Cambridge Antibody Technology
|Public limited company|
|Traded as||LSE: CAT NASDAQ: CATG|
|Fate||Acquired by AstraZeneca in 2006; combined with MedImmune in 2007|
|Founded||1989 (Daly Laboratories, Babraham)|
|Founder||David Chiswell, Sir Greg Winter, John McCafferty, Medical Research Council|
|Headquarters||Granta Park, Cambridgeshire, England, United Kingdom|
David Chiswell (CEO 1996-2002)|
Peter Chambré (CEO 2003-2006)
|Products||Adalimumab, discovery of; belimumab discovery of|
|Services||Therapeutic monoclonal antibody discovery and development|
|Revenue||£172.50m (six months ending 31 March 2006*)|
|£147.25m (six months ending 31 March 2006*)|
|£25.25m (six months ending 31 March 2006*)|
|Total assets||£215.98m (six months ending 31 March 2006*)|
|Total equity||£180.97m (six months ending 31 March 2006*)|
Number of employees
|Approximately 300 (2006)|
Footnotes / references|
*Financials for six-month period prior to acquisition by AstraZeneca were distorted by the settlement for royalties payable on Adalimumab sales
Cambridge Antibody Technology (officially Cambridge Antibody Technology Group Plc, informally CAT) was a biotechnology company headquartered in Cambridge, England, United Kingdom. Its core focus was on antibody therapeutics, primarily using phage display and ribosome display technology.
Technology developed by CAT was used to create adalimumab, the first fully human antibody blockbuster drug. Humira, the brand name of adalimumab, is an anti-TNF antibody discovered by CAT as D2E7, then developed in the clinic and marketed by Abbott Laboratories. The company was also behind belimumab, the anti-BlyS antibody drug marketed as Benlysta and the first new approved drug for systemic lupus in more than 50 years.
Founded in 1989, CAT was acquired by AstraZeneca for £702m in 2006. AstraZeneca subsequently acquired MedImmune LLC, which it combined with CAT to form a global biologics division called MedImmune. CAT was often described as the 'jewel in the crown' of the British biotechnology industry  and during the latter years of its existence was the subject of frequent acquisition speculation.
- 1 History
- 2 Products and pipeline
- 3 Patents
- 4 Publications
- 5 Management and notable people
- 6 Awards
- 7 See also
- 8 References
CAT was founded in 1989 by Dr. David Chiswell, Dr. Greg Winter, Dr. John McCafferty and the Medical Research Council (UK) (MRC). Subsequently, in January 1990 operations began at the MRC laboratories in Cambridge. In May of that year, operations moved to the Daly Research Laboratories at Babraham Institute, Cambridge.
In 1992, CAT moved to Beech House on the Melbourn Science Park to occupy units B1 and B2. In 1993 the company expanded into unit B3, into B4 into 1995, and in 1998 into units B5, B6, B8 and B9. CAT completed the occupation of Beech House by finally occupying B7 by the late 1990s.
CAT listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1997, raising £43 million, and went through a second round of funding in 2000, raising over £90 million.
Also in 2000, CAT decided to move out of Melbourn to a science park called Granta Park, roughly 10 miles (16 km) away. Of the buildings on the park, the first to be occupied was the Franklin Building followed, in late 2002, by a move to a new corporate headquarters at the Milstein Building.
The Franklin Building, named after Rosalind Franklin, was formally opened in 2001 by David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville. The Milstein Building was named after César Milstein, and had a modular design with separate laboratory (46,000 sq ft) and administration blocks (21,000 sq ft). In the same year, CAT listed on the NASDAQ.
When AstraZeneca acquired CAT in June 2006, plans were announced to occupy a new building on Granta Park, GP15, offering a further 92,000 sq ft (8,500 m2). Refurbishment of this building took approximately 18 months and the building was officially opened, in November 2008, with the name Aaron Klug Building.
On the 15 July 1998, CAT completed the acquisition of Aptein Inc. This acquisition "...further strengthened its world leading position in antibody display technology...giving CAT controlling patents in the field of polysome display. Polysome display involves the use of polysomes, a type of molecule responsible for protein synthesis within the human body, to display functional antibody proteins in vitro.". Three years later David Glover, CAT's Chief Medical Officer at the time, summarised the acquisition as one which essentially acquired Aptein's patent estate
"Under the terms of the agreement CAT purchased the issued share capital and outstanding share options and warrants of Aptein for a total consideration of up to $11 million satisfied by the issue of up to 2.366 million CAT shares (an implied CAT share price of 278p.) $6 million of the consideration was satisfied by the issue of 1.290 million CAT shares on closing. The balance of the consideration of up to $5 million will be satisfied by the issue of up to 1.076 million CAT shares after Aptein’s European patents have been sustained through opposition or appeal.In accordance with accounting standards the cost of acquiring this new technology has been capitalised and will be written off over the lives of the patents concerned.".
Aptein was founded by Glenn Kawasaki, who is currently, amongst other positions, CEO at Accium BioSciences.
