Cambodian Braille

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Cambodian Braille
Khmer Braille
Type
Languages Khmer
Parent systems
Braille
Print basis
Cambodian alphabet

Cambodian or Khmer Braille is the braille alphabet of the Khmer language of Cambodia.[1] "Programming Language :: Python",

       "Framework :: Pyramid",
       "Topic :: Internet :: WWW/HTTP",
       "Topic :: Internet :: WWW/HTTP :: WSGI :: Application",

Charts[edit]

In printed Khmer, the alphabet is divided into consonant letters, consonant diacritics (conjuncts), and vowel diacritics. (That is, the Khmer alphabet is an abugida.) In braille Khmer, however, all of these are full letters. Out of deference to tradition, however, the braille alphabet is divided into sections according to the form in print.

Print letters[edit]

The first three rows are the stand-alone consonants in print, and the last two the stand-alone vowels. These occur initially and after a/another vowel.

Braille ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245) ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245) ⠬ (braille pattern dots-346) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠬ (braille pattern dots-346) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456)
Print

khâ


khô

ngô


châ


chô

nhô
Braille ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456) ⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345) ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345) ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345)
Print

thâ


thô



thâ


thô

Braille ⠃ (braille pattern dots-12) ⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234) ⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234) ⠍ (braille pattern dots-134) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456) ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123) ⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456)
Print

phâ


phô





Braille ⠎ (braille pattern dots-234) ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Print
shâ

ssô




[ʔ]
Braille ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256) ⠸ (braille pattern dots-456) ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)
Print
ĕ

ei

ŏ


ŭ

ŏu

âu
Braille ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456) ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠋ (braille pattern dots-124) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠱ (braille pattern dots-156) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
Print
rœ̆


lœ̆


é

ai
,
aô, aôy

As in print, the consonant letters fall into two classes which trigger different readings of associated vowels. When no vowel is written, an â or ô (depending on the consonant class) is understood. In print these two classes are simply different consonants. In braille, however, they're written the same, except that the ô class is marked by prefixing point-6. Thus khâ is , while khô (an unrelated letter in print) is . The exceptions are four ô-class consonants which do not have â-class partners, ngô, mô, rô, vô.

Most of the stand-alone vowels are derived from the combining vowels (next section) by a prefix or suffix.

Shaded cells either have not been assigned braille codes, or are derived with combinations of diacritics not included in Unesco (2013).

Conjuncts (combinations of full and subscript consonants) in print are indicated with a linking in braille. Thus the print ខ្ម khm of "Khmer" is in braille.

Print diacritics[edit]

Vowels are diacritics in print, but in braille they are full letters and follow what is the host letter in print. Thus in print ខ្មែរ khmêr, the vowel ê precedes the consonant cluster ខ្ម khm, but in braille the vowel ê follows the consonant cluster khm, thus: khmêr. The vowels are as follows. (In order to display properly on all browsers, the print diacritics are hosted on the letter , which is not repeated in braille. On that host, the vowels take the upper romanized value; on a class-ô consonant they would have the lower value.)

Braille ⠡ (braille pattern dots-16) ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15) ⠪ (braille pattern dots-246) ⠢ (braille pattern dots-26) ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25) ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23)
Print
(on )
អា
a
éa
អិ
ĕ
ĭ
អី
ei
i
អឹ
œ̆
 
អឺ
œ
 
អុ
ŏ
ŭ
អូ
o
u
អួ

 
Braille ⠩ (braille pattern dots-146) ⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345) ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠋ (braille pattern dots-124) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠱ (braille pattern dots-156) ⠸ (braille pattern dots-456)
Print អើ
aeu
eu
អឿ
eua
 
អៀ

 
អេ
é
 
អែ
ê
 
អៃ
ai
ey
អោ

អៅ
au
ŏu
Braille ⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246) ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456) ⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠥ (braille pattern dots-136) ⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346)
Print អុំ
om
ŭm
អំ
âm
um
អាំ
ăm
ŏâm
អះ
ăh
eăh
អុះ
ŏh
uh
អេះ
éh
 
អោះ
aŏh
uŏh

A final h is added to several additional vowels tacking អះ on to one of the braille letters above: អិះ ĕh / ĭh, អឹះ œ̆h, អែះ êh.

Print Khmer has several other diacritics which are not listed in Unesco (2013) for braille.

Punctuation[edit]

Cambodian Braille punctuation is modified from Western braille. The traditional full stop, , is braille .

⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠿ (braille pattern dots-123456) ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23) ⠘ (braille pattern dots-45) ⠖ (braille pattern dots-235) ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356)
, .  ?   ;  :  ! “ ... ” ( ... )

The same character is used for the semicolon and the question mark. The colon also differs from international norms.

References[edit]

  1. ^ World Braille Usage, UNESCO, 2013