Camas County, Idaho

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Camas County, Idaho
Camas County Courthouse, Fairfield, Idaho, USA.jpg
Camas County Courthouse in Fairfield
Seal of Camas County, Idaho
Seal
Map of Idaho highlighting Camas County
Location in the U.S. state of Idaho
Map of the United States highlighting Idaho
Idaho's location in the U.S.
Founded February 6, 1917
Named for Camas root
Seat Fairfield
Largest city Fairfield
Area
 • Total 1,079 sq mi (2,795 km2)
 • Land 1,074 sq mi (2,782 km2)
 • Water 4.5 sq mi (12 km2), 0.4%
Population
 • (2010) 1,117
 • Density 1.0/sq mi (0/km²)
Congressional district 2nd
Time zone Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Website camascounty.id.gov

Camas County is a county in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Idaho. The county seat and largest city is Fairfield.[1] The county was created 100 years ago in 1917 by the state legislature with a partition of Blaine County on February 6. It is named for the camas root, or Camassia, a lily-like plant with an edible bulb found in the region, that Native Americans and settlers used as a food source. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,117,[2] making it the second-least populous county in the state (trading places with Clark County).

Camas County is part of the Hailey, ID Micropolitan Statistical Area.

History[edit]

Native presence on the Camas Prairie dates back over 11,000 years ago. The Shoshoni, Northern Piute, and Nez Perce migrated annually to the Camas Prairie to gather camas and yampa for their winter food storage. Explorer, Donald Mackenzie discovered the Camas Prairie by 1820 and the area slowly grew in importance as a travel route. Military escorts for wagon trains headed to Oregon started using the route through the Camas Prairie in 1852. The route was later named Goodale Cutoff, for Timothy Goodale who first brought migrants through the Camas Prairie in 1862. When the cavalry was stationed at Fort Boise the southern portion of the Camas Prairie was an important feeding ground for their horses. In 1869, a treaty ratified by the US Senate provided a portion of the "Kansas Prairie" instead of the "Camas Prairie" to be retained by the Bannock Indians. The error may have made by the person who transcribed the treaty. Since there was no "Kansas Prairie" in Idaho, the treaty rights of the Bannocks were ignored. When they found a few settlers were allowing their hogs to feed on the Bannocks' traditional food source, the camas root, they objected (without results), which was a major cause of the Bannock War of 1878.[3][4] The Camas Prairie was initially entirely within Alturas County when initial settlement started following the Bannock War. While the Lava mining district near Fairfield was active in the 1880s, Camas County's settlements were primarily agricultural.[5] By the fall of 1881, over 60 farming operations were in existence. Town settlements at Crichton and Soldier occurred almost simultaneously in 1884. Corral was settled no later than 1886.[6][7] The Camas Prairie became part of Logan County when it was formed in 1889 with the mountainous area north of the prairie remaining within Alturas County. At the 1890 Census, Alturas County contained the Little Smoky precinct with 95 residents while Logan County contained the Corral, Crichton, Soldier, and Spring Creek precincts with a combined population of 805. In 1891, the Idaho Legislature attempted to transfer all five Camas precincts to a new county named Alta. The Idaho Supreme Court found the act unconstitutional. Blaine County included all five Camas precincts when it was organized in 1895. The settlement at Crichton was abandoned in 1896. The decline at Crichton, led to a slight decline to 836 residents within the five Camas precincts at the 1890 census. By 1910, the precincts more than doubled to reach a population of 1,804 residents. A railroad reached the Camas Prairie in 1911 and ran through what is now Fairfield. The railroad's arrival led the majority of settlement in Soldier to locate to what became known as Fairfield.[8][9][10][11]

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,079 square miles (2,790 km2), of which 1,074 square miles (2,780 km2) is land and 4.5 square miles (12 km2) (1.0%) is water.[12] The highest point is Camas County Highpoint at 10,337 ft (3,151 m), on the county's northern border with Blaine County.

Adjacent counties[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1920 1,730
1930 1,411 −18.4%
1940 1,360 −3.6%
1950 1,079 −20.7%
1960 917 −15.0%
1970 728 −20.6%
1980 818 12.4%
1990 727 −11.1%
2000 991 36.3%
2010 1,117 12.7%
Est. 2016 1,072 [13] −4.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[14]
1790-1960[15] 1900-1990[16]
1990-2000[17] 2010-2013[2]

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[18] of 2000, there were 991 people, 396 households, and 287 families residing in the county. The population density was 0.8 people per square mile (0.3/km²). There were 601 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile (0.2/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 95.16% White, 1.21% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.91% from other races, and 2.22% from two or more races. 5.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 20.5% were of German, 18.1% American, 15.4% English and 7.4% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 396 households out of which 30.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.20% were married couples living together, 4.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.50% were non-families. 22.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.92.

