Cambridge Algebra System

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(CAMbridge ALgebra system)
Developer(s) David Barton, Steve Bourne, and John Fitch
Written in Titan assembler, ALGOL 68C, BCPL
Operating system Titan computer then Cross-platform
Type Computer algebra system

The CAMAL (CAMbridge ALgebra system) is a computer algebra system written at Cambridge University by David Barton, Steve Bourne, and John Fitch. It was initially used for computations in celestial mechanics[1][2] and general relativity.

The foundation code was written in Titan computer assembler,[3] [this reference is not correct and the pbworks material itself is inaccurate (srb)]. In 1973 when the Titan was replaced with an IBM370/85 it was rewritten in ALGOL 68C and then BCPL[4] where it could run on IBM mainframes and assorted microcomputers.[5]

See also[edit]

  • "A pre-editor for CAMAL" - ACM SIGSAM Bulletin - Volume 9 Issue 3, August 1975 - Pages 30 – 34 [3]
  • "CAMAL User's Manual", John P. Fitch, Cambridge University, England (1975).
  • "The Design of the Cambridge Algebra System", S.R. Bourne et al., Proc 2nd Symp of Symb & Alg Manip, SIGSAM 1971 [4].


  1. ^ Automatic algebraic manipulation and its application to the lunar theory. Author: S R Bourne; University of Cambridge. Publisher: University of Cambridge, 1969.
  2. ^ Title: Literal Expressions for the Co-Ordinates of the Moon. I. The First Degree Terms - Authors: Bourne, S. R. - Journal: Celestial Mechanics, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp.167-186 [1]
  3. ^ Titan Autocode 1
  4. ^ CAMAL 40 Years on – Is Small Still Beautiful?[2] - John P. Fitch
  5. ^ "REDUCE meets CAMAL" (PDF). School of Mathematical Sciences University of Bath. Retrieved 2012-08-12.