According to an article published in Nature in 2002, that focused on the automation of proteomics,..."Normally, an mRNA molecule passes through the ribosome-like ticker-tape and is released, along with the newly synthesized protein molecule, when a sequence of three bases known as a 'stop codon' is reached. In Aptein's technology, stop codons are eliminated so that the completed antibody and its mRNA remain bound together on the ribosome. The system, which CAT is now optimizing, is entirely cell-free and so is more amenable to automation. This should make it possible to construct libraries that are orders of magnitude larger than those created using phage display.".
CAT published on their optimisation work with Ribosome Display, including:
- The discovery of tralokinumab, a therapeutic antibody against IL-13.
- An improved method for eukaryotic ribosome display 
- A comparison of phage and ribosome display approaches for improving antibody affinity and stability showing the advantages of ribosome display
- The use of ribosome display to optimize pharmacology and "developability" of therapeutic proteins
Drug Royalty Corporation Inc.
In 1994, CAT signed a royalty deal with Drug Royalty Corporation Inc. (DRC) such that DRC would receive future royalty revenue from CAT's products.
In January 2002, CAT made a share-based offer to buy DRC for £55 million so that it could buy out this royalty obligation. CAT valued DRC at C$3.00 a share, and this offer was initially recommended by the board of directors of DRC. On 8 March 2002 the investment company Inwest made a competing offer valuing DRC at C$3.05 per share. CAT's offer would see DRC shareholders receiving CAT shares whilst Inwest's offer would see the DRC shareholder receiving cash. DRC's board of directors changed their decision and recommended Inwest's offer. After a number of deadline extensions from CAT the offer from Inwest was accepted by the DRC shareholders. Inwest purchased DRC on the 2 May 2002, and the company began operating as a private entity that continues operation today as DRI Capital.
As a result of this failure to purchase DRC, CAT's right to buy back royalty interest was triggered at a cost to CAT of C$14 million (£6.2 million) by way of 463,818 CAT shares.
On 23 January 2003 CAT made a share-based offer for Oxford Glycosciences (OGS) and at an Extraordinary General Meeting shareholders voted to approve the merger. In March of this year a decline in CAT's share price, coupled with initiating discussions regarding the applicability of the royalty offset provisions for HUMIRA with Abbott Laboratories, had a negative impact on the CAT share price depressing the value of CAT's offer.
On 26 February 2003 the British-based biotechnology group Celltech subsequently made a hostile £101 million cash offer for OGS and began buying OGS shares. Some reported that this activity represented the UK biotechnology industry's first-ever bidding war. Despite this improved offer from Celltech, OGS continued to recommend the CAT offer.
Celltech continued to buy OGS shares and the OGS board pressed CAT to improve the terms of its offer as the Celltech shareholding reached 10.55%. OGS became alarmed that Celltech's share purchase would prompt CAT to walk away because, under takeover rules, it would not be able to forcibly purchase the 10.55 per cent stake Celltech owned. CAT failed to improve the terms of its bid forcing OGS to abandon the agreement.
Celltech continued buying shares and, as their stake reached 25%, so the board of OGS met to reluctantly recommend the Celltech offer. Celltech completed the purchase of OGS in April 2003. Some newspapers reported that the failure of the bid by CAT would means that CAT would have to cut some of its workforce. Celltech was itself purchased by the Belgian drugmaker UCB in mid-2004.
On the 1 November 2005 CAT announced it was acquiring two anti-CD22 immunotoxin products from Genencor, namely GCR-3888 and GCR-8015. Genencor is the biotechnology division of Danisco and the acquisition meant CAT would hire certain former Genencor key employees to be responsible for the development of the programmes.
GCR-3888 and GCR-8015 were discovered and initially developed by the National Cancer Institute, which is part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Genencor licensed the candidates for hematological malignancies and entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the NIH, which will now be continued by CAT. Under the original license agreement with the NIH, CAT gained the rights to a portfolio of intellectual property associated with the programs and would pay future royalties to the NIH.
CAT intended to file an Investigational New Drug (IND) application for GCR-8015 in various CD22 positive B-cell malignancies, including Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, following a period of manufacturing development which is expected to be complete by the end of 2006 and to support the NCI's ongoing development of GCR-3888 in Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pALL).
CAT-8015 exhibited a greater affinity for CD22 than its predecessor, CAT-3888 and CAT's language such as "CAT will support the NCI's ongoing development of CAT-3888..." suggested at the time that their focus was on the second generation candidate.
CAT entered into many collaborations with technology and pharmaceutical companies, including:
- Searle, 1999 - CAT signed, what was at the time, their biggest deal with Searle, the pharmaceutical arm of Monsanto. In 2000, Pharmacia & Upjohn merged with Monsanto and Searle to create Pharmacia Corporation. In 2003, Pfizer acquired Pharmacia. It is unsure as to whether the deal with Searle generated any clinical candidates.
- Human Genome Sciences, 2000. GlaxoSmithKline purchased HGSI in 2012. The deal with Cambridge Antibody Technology generated, amongst others;
- An anti-BLyS antibody — registered by HGSI as LymphoStat-B, also known as belimumab, and subsequently branded as Benlysta. On 16 November 2010 HGSI and GlaxoSmithKline announced the vote of the FDA advisory committee to recommend approval of belimumab for systemic lupus erythematosus. On 9 March 2011 the FDA voted 11 to 2 in favour of approving Benlysta "to treat patients with active, autoantibody-positive lupus who are receiving standard therapy, including corticosteroids, antimalarials, immunosuppressives, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs".
