Calydon (//; Greek: Καλυδών; gen.: Καλυδῶνος) was an ancient Greek city in Aetolia, situated on the west bank of the river Evenus, 7.5 Roman miles (approx. 11 km) from the sea. Its name is most famous today for the Calydonian Boar that had to be overcome by heroes of the Olympian age.
According to Greek mythology, the city took its name from its founder, Calydon, son of Aetolus. Close to the city stood Mount Arakynthos (Zygos), the slopes of which provided the setting for the hunt of the Calydonian Boar.
In 31 BC, the Roman emperor Octavian removed the population of the city to the new colony of Nicopolis, founded to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Actium earlier that year. At the same time, the Romans removed most of the art and treasures of the city to Patras, including the gold and ivory cultic statue of Artemis. Strabo, in his Geographia, comments on the former beauty of Calydon, which by his time lay desolate: "Calydon and Pleuron, which are now indeed reduced, though in early times these settlements were an ornament to Greece."
Previous and more recent excavations have revealed many buildings including:
- the theatre of an unusual square plan
- the Heroon
- the temple of Artemis
- the temple of Apollo
- rich tomb underneath the Heroon
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Calydon". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.