hairs),[1][2][3][6] Petals are slightly longer than sepals[2] and measure 1.6-[1] 2 cm long.[1][2]
    • Nectary: Crescent-shaped[1][2][3][4] to almost rectangular,[3] depressed,[1][3] (forming a knoblike structure on the outside of each petal)[3] with several[1] transverse, fringed membranes[1] with white or yellow glandular hairs measuring 1/3-2/3 of the width of the petals.[1]
    • Stamens:
      • Filaments: 5mm in length, dilated at the base.[1]
      • Anthers: 3-4mm in length, white to pale yellow.[1]
  • Fruit: Nodding, oblong, winged capsule, measuring 2–3 cm in length.[1]
  • Seeds: Dark brown and irregularly shaped.[1]

Uses[edit]

Food[edit]

The bulbs of Calochortus amabilis are a traditional food of the Kashaya Pomo of California, who bake or boil the bulbs, which are then eaten like baked or boiled potatoes.[7][13] They are a beloved food of the Pomo, locally referred to as "bo".[6]

Cultivation[edit]

Calochortus amabilis is cultivated as an ornamental plant by specialty native plant and bulb nurseries, for use in traditional and wildlife gardens, and natural landscaping projects.

  • Hardiness: Hardy,[3][4] particularly if well mulched. In cold areas, it can be grown in an alpine house or an unheated glasshouse.[3]
  • Light : Prefers sun[5] to partial[3][5] or full shade.[3]
  • Soil: Adaptable, but prefers well-drained soil.[5] Prefers a humus-rich, water-retentive medium with up to two thirds organic matter and one third sand, gravel, or grit.[3]
  • Water: Drought tolerant to moderate.[5] In the wild, the plant grows in areas with more than 2.5cm of rain per week during the growing season. If grown in pots, plants should get 2.2-3.8cm of water per week, since containers typically dry out more quickly. Complete dryness is needed for the dormant season; some growers dig the bulbs up for the summer to prevent premature autumn growth or bulb rot.[3]
  • Propagation: Sow seed as soon as ripe.[4] Seeds require no treatment to aid germination.[9]
  • Pests and diseases: Trouble free.[4]

In the wild, C. amabilis naturally hybridizes with Calochortus tolmiei.[3]

Etymology[edit]

Amabilis means 'pleasing', 'likeable', or 'lovely'. Calochortus is derived from Greek meaning 'beautiful grass', a reference to the characteristic grass-like foliage of the genus.[14] The full name translates literally to 'lovable, beautiful grass'.[2][14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au Baldwin, B. G., D. H. Goldman, D. J. Keil, R. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, and D. H. Wilken, editors. 2012. "The Jepson Manual: vascular plants of California", second edition. University of California press, Berkeley. ISBN 9780520253124 pp 1380-1381
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Spellenberg, Richard, Professor Emeritus of Biology, New Mexico Sate University, National Audubon Society Field Guide to Wildflowers: Western Region, copyright 2001 by Chanticleer Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Published in the US by Alfred A. Knopf, a division of Random House, Inc., New York. ISBN 0375402330 pp 576
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Gerritsen, Mary E. and Ron Parsons, 2007. "Calochortus : Mariposa lilies and their relatives", Timber Press. ISBN 9780881928440. pp 52-54
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Brickell, Christopher "The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z of Garden Plants (Volume 1: A-J)", 3rd ed. Copyright 1996, 2003, 2008 Dorling Kindersley Ltd., London. ISBN 9781405332965 pp 213-214
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Carol Bornstein, David Fross, Bart O'Brien 2007. "California Native Plants for the Garden". Cachuma Press. ISBN 0962850586 (paperback) ISBN 0962850594 (hardcover). pp 212
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Parsons, Mary Elizabeth "The Wild Flowers of California", illustrated by Margaret Warriner Buck. Published by Cunningham, Curtiss & Welch, San Francisco 1912. Copyright William Doxey 1897, copyright Mary Elizabeth Parsons 1902, 1906. (no ISBN for this edition) pp 148-149
  7. ^ a b c Moerman, Daniel E. "Native American Food Plants: An Ethnobotanical Dictionary", first ed. Copyright Timber Press, Inc. 2010. ISBN 9781604691894 (hardcover). pp 67
  8. ^ a b Howell, John Thomas. "Marin Flora: Manual of Flowering Plants and Ferns of Marin County, California", second edition. Copyright 1949, 1970, 1985, University of California Press. ISBN 0520056213 pp 106
  9. ^ a b c Emery, Dara E. "Seed Propagation of Native California Plants", 6th edition (printed 2011). Copyright 1988 Santa Barbara Botanic Garden. ISBN 0916436039. pp 43
  10. ^ a b The Plant List
  11. ^ Flora of North America
  12. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2009. GlobalTwitcher.com: Gold Nuggets: Calochortus luteus, ed. N. Stromberg.
  13. ^ University of Michigan at Dearborn: Native American Ethnobotany of Calochortus amabilis
  14. ^ a b Gledhill, David (2008). "The Names of Plants". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521866453 (hardback), ISBN 9780521685535 (paperback). pp 44, 86

External links[edit]