- An anthrax therapeutic antibody — registered by HGSI as ABthrax, also known as raxibacumab. At the 2 November 2012 meeting of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) members "voted 16 to 1 in support of the clinical benefit of raxibacumab for the treatment of inhalational anthrax, with one abstention. In addition, the committee voted 18 – 0 in favour of the risk-benefit profile of raxibacumab".
- Two anti-TRAIL receptor antibodies — mapatumumab (HGS-ETR1) and lexatumumab (HGS-ETR2). Early work by CAT and HGS scientists showed that HGS-ETR1 induces cell death in certain tumour types. Following this data, HGS exercised an option to enter into an exclusive development partnership for the antibody.
- Genzyme, 2000. CAT held significant strength in the area of TGF beta with two products already — lerdelimumab (CAT-152) and metelimumab (CAT-192). The deal with Genzyme was "a broad strategic alliance to develop and commercialise human monoclonal antibodies directed against TGF-beta." All clinical indications, with the exception of ophthalmic uses, were covered by the agreement.
- The deal resulted in fresolimumab (GC1008), a pan-neutralizing IgG4 human antibody directed against all three isoforms of TGF beta, which had the "potential for treating a variety of diseases". In particular Genzyme are currently using fresolimumab in trials involving immunogenic tumours.
- The takeover of CAT by AstraZeneca initiated a change of control clause in the 2008 agreement that gives Genzyme the right to buy out rights to a jointly developed experimental lung drug.
- In February 2011, Sanofi-Aventis purchased Genzyme for approximately US$20bn.
- Immunex Corp, 2000. CAT's proprietary antibody phage display library for the discovery, development and potential commercialization of human monoclonal antibodies was licensed to Immunex, in return for a licence fee. This deal was expanded in May 2001 where CAT shared more of the risk of drug development — a so-called "profit-sharing" deal. In 2002 Immunex was acquired by Amgen and in December 2003 CAT entered into a new, restructured agreement with Amgen, reportedly focussing in skin disease. It was also reported that, under the terms of the agreement, Amgen had taken responsibility for the further development and marketing of the therapeutic antibody candidates isolated by CAT against two targets on which the parties agreed to collaborate and would bear all the associated costs. In return, CAT received from Amgen an initial fee and potential milestone payments and royalties on future sales. As of February 2004, one candidate had been delivered by CAT to Amgen. A second candidate was the subject of a continuing research program funded by Amgen and conducted by CAT and was to be delivered to Amgen in due course.
- AMRAD, 2001. AMRAD subsequently changed its name to Zenyth Therapeutics and, in mid-2006, Zenyth was acquired by CSL Limited. CAT and AMRAD had gone 50:50 with the original deal over the development of an anti-GMCSF-R antibody, which became CAM-3001. After all this corporate manoeuvring, "CSL decided to license its 50% share in the project to MedImmune...MedImmune commenced Phase I clinical trials in December 2007".
Products and pipeline
CAT had[when?] a number of significant products in the pipeline. These included:
- Adalimumab (D2E7) – a human monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha). This drug went on to be developed and marketed by Abbott Laboratories as Humira. The royalties payable on Adalimumab sales were subject to a dispute between the two companies. In 2013, Abbott split it business in half, whereby AbbVie became responsible for its research-based pharmaceutical business, and thus Humira. Humira went on to dominate the best-selling drugs lists. In 2016, the best selling drugs list researched by Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News, published in March 2017, details that Humira occupied the number 1 position for 2015 ($14.012 billion of sales) and 2016 ($16.078 billion). Whilst for 2017, Abbvie reports that Humira achieved $18.427billion of sales in 2017
- Briakinumab (ABT-874) – a human monoclonal antibody to IL-12 and IL-23. This went on to be developed by Abbott Laboratories for treatment of psoriasis and Crohn's disease. On 11 October 2010, Abbott presented positive Phase III data.
- Metelimumab (CAT-192) and fresolimumab (GC1008) are human monoclonal antibodies to transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). Initial trials targeted the skin condition scleroderma but, after some unsuccessful clinical trial results, the product was dropped in favour of fresolimumab, which was initially developed by Genzyme. In February 2011, Sanofi-Aventis purchased Genzyme for approximately US$20 billion and, as of March 2013, Sanofi continue to list fresolimumab in their research and development portfolio.
- Lerdelimumab is a human monoclonal antibody to TGF beta 2, initially developed to combat fibrotic scarring that results from glaucoma drainage surgery. The drug was branded Trabio, and development was stopped in late 2005 after unsuccessful trial results.
- Bertilimumab (CAT-213) is a human monoclonal antibody to eotaxin 1. In January 2007, CAT licensed the drug for treatment of allergy disorders to iCo Therapeutics Inc., who renamed it from CAT-213 to iCo-008.
- Mavrilimumab (CAM-3001) — a human monoclonal igG4 antibody to the alpha chain of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF Receptor). In 2007, some elements of the local press suggested this product could be the next HUMIRA. CAM-3001 is currently being developed by MedImmune in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and mentioned in the rheumatology section of AstraZeneca's pipeline in their 2008 Annual Report. The first clinical trial was initiated by MedImmune in late 2007.
