Cambridge Algebra System

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Cambridge Algebra System
Developer(s)David Barton, Stephen R. Bourne, and John Fitch
Written inTitan assembler, ALGOL 68C, BCPL
Operating systemTitan computer then Cross-platform
TypeComputer algebra system

Cambridge Algebra System (CAMAL) is a computer algebra system written in Cambridge University by David Barton, Steve Bourne, and John Fitch. It was initially used for computations in celestial mechanics[1][2] and general relativity. The foundation code was written in Titan computer assembler,.[3][better source needed] In 1973, when Titan was replaced with an IBM370/85, it was rewritten in ALGOL 68C and then BCPL[4] where it could run on IBM mainframes and assorted microcomputers.[5]


  1. ^ Bourne, Stephen Richard (1969). Automatic algebraic manipulation and its application to the lunar theory. University of Cambridge.
  2. ^ Bourne, Stephen Richard (1972). "Literal Expressions for the Co-Ordinates of the Moon. I. The First Degree Terms". Celestial Mechanics. 6 (2): 167–186. Bibcode:1972CeMec...6..167B. doi:10.1007/BF01227779.
  3. ^ Titan Autocode 1
  4. ^ CAMAL 40 Years on – Is Small Still Beautiful?[1] - John P. Fitch
  5. ^ "REDUCE meets CAMAL" (PDF). School of Mathematical Sciences University of Bath. Retrieved 2012-08-12.

Further reading[edit]

  • Unknown (August 1975). "A pre-editor for CAMAL". ACM SIGSAM Bulletin. 9 (3): 30–34. doi:10.1145/1088309.1088320.
  • Fitch, John (1975). CAMAL User's Manual. England: Cambridge University.
  • Bourne, Stephen Richard; Horton, J.R. (1971). "The Design of the Cambridge Algebra System". Proceedings of the Second ACM Symposium on Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation. SYMSAC '71. Los Angeles, California, USA: 134–143. doi:10.1145/800204.806278.