In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 28.20% from 25 to 44, 27.50% from 45 to 64, and 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 104.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $34,167, and the median income for a family was $40,156. Males had a median income of $30,500 versus $21,563 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,550. About 7.20% of families and 8.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.20% of those under age 18 and 8.50% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census[edit]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,117 people, 487 households, and 326 families residing in the county.[19] The population density was 1.0 inhabitant per square mile (0.39/km2). There were 831 housing units at an average density of 0.8 per square mile (0.31/km2).[20] The racial makeup of the county was 94.1% white, 0.5% American Indian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 1.8% from other races, and 3.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 6.7% of the population.[19] In terms of ancestry, 24.8% were German, 20.2% were American, 15.1% were English, 8.8% were Irish, and 7.3% were Swedish.[21]

Of the 487 households, 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.3% were married couples living together, 5.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.1% were non-families, and 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.77. The median age was 44.3 years.[19]

The median income for a household in the county was $44,145 and the median income for a family was $43,092. Males had a median income of $39,022 versus $25,938 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,659. About 14.1% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.0% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over.[22]

Communities[edit]

City[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Politics[edit]

Previous Presidential Elections Results[23]
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 69.5% 410 18.6% 110 11.9% 70
2012 69.6% 402 27.5% 159 2.9% 17
2008 68.3% 422 30.3% 187 1.5% 9
2004 75.6% 450 23.4% 139 1.0% 6
2000 70.8% 359 22.3% 113 6.9% 35
1996 52.0% 283 28.7% 156 19.3% 105
1992 41.6% 202 27.6% 134 30.9% 150
1988 65.9% 288 31.1% 136 3.0% 13
1984 74.1% 364 25.1% 123 0.8% 4
1980 67.9% 360 27.4% 145 4.7% 25
1976 62.2% 288 34.6% 160 3.2% 15
1972 74.3% 344 20.5% 95 5.2% 24
1968 56.2% 271 24.5% 118 19.3% 93
1964 55.1% 316 45.0% 258
1960 46.9% 284 53.1% 322
1956 55.9% 337 44.1% 266
1952 65.4% 425 34.5% 224 0.2% 1
1948 50.3% 289 48.4% 278 1.4% 8
1944 48.7% 301 51.3% 317
1940 49.1% 367 50.9% 381
1936 37.5% 274 60.5% 442 2.1% 15
1932 33.9% 234 63.9% 441 2.2% 15
1928 63.3% 413 35.2% 230 1.5% 10
1924 35.3% 226 47.1% 302 17.6% 113
1920 59.1% 400 40.8% 276 0.2% 1

Transportation[edit]

U.S. Highway 20 runs east–west through the county's center, at elevations just over 5,000 feet (1,520 m) above sea level, connecting west to Mountain Home in Elmore County; to the east it intersects State Highway 75 in Blaine County. The northern terminus of State Highway 46 is at US-20, four miles (6.4 km) east of Fairfield; it runs south over the Mount Bennett Hills into Gooding County and on to Gooding.

Recreation[edit]

The Soldier Mountain ski area, opened 69 years ago in 1948, is twelve miles (20 km) north of Fairfield, in the Soldier Mountains of the Sawtooth National Forest.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 28, 2014. 
  3. ^ http://www.idahohistory.net/Reference%20Series/0474.pdf
  4. ^ "Camas Prairie (Camas County)" (PDF). Idaho State Historical Society. Idaho State Historical Society. Retrieved 5 February 2017. 
  5. ^ *Fisher, Vardis; Federal Writers' Project (1938). Idaho Encyclopedia. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, Ltd. pp. 249–251. OCLC 962624. 
  6. ^ "McCarter Family History". McCarter Family History. Retrieved 5 February 2017. 
  7. ^ "Maps of Camas Prairie and Corral Creek". McCarter Family History. Retrieved 5 February 2017. 
  8. ^ Idaho Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. Chicago: The Newberry Library. 2010. pp. 10–11, 12, 17, 36, 65, 137. 
  9. ^ Report on Population of the United States at the Eleventh Census: 1890. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1895. pp. 99–100. 
  10. ^ Census Reports Volume I: Twelfth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1900. Washington: United States Census Office. 1901. p. 111. 
  11. ^ Thirteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1910: Volume II. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1913. p. 414. 
  12. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  13. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  14. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 28, 2014. 
  15. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 28, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 28, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 28, 2014. 
  18. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  19. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-01-09. 
  20. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-01-09. 
  21. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-01-09. 
  22. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-01-09. 
  23. ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS

Coordinates: 43°28′N 114°49′W / 43.47°N 114.81°W / 43.47; -114.81