- Tralokinumab (CAT-354) — a human monoclonal antibody (IgG4) that potently and specifically neutralizes interleukin 13, a T-lymphocyte-derived cytokine that plays a key role in the development and maintenance of the human asthmatic phenotype. CAT-354 was CAT's first antibody to be discovered using ribosome display, and is being developed by MedImmune.
- Moxetumomab Pasudotox (CAT-3888) — CAT-3888 (formerly GCR-3888 and BL22) and CAT-8015 (formerly GCR-8015 and HA22) are both anti-CD22 immunotoxins comprising a modified Pseudomonas exotoxin and an anti-CD22 antibody fragment. CAT acquired these two oncology product candidates in November 2005 from Genencor, a subsidiary of Danisco. CAT-8015 is being developed by MedImmune.
- CAT-5001 (formerly SS1P) — a Pseudomonas exotoxin immunotoxin that targets mesothelin, which is a cell surface glycoprotein present on normal mesothelial cells that is over-expressed in numerous cancers including pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, ovarian cancer and pancreatic cancer. CAT-5001 was acquired from Enzon Pharmaceuticals in May 2006.
CAT developed their display technologies further into several patented antibody discovery/functional genomics tools which were named ProximolTM and ProAbTM. ProAb was announced in December 1997 and involved high throughput screening of antibody libraries against diseased and non-diseased tissue, whilst Proximol used a free radical enzymatic reaction to label molecules in proximity to a given protein.
In September 1999, it was announced that CAT's Library product and ProAb would each receive Millennium Products status. Of the 4,000 products submitted to the Design Council for these awards, 1,012 were chosen and, to attain Millennium Product status, products had to: open up new opportunities, challenge existing conventions, be environmentally responsible, demonstrate the application of new or existing technology, solve a key problem and show clear user benefits.
CAT pioneered the application of Phage Display and Ribosome Display technology for the design and development of human monoclonal antibody therapeutics and which was reflected in the breadth of the company's patent portfolio. The Cambridge patent portfolio includes about 40 families of patents, covering both technologies and products.
Three main families of major patents cover Cambridge antibody library and Phage Display technology:
'Winter II' and 'Winter/Huse/Lerner' patents cover Medimmune's processes for generating the collections of human antibody genes that comprise MedImmune Cambridge libraries. MedImmune has patents issued in Europe, South Korea, Japan, Australia and the US and a patent application is pending in Canada. These patents are co-owned by the MRC, The Scripps Research Institute and Stratagene and MedImmune currently has exclusive commercial exploitation rights, subject to certain rights held by the Medical Research Council (MRC), Scripps and Stratagene and their pre-existing licensees.
'McCafferty' covers the process by which human antibodies are displayed on phage (Phage Display) and methods of selecting antibodies to desired targets from libraries. MedImmune has patents issued in Europe, Australia, South Korea and Japan and a patent application is pending in Canada. These patents are co-owned by MedImmune and the MRC.
'Griffiths' covers the use of Phage Display technology to isolate human anti-self' antibodies that specifically bind to molecules found in the human body. CAT has patents issued in Australia, Europe and the US and patent applications are pending in Canada and Japan. This patent is co-owned by MedImmune Cambridge and the MRC.
In 2011 "The High Court of England and Wales has ruled that two patents (EP 0774511 and EP 2055777) owned by MedImmune that describe methods of phage display are invalid because of obviousness."
List of Patents
|PCT Publication Number||WO90/05144||WO90/14424||WO90/14430||WO92/01047||WO93/11236||WO91/05058|
|US||US6,248,516, US6,545,142||US6,291,158, US6,291,159||US6,291,160, US6,291,161, US6,680,192||US5,969,108, US6,172,197, US6,806,079||US5,885,793, US6,521,404, US6,544,731, US6,555,313, US6,593,081, US6,582,915||US5,643,768, US5,658,754|
|Europe||EP0368684||EP0472638||EP0425661, EP1026239 (pending as of July 2009)||EP0589877, EP0774511, EP0844306 (pending as of July 2009)||EP0616640, EP1024191 (pending as of July 2009)||EP0494955|
|Japan||JP02919890||JP3321159||2-508759||JP03176917||5-509967 (pending as of July 2009)||JP03127158, 2000-240298 (pending as of July 2009)|
|Canada||2002868 (pending as of July 2009)||CA2016841||2016842||2086936 (pending as of July 2009)||2124460 (pending as of July 2009)||CA2067194|
|South Korea||KR0184860||-||-||KR0222326||-||KR0185192, KR0204359, KR0204360|
Patent Dispute with MorphoSys
The German biotechnology company MorphoSys generates human antibodies using its phage display-based 'HuCal' (Human Combinatorial Antibody Library)technology. In the late 1990s both companies found themselves jockeying for strong IP position in the area of therapeutic human antibody generation by way of a specific dispute (details on MorphoSys page).
The long, and protracted, dispute resulted which was eventually settled in late 2002 when some argued the settlement was enforced by an industry cash crunch. The 'delighted' CEO at the time, Peter Chambré, reflected that the deal put an end to the distraction to both parties caused by the litigation.
Other key CAT publications included:
- Marks, JD; Hoogenboom, HR; Bonnert, TP; Mccafferty, J; Griffiths, AD; Winter, G (1991). "By-passing immunization. Human antibodies from V-gene libraries displayed on phage". Journal of Molecular Biology. 222 (3): 581–97. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(91)90498-U. PMID 1748994.
- Vaughan, TJ; Williams, AJ; Pritchard, K; Osbourn, JK; Pope, AR; Earnshaw, JC; Mccafferty, J; Hodits, RA; et al. (1996). "Human antibodies with sub-nanomolar affinities isolated from a large non-immunized phage display library". Nature Biotechnology. 14 (3): 309–14. doi:10.1038/nbt0396-309. PMID 9630891.
- Carmen, S; Jermutus, L (2002). "Concepts in antibody phage display". Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics. 1 (2): 189–203. doi:10.1093/bfgp/1.2.189. PMID 15239904.
- Thom, G; Cockroft, AC; Buchanan, AG; Candotti, CJ; Cohe, ES; Lowne, D; Monk, P; Shorrock-Hart, CP; Jermutus, L; Minter, RR (2006). "Probing a protein-protein interaction by directed evolution". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 103 (20): 7619–24. doi:10.1073/pnas.0602341103. PMC 1458619.
- Edwards, BM; Barash, SC; Main, SH; Choi, GH; Minter, R; Ullrich, S; Williams, E; Du Fou, L; et al. (2003). "The remarkable flexibility of the human antibody repertoire; isolation of over one thousand different antibodies to a single protein, BLyS". Journal of Molecular Biology. 334 (1): 103–18. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2003.09.054. PMID 14596803.
- Baker, KP; Edwards, BM; Main, SH; Choi, GH; Wager, RE; Halpern, WG; Lappin, PB; Riccobene, T; et al. (2003). "Generation and characterization of LymphoStat-B, a human monoclonal antibody that antagonizes the bioactivities of B lymphocyte stimulator". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 48 (11): 3253–65. doi:10.1002/art.11299. PMID 14613291.
Management and notable people
Dave Chiswell was responsible for operational management of CAT from 1990 to 2002, including time as chief executive officer from 1996 to 2002. Chiswell announced he was standing down from CAT on Nov. 26, 2001. During his time at CAT, Chiswell had established himself as a significant character in the biotechnology business. In 2003, Chiswell became chairman of the BioIndustry Association, and in June 2006 was awarded an MBE for UK Bioscience Industry in the UK Overseas.
CAT was governed by a board and, latterly, a Scientific Advisory Board. Members included:
- César Milstein, a Nobel prize-winning biochemist in the field of antibody research. Milstein shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1984 with Niels Jerne and Georges Köhler.
- Sir Aaron Klug, a Nobel prize-winning laureate, was a British chemist and biophysicist, and winner of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy. He sat on both the board and the scientific advisory board.
- Professor Peter Garland — appointed as a non-executive director in 1990, then became non-executive chairman of the board in 1995. Garland has been the Chief Executive of Institute of Cancer Research, 1989–99 and is a fellow of University College London.
- Dr Paul Nicholson — replaced Peter Garland as chairman in 2003. Nicholson was chairman when AstraZeneca bought CAT.
Peter Chambré replaced Dave Chiswell as CEO in early 2002. Chambré had been the CEO of Bespak PLC since May 1994 and, in July 2000, became the chief operating officer of the genomics company Celera. After CAT, Chambré went on to hold a number of positions including Chairman of ApaTech Ltd., in September 2006 appointed non-executive director of BTG plc  and Spectrics pls and also advisor to 3i Group plc.
John McCafferty developed much of the phage display technology used by CAT. McCafferty left CAT to start a group at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute where, as part of the ATLAS project, his group demonstrated the potential for large-scale high-throughput generation and validation of monoclonal antibodies. This work built on CAT's ProAbTM technology.
Kevin Johnson joined CAT in 1990, contributed to the discovery of D2E7, played a key role in CAT's Initial Public Offering (IPO) and, by July 1997, was appointed to the Board as Research Director. In 2000, Johnson became Chief Technology Officer responsible for exploitation and development of CAT's technology platforms. In November 2002, CAT announced its intention to seek independent financing for its development of the application of antibodies on microarrays for personalised medicine, as this fell outside CAT's focus on therapeutic antibodies and Johnson positively spearheaded this push. In the event it was not possible to procure finance for this activity and, as a result, all development activity at CAT was terminated.
CAT's most significant award was the Prix Galien, awarded for outstanding achievement in product and technology development, in recognition of its creativity in the development of novel human monoclonal antibody therapeutics especially in relation to its product CAT-152, which was used to treat fibrotic scarring in certain ophthalmology conditions.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20110317151651/http://www.gsk.com/media/pressreleases/2011/2011_us_pressrelease_10017.htm. Archived from the original on March 17, 2011. Retrieved March 11, 2011. Missing or empty
- "AstraZeneca UK Limited Completes Acquisition of Cambridge Antibody Technology Group plc Compulsory Acquisition Procedure Completed Subsequent Offer Period Closed" (Press release). AstraZeneca. August 22, 2006. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "AstraZeneca to buy CAT for £702m". BBC News. 2006-05-15.
- "AstraZeneca International - pharmaceutical company, prescription drugs, medicine manufacturers". Astrazeneca.com. 2007-06-19. Archived from the original on January 13, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "MEDIMMUNE LIMITED, company number 02451177, credit report, annual accounts from Companies House and free company monitoring". Ukdata.com. 2008-12-31. Archived from the original on 2008-04-26. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Investment: The drugs don't work". The Independent. London. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "Launch of Babraham BioConcepts Ltd - £1 million investment by Avlar BioVentures". Babraham.ac.uk. 2006-09-05. Archived from the original on 2010-09-08. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "MedImmune" (PDF). Cambridgeantibody.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.[permanent dead link]
- "Twenty homes plan for research building site | Cambridge City News, Cambridge Local News Stories & Latest Headlines About Cambridge". Cambridge-news.co.uk. 2006-01-23. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- Shah, Saeed (2 March 2000). "Cambridge Antibody shares soar 58% as investors applaud move to exploit genes". The Independent. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "Offices To Let/Rent | Business Parks, Science Parks, Industrial Estates". MEPC. Archived from the original on 2009-01-06. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Cambridgeshire". Ukbusinesspark.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2012-02-15. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Offices To Let/Rent | Business Parks, Science Parks, Industrial Estates". MEPC. Archived from the original on 2009-01-06. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Demonstration Projects | Project Details". Constructing Excellence. 2006-03-06. Archived from the original on 2011-10-03. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Home | InPharm". Pharmafocus.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Offices To Let/Rent | Business Parks, Science Parks, Industrial Estates". MEPC. Retrieved 2010-05-12.[permanent dead link]
- "Articles: Interview With Cambridge Antibody Technology Medical Director David Glover". Pharmalicensing.com. 2002-03-06. Archived from the original on 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- http://www.cambridgeantibody.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/5246/catannualreport1998.pdf%7C page 29 of the CAT Annual Report 1998
- "Management". Acciumbio.com. Archived from the original on October 14, 2008. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Nature (2002-01-10). "Betting on tomorrow's chips : Article". Nature. 415: 112–114. doi:10.1038/415112a. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Thom, George; Cockroft, Alexis C.; Buchanan, Andrew G.; Candotti, Cathy Joberty; Cohen, E. Suzanne; Lowne, David; Monk, Phill; Shorrock-Hart, Celia P.; Jermutus, Lutz (2006-05-16). "Probing a protein–protein interaction by in vitro evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (20): 7619–7624. doi:10.1073/pnas.0602341103. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 1458619. PMID 16684878.
- "An improved method for an efficient and easily accessible eukaryotic ribosome display technology - Douthwaite et al. 19 (2): 85 - Protein Engineering Design and Selection". Peds.oxfordjournals.org. doi:10.1093/protein/gzj003. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Dufner, Patrick; Jermutus, Lutz; Minter, Ralph R. (2006-11-01). "Harnessing phage and ribosome display for antibody optimisation". Trends in Biotechnology. 24 (11): 523–529. doi:10.1016/j.tibtech.2006.09.004. ISSN 0167-7799. PMID 17000017.
- Buchanan, Andrew; Ferraro, Franco; Rust, Steven; Sridharan, Sudharsan; Franks, Ruth; Dean, Greg; McCourt, Matthew; Jermutus, Lutz; Minter, Ralph (2012-10-01). "Improved drug-like properties of therapeutic proteins by directed evolution". Protein Engineering Design and Selection. 25 (10): 631–638. doi:10.1093/protein/gzs054. ISSN 1741-0126. PMC 3449403. PMID 22942395.
- Monk, Phillip; Jermutus, Lutz; Minter, Ralph; Shorrock, Celia (2005-01-28), Human Antibody Molecules for Il-13, retrieved 2016-02-07
- https://web.archive.org/web/20081003212722/http://inwest-investments.com/pr/user/story.php?id=6&me=6. Archived from the original on October 3, 2008. Retrieved August 18, 2009. Missing or empty
- "DRI to seek $1bn for third fund". Private Equity International. 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- http://www.cambridgeantibody.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/5248/interim_report_2002.pdf%7C page 5 of CAT's 2002 Interim Report
- "Cambridge Antibody to merge with Oxford Glycosciences. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Foley, Stephen (27 March 2003). "CAT's bid hopes floored by royalties dispute". The Independent. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- page 4 of CAT's 2003 Interim Report[permanent dead link]
- "UCB ::: Investor Relations - Press Releases - UCB - News Release". Ir.ucb-group.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "drug email@example.com". Nature.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Foley, Stephen (27 February 2003). "Oxford Glyco turns down higher bid to stick with CAT". The Independent. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Griffiths, Katherine (24 March 2003). "OGS presses CAT to improve offer". The Independent. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Foley, Stephen (15 March 2003). "Oxford Glyco seeks bidders as CAT offer's value falls". The Independent. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Foley, Stephen (12 April 2003). "Celltech wins bid battle for Oxford GlycoSciences". The Independent. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Foley, Stephen (20 May 2003). "CAT forced to cut back research after Oxford Glyco bid fails". The Independent. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "UCB ::: Investor Relations - Press Releases - UCB - News Release". Ir.ucb-group.com. 2004-07-09. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Cambridge Antibody Technology Acquires Oncology Product Candidates from Genencor". Prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20090107000935/http://www.danisco.com/cms/connect/corporate/about%2Bdanisco/organisation/divisions/genencor/genencor_en.htm. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2009. Missing or empty
- [dead link]
- "News Releases - National Cancer Institute". Press.nci.nih.gov. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Cambridge Antibody Technology Announces Preliminary Results for the Year Ended 30 September 2005. | Goliath Business News". Goliath.ecnext.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "moxetumomab () UKMi New Drugs Online Database". Ukmi.nhs.uk. 2013-04-30. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- Connolly, Allison (2013-05-16). "AstraZeneca Advances Three Cancer Drugs Into Late-Stage Trials". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "Searle and Cambridge Combine Efforts - develop monoclonal antibody-based therapeutic drugs - Brief Article | Applied Genetics News | Find Articles at BNET". Findarticles.com. 2000. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Monsanto and Pharmacia & Upjohn to Merge, Creating Global Leader in Pharmaceuticals With Top-Tier Growth Prospects". .prnewswire.com. 1999-12-19. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "and Pharmacia | Pfizer: the world's largest research-based pharmaceutical company". Pfizer. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Technology Collaborations - Hgs". Hgsi.com. 2008-02-07. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "MedImmune". Cambridgeantibody.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.[permanent dead link]
- "GSK completes acquisition of Human Genome Sciences | 2012 | Press releases | Media | GlaxoSmithKline". Gsk.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "BENLYSTA (belimumab) - HGS". Hgsi.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) - global healthcare company. Do more, feel better, live longer". Hgsi.com. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "FDA approves Benlysta to treat lupus". Fda.gov. 2011-03-09. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "Raxibacumab - HGS". Hgsi.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "GSK announces FDA Advisory Committee vote in favour of raxibacumab for the treatment of inhalational anthrax infection | 2012 | Press releases | Media | GlaxoSmithKline". Gsk.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "TRAIL Receptor Antibodies - HGS". Hgsi.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- British Journal of Cancer. "British Journal of Cancer - Abstract of article: HGS-ETR1, a fully human TRAIL-receptor 1 monoclonal antibody, induces cell death in multiple tumour types in vitro and in vivo". Nature.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- http://www.trailr2mab.com/news/press/02-01-08_trail_cat.html[permanent dead link]
- Murray-West, Rosie (29 September 2000). "CAT leaps on tie-up deal with Genzyme". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "Cambridge Antibody, Genzyme to collaborate on human anti-TGFBeta". Drugdiscoveryonline.com. 2000-10-02. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Genzyme General and Cambridge Antibody Technology To Collaborate on Development of Human Anti-TGF-beta Monoclonal Antibodies". Prnwire.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Grütter, Christian; Wilkinson, Trevor; Turner, Richard; Podichetty, Sadhana; Finch, Donna; McCourt, Matthew; Loning, Scott; Jermutus, Lutz; Grütter, Markus G. (2008-12-23). "A cytokine-neutralizing antibody as a structural mimetic of 2 receptor interactions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (51): 20251–20256. doi:10.1073/pnas.0807200106. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 2600578. PMID 19073914.
- "Genzyme's Research and Development – Technology Platforms". Genzyme.com. Archived from the original on 2010-01-04. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Cambridge Antibody Technology Group PLC Takeover Gives Genzyme Corporation Buyout Rights To Drug - News, Search Jobs, Events". Biospace.com. 2006-05-15. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "BBC News - Sanofi-Aventis to buy Genzyme in search for new sales". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-02-16. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "Cambridge Antibody Technology Partners With Immunex Corporation to Develop Novel Human Monoclonal Antibodies. - PR Newswire | HighBeam Research: Online Press Releases". Highbeam.com. 2000-12-01. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Cambridge Antibody Technology, Immunex to co-develop human". Drugdiscoveryonline.com. 2001-05-21. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Mesure, Susie (22 May 2001). "CAT signs deal with Immunex to share R&D costs". The Independent. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "Media - Press Release". Amgen. 2002-07-16. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Foley, Stephen (26 December 2003). "CAT ties up skin treatments deal with Amgen". The Independent. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "Cambridge Antibody Technology/Amgen Restructure Agreement. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. 2004-02-01. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Amgen - Media - Press Release". Xt.amgen.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Science - Pipeline". Amgen. 2010-02-05. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Cambridge Antibody Technology and AMRAD to develop antibody therapeutics. | Europe - Western Europe from". AllBusiness.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20061009142845/http://www.biomelbourne.org/640.0.html. Archived from the original on October 9, 2006. Retrieved July 28, 2009. Missing or empty
- "News Archive". Csl.com.au. 2006-07-17. Archived from the original on 2010-10-30. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Abbott Completes Separation of Research-Based Pharmaceuticals Business| January 2, 2013". Abbott.com. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "Abbott 2007 Annual Report : Pharmaceuticals". Abbott.com. Archived from the original on 2010-07-31. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Abbott Reports Psoriasis Phase III Results of its Investigational IL-12/23 Inhibitor Briakinumab (ABT-874)
- "Genzyme Oncology Clinical Trial Details". Genzymeoncology.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Foley, Stephen (10 February 2004). "CAT may abandon skin drug after trial results disappoint". The Independent. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "Sanofi - R&D portfolio". En.sanofi.com. 2013-09-02. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "IngentaConnect Lerdelimumab: 6B1, Anti-TGF-Beta-2 Monoclonal Antibody - Cambridge". Ingentaconnect.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Cordeiro, MF (2003). "Technology evaluation: lerdelimumab, Cambridge Antibody Technology" (Free full text). Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics. 5 (2): 199–203. PMID 12772512.
- "CAT abandons Trabio after second clinical trial failure. | Goliath Business News". Goliath.ecnext.com. 2005-03-28. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Ding, C; Li, J; Zhang, X (2004). "Bertilimumab Cambridge Antibody Technology Group". Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs. 5 (11): 1213–8. PMID 15573873.
- "iCo Therapeutics Inc - Pipeline". Icotherapeutics.com. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Business News, Cambridge and UK business news | Wonder drug promise to help with arthritis". Cambridge-news.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
-  Archived June 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "A Single Dose Study of the CAM-3001 in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis - Full Text View". ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Rheumatology - Respiratory & inflammation - Therapy area review - Directors' Report - AstraZeneca Annual Report 2008". Astrazeneca-annualreports.com. Archived from the original on 2010-04-02. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- [dead link]
- "Our Pipeline | Biopharmaceutical Process". MedImmune. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "MedImmune" (PDF). Cambridgeantibody.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-02-27. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20081226091707/http://www.medimmune.com/pipeline/cambridge/product.asp?t=CAT-8015. Archived from the original on December 26, 2008. Retrieved August 12, 2009. Missing or empty
- "Reuters.com". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Osbourn, JK (2002). "Proximity-guided (ProxiMol) antibody selection" (Free full text). Methods in Molecular Biology. 178: 201–5. doi:10.1385/1-59259-240-6:201. PMID 11968489.
- "Cambridge Antibody Technology". Ukbusinesspark.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Immunotechnology : Pathfinder selection: in situ isolation of novel antibodies". Immunotechnology. ScienceDirect. 3: 293–302. doi:10.1016/S1380-2933(97)10007-0. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "CHI's Molecular Med Monthly Articles". Chidb.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- http://www.prnewswire.ae/cgi/news/release?id=54703[permanent dead link]
- "Patent watch - MedImmune's phage display patents invalidated". Nat Rev Drug Discov. 10 (8): 568–569. 2011. doi:10.1038/nrd3529.
- "Espacenet — Bibliographic data". Espacenet. 1990-05-17. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Espacenet — Bibliographic data". Espacenet. 1990-11-29. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Espacenet — Bibliographic data". Espacenet. 1990-11-29. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Espacenet — Bibliographic data". Espacenet. 1992-01-23. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Espacenet — Bibliographic data". Espacenet. 1993-06-10. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Espacenet — Bibliographic data". Espacenet. 1991-04-18. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20090623031738/http://www.morphosys.com/en/technologies/advantages_of_human_antibodies-130.html. Archived from the original on June 23, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2009. Missing or empty
- Nature Biotechnology (2003-02-01). "Access : Cash crunch quells antibody litigation : Nature Biotechnology". Nature.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Phage antibodies: filamentous phage displaying antibody variable domains". Nature. 348: 552–554. 1990-12-06. doi:10.1038/348552a0. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Lambeth, Jonathan (27 November 2001). "Chiswell to quit Cambridge". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Trust me, I'm the CAT doctor". The Independent. London. 5 April 2000. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- [dead link]
- "No. 58014". The London Gazette (Supplement). 17 June 2006. p. 9.
- "César Milstein - Autobiography". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "MedImmune". Cambridgeantibody.com. Archived from the original on 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Fellows of UCL". Ucl.ac.uk. Archived from the original on January 22, 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20081201061033/http://www.bioportfolio.com/news/cat_17.htm. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2009. Missing or empty
- "Silicon Fen Business Report - CAT recommends AstraZeneca's £702m bid; major R&D centre in Cambridge planned". Siliconfenbusiness.com. 2006-05-15. Retrieved 2010-05-12.[dead link]
- Foley, Stephen (26 February 2002). "Genome chief Chambre hired to turn Cambridge into profit". The Independent. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Stevenson, Tom (8 January 1997). "The Investment Column: Bespak investors can breathe easy". The Independent. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "Celera Genomics Appoints Chief Operating Officer; Peter Chambre, CEO of Bespak plc to Lead Operations. - Business Wire | HighBeam Research - FREE Article". Highbeam.com. 2000-07-03. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Axellia Pharmaceuticals - Peter Chambré". Axellia.com. Archived from the original on 2009-05-28. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "BTG - Press Releases". Btgplc.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.[permanent dead link]
- "Peter Chambré". 3i.com. Archived from the original on June 16, 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "About The Sanger Institute - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute". Sanger.ac.uk. 2010-04-16. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Nature Biotechnology (2002-03-01). "Access : A perspective on protein microarrays : Nature Biotechnology". Nature.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- http://www.cambridgeantibody.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/5247/interim_report_2003.pdf%7C page 4 of CAT's Interim report
- Prix Galien information.
- CAT Prix Galien news release